Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising approach for gene therapy. However, up to today, it is still a major challenge to find safe and efficient non-viral vectors. Previously, we reported PEI-Bu, a small molecular weight PEI derivative, as an efficient non-viral carrier. However, like many PEI-based polymers, PEI-Bu was too toxic. In order to reduce cytotoxicity while maintain or even enhance transfecion efficiency, we modified PEI-Bu with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to obtain PEG-Bu, and used it to delivery a theraputic short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting angiotensinogen (AGT) to normal rat liver cells (BRL-3A), which was a key target for the treatment of hypertension. The structure of PEG-Bu was confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) showed that the weight average molecular weight (Mw) of PEG-Bu was 5880 Da, with a polydispersity of 1.58. PEG-Bu could condense gene cargo into spherical and uniform nanoparticles with particle size (65–88 nm) and zeta potential (7.3–9.6 mV). Interestingly and importantly, PEG-Bu displayed lower cytotoxicity and enhanced tranfection efficiency than PEI-Bu after PEGylation in both normal cells BRL-3A and tumor cells HeLa. Moreover, PEG-Bu could efficiently delivery AGT shRNA to knockdown the AGT expression. To sum up, PEG-Bu would be a promising non-viral vector for delivering AGT shRNA to BRL-3A cells for hypertension therapy.
The coexistence of three intracranial lesions related to epileptic pathogenesis is known as ‘triple pathology’ and has rarely been reported. In this study we report a case of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with the coexistence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and ganglioglioma in the temporal lobe. A 29-year-old male who had experienced recurrent seizures for four years was admitted to hospital. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted and T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) images revealed a reduced hippocampal volume with an increased FLAIR signal on the right side and a slightly enlarged temporal horn, which are typical imaging findings for HS and FCD. The patient underwent resectioning of the right anterior temporal lobe, hippocampus and amygdala, in addition to the lesion located in the medial temporal lobe. Immunohistochemical analysis of the medial temporal lobe lesion confirmed a ganglioglioma (WHO grade I) in the medial temporal lobe. During the first eight months following surgery, the patient's seizures were controlled with zonisamide and phenytoin. Electroencephalogram (EEG) assessment post-surgery confirmed the absence of epileptic discharges. Based on a literature review and a detailed review of this case, we postulate two possible explanations for the pathogenesis of ‘triple pathology’: i) ‘triple pathology’ is a combination of pathological progression and occasionality; and ii) ‘triple pathology’ lesions have similar pathological origins.
epilepsy; triple pathology; hippocampal sclerosis; focal cortical dysplasia; ganglioglioma
The BAR domain of amphiphysin is required for endocytic tubule formation at the leading edge of cleavage furrows in Drosophila embryos. In the absence of tubules, furrow ingression is faster, whereas elongated tubules slow furrow ingression, suggesting that the tubules may regulate furrow ingression by regulating membrane recycling.
De novo formation of cells in the Drosophila embryo is achieved when each nucleus is surrounded by a furrow of plasma membrane. Remodeling of the plasma membrane during cleavage furrow ingression involves the exocytic and endocytic pathways, including endocytic tubules that form at cleavage furrow tips (CFT-tubules). The tubules are marked by amphiphysin but are otherwise poorly understood. Here we identify the septin family of GTPases as new tubule markers. Septins do not decorate CFT-tubules homogeneously: instead, novel septin complexes decorate different CFT-tubules or different domains of the same CFT-tubule. Using these new tubule markers, we determine that all CFT-tubule formation requires the BAR domain of amphiphysin. In contrast, dynamin activity is preferentially required for the formation of the subset of CFT-tubules containing the septin Peanut. The absence of tubules in amphiphysin-null embryos correlates with faster cleavage furrow ingression rates. In contrast, upon inhibition of dynamin, longer tubules formed, which correlated with slower cleavage furrow ingression rates. These data suggest that regulating the recycling of membrane within the embryo is important in supporting timely furrow ingression.
Evidence for a possible causal relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted by high voltage transmission (HVT) lines and neurobehavioral dysfunction in children is insufficient. The present study aims to investigate the association between EMF exposure from HVT lines and neurobehavioral function in children.
Two primary schools were chosen based on monitoring data of ambient electromagnetic radiation. A cross-sectional study with 437 children (9 to 13 years old) was conducted. Exposure to EMF from HVT lines was monitored at each school. Information was collected on possible confounders and relevant exposure predictors using standardized questionnaires. Neurobehavioral function in children was evaluated using established computerized neurobehavioral tests. Data was analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders.
After controlling for potential confounding factors, multivariable regression revealed that children attending a school near 500 kV HVT lines had poorer performance on the computerized neurobehavioral tests for Visual Retention and Pursuit Aiming compared to children attending a school that was not in close proximity to HVT lines.
