A nasogastric tube is utilized routinely by many bariatric surgeons to assist creation of gastrojejunal anastomosis during roux-en-y gastric bypass or duodenojejunal anastomosis during biliopancreatic diversion. However, inadvertent stapling or suturing of the nasogastric tube has been known as a potential complication of this technique.
We describe a successful endoscopic removal of an inadvertently sutured nasogastric tube at the level of the duodenojejunal anastomosis in a 30-year-old woman undergoing a robotically assisted laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch for super morbid obesity.
Endoscopic technique is a feasible and safe minimally invasive technique to release a retained nasogastric tube with preservation of the newly created anastomosis. This option gives major advantages of avoiding a re-operation, as well as the potential general anesthetic complications.
Endoscopic retrieveal; Endoscopic cutter; Retained nasogastric tube
Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has well documented advantages over traditional open repair and has been widely adopted as the alternative treatment modality for abdominal aortic aneurysm. However, endoleaks specifically type II can be a significant problem with this technique leading to aortic sac expansion and potential rupture. A large number of type II endoleaks are caused by persistent inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) retrograde bleeding. Various methods to try to manage this complication have been previously described. IMA embolization via the marginal artery of Drummond, however, has not been adequately popularized as an alternative less invasive approach to the treatment of type II endoleak.
Two men, ages 77 and 81, underwent uneventful EVAR for 5.5 and 5.0 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms, respectively, using Zenith Cook® bifurcated stent grafts. Computed tomography angiography at 1 and 6 months postoperatively demonstrated small type II endoleaks in both cases which were followed clinically. Subsequent follow-up tomography scan at 12 months revealed persistent type II endoleaks related to retrograde filling from the IMA with significant enlargement of the aneurysm sacs. Both patients underwent successful IMA coil embolization via the marginal artery of Drummond.
Percutaneous IMA embolization using standard endovascular techniques to access the marginal artery of Drummond is an alternative, and in our opinion, preferred technique for controlling type II endoleaks caused by a persistently patent IMA.
Endoleak; marginal artery; drummond; coil embolization
Ganglioneuromas are benign tumors of the sympathetic nervous system that rarely arise in the adrenal gland. Majority of cases are detected incidentally since they are usually asymptomatic. Up to the current era of laparoscopic adrenal mass excision, this unusual entity has not been adequately reported in the surgical literature.
A 51 year old male with history of hypertension was found to have abdominal bruit during a regular physical examination. A 4 cm right adrenal mass with upper pole calcification and a 6 cm retro-pancreatic mass were subsequently found on a computed tomography scan. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided needle biopsy was indeterminate. Preoperative endocrine evaluation showed mildly elevated vanillyl mandelic acid with normal 24-hour cathecolamine, metanephrine and cortisol levels. Histopathologic examination after an uneventful laparoscopic excision was consistent with ganglioneuroma.
Ganglioneuroma occurs rarely in adrenal gland and preoperative diagnosis is difficult since symptoms are usually nonspecific. Due to widespread utilization of abdominal imaging, however, it should be included in differential diagnosis of adrenal or retroperitoneal mass. Histopathologic examination is currently the mainstay of diagnosis.
Ganglioneuroma; retroperitoneum; adrenal gland; excision
Wandering spleen is an unusual condition characterized by the absence or maldevelopment of one or all of the ligaments securing the spleen in its normal position in the left upper abdomen. Pedicular tortion with a complete vascular disruption is a rare but known potential complication of this mostly congenital disorder. Spontaneous hemoperitoneum with acute abdomen however, is a life threatening situation that has not been adequately reported in the adult literature.
A forty four year old man presented to the emergency department with an acutely distended and rigid abdomen. His past medical history was only significant for mild mental retardation. The patient denies prior abdominal operation or recent trauma. On initial examination, he appeared to be anxious, pale, and tachycardic. Fullness in the midpelvic region was easily appreciated on palpation. An enlarged pelvic spleen and free intraperitoneal fluid consistent with blood were seen on a CT scan. The patient was promptly taken for an exploratory laparotomy where a large rush of blood was encountered upon entering the abdomen. A volvulus of the splenic pedicle with an infarcted spleen was found mandating a splenectomy.
Abnormally located spleen, splenomegaly, and finding of hemoperitoneum are highly suggestive of wandering spleen with tortioned pedicle. Despite its life threatening presentation, immediate laparotomy and splenectomy invariably result in good outcome.
