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1.  Inflammatory Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Knockout Mice 
Infection and Immunity  2014;82(5):1904-1913.
The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) binds to IL-1 receptors and inhibits IL-1 activity. However, it is not clear whether IL-1Ra plays a protective role in periodontal disease. This study was undertaken to compare experimental periodontitis induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in IL-1Ra knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Computed tomography (CT) analysis and hematoxylin-and-eosin (H&E) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining were performed. In addition, osteoblasts were isolated; the mRNA expression of relevant genes was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR); and calcification was detected by Alizarin Red staining. Infected IL-1Ra KO mice exhibited elevated (P, <0.05) levels of antibody against A. actinomycetemcomitans, bone loss in furcation areas, and alveolar fenestrations. Moreover, protein for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6, mRNA for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in IL-1Ra KO mouse osteoblasts stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans were increased (P, <0.05) compared to in WT mice. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteocalcin (OCN)/bone gla protein (BGP), and runt-related gene 2 (Runx2) mRNA levels were decreased (P, <0.05). IL-1α mRNA expression was increased, and calcification was not observed, in IL-1 Ra KO mouse osteoblasts. In brief, IL-1Ra deficiency promoted the expression of inflammatory cytokines beyond IL-1 and altered the expression of genes involved in bone resorption in A. actinomycetemcomitans-infected osteoblasts. Alterations consistent with rapid bone loss in infected IL-Ra KO mice were also observed for genes expressed in bone formation and calcification. In short, these data suggest that IL-1Ra may serve as a potential therapeutic drug for periodontal disease.
PMCID: PMC3993437  PMID: 24566623
2.  Imaging features contributing to the diagnosis of ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours: logistic regression analysis 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2011;40(3):133-140.
The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristic imaging features that can be used to differentiate ameloblastomas from keratocystic odontogenic tumours and to examine the significant imaging features contributing to a correct diagnosis.
60 observers (39 specialists in oral and maxillofacial radiology and 21 non-specialists) examined CT and/or panoramic images of 10 ameloblastomas and 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumours shown on a webpage and made diagnoses. Their correct answer ratios were then calculated. The imaging features of the tumours were evaluated and expressed as binary numbers or quantitative values. The imaging features that contributed to a correct diagnosis were elucidated using logistic regression analysis.
The mean correct answer ratio was 61.3% ± 17.2% for the diagnosis of ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours. CT images produced higher correct answer ratios for diagnosis of keratocystic odontogenic tumours by specialists. The significantly different imaging features between ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours were the degree of bone expansion and the presence of high-density areas. The significant imaging features contributing to a correct imaging diagnosis were the number of locules, the presence of high-density areas and the inclusion of impacted teeth.
The presence of high-density areas is the most useful feature in the differential diagnosis of ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours based on comparison of the imaging features of both tumours and examination of the diagnostic contributions of these features.
PMCID: PMC3611454  PMID: 21346078
ameloblastomas; keratocystic odontogenic tumours; logistic regression analysis; computed tomography
3.  Expression of PPARδ in multistage carcinogenesis of the colorectum: implications of malignant cancer morphology 
British Journal of Cancer  2006;95(7):889-895.
Whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is a good target for the chemoprevention and/or treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. Our goal was to examine PPARδ expression in multistage carcinogenesis of the colorectum and to assess the relevance of PPARδ in CRC. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that PPARδ expression increased from normal mucosa to adenomatous polyps to CRC. In cancer tissues, the PPARδ protein was accumulated only in those cancer cells with highly malignant morphology, as represented by a large-sized nucleus, round-shaped nucleus, and presence of clear nucleoli. Interestingly, the cancer tissue often contained both PPARδ-positive and -negative areas, each retaining their respective specific morphological features. Moreover, this pattern persisted even when PPARδ-positive and -negative cells were aligned next to each other within a single cancer nest or gland and was present in the majority of CRC cases. Immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 proliferation marker showed no significant correlation between Ki-67 and PPARδ in CRC samples. Based on Western blot analysis and quantitative RT–PCR, high PPARδ protein expression correlated with high PPARδ mRNA levels. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ may have a supporting role in tumorigenesis, and the close association between PPARδ expression and malignant morphology of CRC cells suggests a pivotal role in cancer tissue.
PMCID: PMC2360534  PMID: 16969348
PPARδ; colorectal cancer; malignant morphology; β-catenin
4.  Retrograde temporal order amnesia resulting from damage to the fornix 
Some amnesic patients show an impairment of temporal order memory that cannot be accounted for by content memory deficits. The performance of an amnesic patient on memory tasks assessing the patient's content and temporal memories for remotely acquired material is described, after a lesion including the bilateral anterior fornix and adjacent anterior thalamus. The patient displayed a deficit in the temporal order tasks for remotely acquired information. Neither frontal cognitive deficits nor recognition deficits can account for this patient's poor temporal memory. This retrograde temporal order memory impairment without content memory deficits were not seen in previously reported thalamic amnesic patients. Accordingly, the present patient's poor retrograde temporal memory could hardly be explained by only a thalamic lesion. It is concluded that the patient's impairment of temporal order memory for the retrograde material is probably due to the direct disconnection between the frontal lobe and the hippocampus by disruption of the fornix.

PMCID: PMC1736448  PMID: 10369832
5.  Gene expression analysis of rheumatoid arthritis synovial lining regions by cDNA microarray combined with laser microdissection: up-regulation of inflammation-associated STAT1, IRF1, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5 
The main histological change in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the villous proliferation of synovial lining cells, an important source of cytokines and chemokines, which are associated with inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate gene expression in the microdissected synovial lining cells of RA patients, using those of osteoarthritis (OA) patients as the control.
Samples were obtained during total joint replacement from 11 RA and five OA patients. Total RNA from the synovial lining cells was derived from selected specimens by laser microdissection (LMD) for subsequent cDNA microarray analysis. In addition, the expression of significant genes was confirmed immunohistochemically.
The 14 519 genes detected by cDNA microarray were used to compare gene expression levels in synovial lining cells from RA with those from OA patients. Cluster analysis indicated that RA cells, including low- and high-expression subgroups, and OA cells were stored in two main clusters. The molecular activity of RA was statistically consistent with its clinical and histological activity. Expression levels of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), and the chemokines CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL5 were statistically significantly higher in the synovium of RA than in that of OA. Immunohistochemically, the lining synovium of RA, but not that of OA, clearly expressed STAT1, IRF1, and chemokines, as was seen in microarray analysis combined with LMD.
Our findings indicate an important role for lining synovial cells in the inflammatory and proliferative processes of RA. Further understanding of the local signalling in structural components is important in rheumatology.
PMCID: PMC3400100  PMID: 22401175

Results 1-5 (5)