The results suggest long-term low-level exposure to EMF from HVT lines might have a negative impact on neurobehavioral function in children. However, because of differences in results only for two of four tests achieved statistical significance and potential limitations, more studies are needed to explore the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency EMF on neurobehavioral function and development in children.
Tensor subspace transformation, a commonly used subspace transformation technique, has gained more and more popularity over the past few years because many objects in the real world can be naturally represented as multidimensional arrays, i.e. tensors. For example, a RGB facial image can be represented as a three-dimensional array (or 3rd-order tensor). The first two dimensionalities (or modes) represent the facial spatial information and the third dimensionality (or mode) represents the color space information. Each mode of the tensor may express a different semantic meaning. Thus different transformation strategies should be applied to different modes of the tensor according to their semantic meanings to obtain the best performance. To the best of our knowledge, there are no existing tensor subspace transformation algorithm which implements different transformation strategies on different modes of a tensor accordingly. In this paper, we propose a fusion tensor subspace transformation framework, a novel idea where different transformation strategies are implemented on separate modes of a tensor. Under the framework, we propose the Fusion Tensor Color Space (FTCS) model for face recognition.
3-Mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST) is an important enzyme for the synthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the brain. We present here data that indicate an exclusively localization of 3MST in astrocytes. Regional distribution of 3MST activities is even and unremarkable. Following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), 3MST was down-regulated in both the cortex and striatum, but not in the corpus collosum. It appears that the down-regulation of astrocytic 3MST persisted in the presence of astrocytic proliferation due to gliosis. Our observations indicate that 3MST is probably not responsible for the increased production of H2S following pMCAO. Therefore, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), the alternative H2S producing enzyme in the CNS, remains as a more likely potential therapeutic target than 3MST in the treatment of acute stroke through inhibition of H2S production.
Urea is one of the dominant organic nitrogenous compounds in the oligotrophic oceans. Compared to the knowledge of nitrogen transformation of nitrogen fixation, ammonia oxidization, nitrate and nitrite reduction mediated by sponge-associated microbes, our knowledge of urea utilization in sponges and the phylogenetic diversity of sponge-associated microbes with urea utilization potential is very limited. In this study, Marinobacter litoralis isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria and the slurry of X. testudinaria were found to have urease activity. Subsequently, phylogenetically diverse bacterial ureC genes were detected in the total genomic DNA and RNA of sponge X. testudinaria, i.e., 19 operative taxonomic units (OTUs) in genomic DNA library and 8 OTUs in cDNA library at 90% stringency. Particularly, 6 OTUs were common to both the genomic DNA library and the cDNA library, which suggested that some ureC genes were expressed in this sponge. BLAST and phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the ureC sequences were similar with the urease alpha subunit of members from Proteobacteria, which were the predominant component in sponge X. testudinaria, and the remaining ureC sequences were related to those from Magnetococcus, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria. This study is the first assessment of the role of sponge bacterial symbionts in the regenerated utilization of urea by the detection of transcriptional activity of ureC gene, as well as the phylogenetic diversity of ureC gene of sponge bacterial symbionts. The results suggested the urea utilization by bacterial symbionts in marine sponge X. testudinaria, extending our understanding of nitrogen cycling mediated by sponge-associated microbiota.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease, and its incidence is growing worldwide. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a central component of cellular functions and is involved in protein folding and trafficking, lipid synthesis, and maintenance of calcium homeostasis. The ER is also a sensor of both intra- and extracellular stress and thus participates in monitoring and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Therefore, the ER is one site of interaction between environmental signals and a cell's biological function. The ER is tightly linked to autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis, and recent evidence suggests that these processes are related to the pathogenesis of DM and its complications. Thus, the ER has been considered an intersection integrating multiple stress responses and playing an important role in metabolism-related diseases including DM. Here, we review the relationship between the ER and autophagy, inflammation, and apoptosis in DM to better understand the molecular mechanisms of this disease.
Apoptosis protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1) and death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) are p53 pathway-related genes that play significant roles in the activation of caspases, which are involved in mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. The present study aimed to confirm the role of hyper-methylation of the Apaf-1 and DAPK gene promoter regions in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the effect of the demethylation drug, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (DAC). mRNA from 53 OSCC samples, 23 normal oral mucosa samples and Tca8113 human tongue carcinoma cell lines was detected using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The DNA from each sample was analyzed using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). The Tca8113 cells were demethylated using DAC and the demethylation and re-expression of Apaf-1 and DAPK were analyzed. The Apaf-1 and DAPK mRNA expression index was decreased in 51 (96.23%) and 50 (94.34%) cases, respectively, in the tumor tissues. Hypermethylation of the Apaf-1 and DAPK promoter regions was detected in 46 (86.79%) and 38 (71.69%) cases, respectively. Promoter hypermethylation of the two genes correlated with a decreased mRNA expression in the tumor tissues. Subsequent to being treated with DAC, Apaf-1 and DAPK were demethylated and re-expressed in the Tca8113 cells. Apaf-1 and DAPK promoter hypermethylation may be associated with low gene expression in OSCC. Furthermore, a loss of Apaf-1 and DAPK expression may recover following demethylation. The data provide evidence that methylation exists in OSCC and may play a role in the development of this disease.