Wandering spleen; pedicular tortion; hemoperitoneum; splenectomy
Gangliocytic paragangliomas are unusual and often misunderstood tumors that occur almost exclusively in the second portion of the duodenum, although they have been described in other sites such as the urinary bladder, spermatic cord, prostate, urethra, uterus and scalp. We describe our experience with the surgical management of an endoscopically unresectable gangliocytic paraganglioma located in the third part of the duodenum causing a partial upper gastrointestinal obstruction.
A fifty-two-year-old male presented to the Geisinger clinic with a four-year history of postprandial projectile vomiting associated with epigastric discomfort. Computed tomography scan revealed an oval-shaped filling defect in the third part of the duodenum. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a 22 × 16 × 35 mm submucosal mass that was not amenable to an endoscopic resection. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an absence of extraduodenal involvement. A long-stalked tumor was successfully excised and extruded through a longitudinal duodenotomy. The pathology report showed a gangliocytic paraganglioma with negative lymph nodes.
In patients presenting with prolonged recurrent attacks of vomiting, diagnostic workup to exclude anatomic causes is mandatory. Gangliocytic paraganglioma must be considered in the differential diagnosis of an intraduodenal tumor.
Paraganglioma; duodenum; surgical management
Benign nonepithelial neoplasms of the gallbladder are unusual. The majority of gallbladder neurofibromas are found incidentally in the gallbladder specimens following cholecystectomy. There have been only few reports in the literature describing this rare entity. In this study we report a case of gallbladder neurofibroma presenting as chronic epigastric pain in a young patient.
A thirty two year old otherwise healthy man presented to our clinic with chronic epigastric pain symptom after eating. Physical examination, laboratory and radiologic workups were unremarkable for signs of biliary tract diseases. Past medical and surgical histories were significant only for neurofibromatosis type I. Due to persistent symptomatology, the patient was taken to the operating room for a diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Open conversion was necessitated because of the presence of a gallbladder mass preventing safe anatomic dissection. Surgical pathology revealed plexiform neurofibroma with noninflamed gallbladder. The postoperative course was unremarkable and the patient was pain free at 3 weeks postoperatively.
Benign neoplasms such as gallbladder neurofibroma should be included in the differential diagnosis for chronic epigastric pain symptom in a young otherwise healthy patient with neurofibromatosis. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be considered in an individual presenting with this condition.
Neurofibroma; gallbladder; benign tumors
Central pancreatectomy has gained popularity in the past decade as treatment of choice for low malignant potential tumor in the midpancreas due to its ability to achieve optimal preservation of pancreatic parenchyma. Simultaneously, advancement in minimally invasive approach has contributed to numerous novel surgical techniques with significantly lower morbidity and mortality. With the purpose of improving patient outcomes, we describe a laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy as an alternative method to the previously described open central pancreatectomy with roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy reconstruction.
A 39 year old man presented to our clinic with a 2.5 cm neuroendocrine tumor at the neck of the pancreas. Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction was successfully performed. Operative time was 210 minutes with blood loss of 200 ml. Postoperative course was uneventful except for a minimal pancreatic leak which was controlled by an intraoperatively placed closed suction drain. At 2 week follow up, patient was asymptomatic with well preserved pancreatic endo and exocrine functions. Permanent pathology findings showed a well differentiated neuroendocrine tumor with negative margins and nodes.
Laparoscopic assisted central pancreatectomy with pancreaticogastrostomy reconstruction is feasible and safe for a centrally located tumor. Laparoscopic assisted technique facilitates application of minimally invasive approach by increasing surgical feasibility in typically complex pancreatic operations.
Laparoscopic; central pancreatectomy; pancreaticogastrostomy
Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare but potentially fatal complication associated with laparoscopy which has now become common practice and gold standard for many procedures in general surgery. There are only few scattered case reports in the literature describing this postoperative thrombotic event.
In the present study, we describe a patient presenting with severe abdominal pain at 25 days following an uneventful laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia (PEH) repair and nissen fundoplication. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an extensive small bowel ischemia requiring bowel resection followed by a second look laparotomy. Retrospectively performed hematologic workup revealed a genetic mutation associated with hyperhomocysteinemia in addition to her hyperfibrinogenemia. Previously published data were collected and discussed.
Mesenteric venous thrombosis is a rare but potentially serious complication after laparoscopic surgery especially in patients with underlying hypercoagulability. High index of suspicion is important in early diagnosis and subsequent treatment.
Mesenteric venous thrombosis; laparoscopy; hypercoagulability