methylation; apoptosis protease activating factor-1; death-associated protein kinase; oral squamous cell carcinoma; 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the highest mortality diseases in the world. Traditional Chinese medicine compound Danshen dripping pills (CDDPs) have currently made a great achievement in treating CHD. However, the therapeutic mechanism of CDDP is often poorly interpreted. In this study, a GC-MS-based metabonomic study was conducted to assess the holistic efficacy of CDDP for myocardial infarction in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which were divided into the control group, the sham group, the model group, the control + CDDP group, and the model + CDDP, with CDDP at a dose of 107 mg/kg·d (equal to 1.8 mL/kg·d). The metabonomic findings demonstrated great differences of metabolic pattern among sham, model, and the model + CDDP in the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models, which coordinated well with the assessment of plasma biochemistry and histopathological assay. Differentially expressed metabolites suggested that energy metabolism, glycolysis, and lipid metabolism might be disrupted by myocardial infarction. Both the potential metabolic biomarkers and the biochemical histopathological indices were regulated effectively by CDDP.
One of the most challenging problems in the development of protein pharmaceuticals is to deal with stabilities of proteins due to its complicated structures. This study aims to develop a novel approach to stabilize and encapsulate proteins into dextran nanoparticles without contacting the interface between the aqueous phase and the organic phase. The bovine serum albumin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), β-galactosidase, and myoglobin were selected as model proteins. The proteins were added into an aqueous solution containing the dextran and polyethylene glycol, and then encapsulated into dextran nanoparticles by aqueous-aqueous freezing-induced phase separation. The encapsulation efficiency and recovery of dextran nanoparticles were determined. The dextran nanoparticles loaded with proteins were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analysis. The protein aggregation was determined by size-exclusion chromatography-high-performance chromatography, and the bioactivity of proteins recovered during formulation steps was determined. The bioactivity of GM-CSF, G-CSF, and β-galactosidase were examined by the proliferation of TF-1 cell, NSF-60 cell, and ortho-nitrophenyl-β-galactoside assay, respectively. The results of bioactivity recovered show that this novel dextran nanoparticle can preserve the protein's bioactivity during the preparation process. LysoSensor™ Yellow/Blue dextran, a pH-sensitive indicator with fluorescence excited at two channels, was encapsulated into dextran nanoparticles to investigate the ability of dextran nanoparticles to resist the acidic microenvironment (pH < 2.5). The result shows that the dextran nanoparticles attenuate the acidic microenvironment in the poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microsphere by means of the dilution effect. These novel dextran nanoparticles provided an appealing approach to stabilize the delicate proteins for administration.
Dextran nanoparticles; Protein; Aggregation; Bioactivity; Acidic microenvironment
Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is a rare cancer with poor prognosis and limited response to conventional chemotherapy. The genetic and epigenetic alterations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-RAS-RAF signaling in penile SCC are unclear. This study aims to investigate four key members of this pathway in penile SCC. We examined the expression of EGFR and RAS-association domain family 1 A (RASSF1A) as well as the mutation status of K-RAS and BRAF in 150 cases of penile SCC. EGFR and RASSF1A expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. KRAS mutations at codons 12 and 13, and the BRAF mutation at codon 600 were analyzed on DNA isolated from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues by direct genomic sequencing. EGFR expression was positive in all specimens, and its over-expression rate was 92%. RASSF1A expression rate was only 3.42%. Significant correlation was not found between the expression of EGFR or RASSF1A and tumor grade, pT stage or lymph node metastases. The detection of KRAS and BRAF mutations analysis was performed in 94 and 83 tumor tissues, respectively. We found KRAS mutation in only one sample and found no BRAF V600E point mutation. In summary, we found over-expression of EGFR in the majority cases of penile SCC, but only rare expression of RASSF1A, rare KRAS mutation, and no BRAF mutation in penile SCC. These data suggest that anti-EGFR agents may be potentially considered as therapeutic options in penile SCC.
Members of the Ashkenazi Jewish community are at an increased risk for inheritance of numerous genetic diseases such that carrier screening is medically recommended. This paper describes the development and evaluation of 30 TaqMan allelic discrimination qPCR assays for 29 mutations on 2 different high-throughput platforms. Four of these mutations are in the GBA gene and are successfully examined using short amplicons due to the qualitative nature of TaqMan allelic discrimination. Two systems were tested for their reliability (call rate) and consistency with previous diagnoses (diagnostic accuracy) indicating a call rate of 99.04% and a diagnostic accuracy of 100% (+/−0.00%) from one platform, and a call rate of 94.66% and a diagnostic accuracy of 93.35% (+/−0.29%) from a second for 9,216 genotypes. Results for mutations tested at the expected carrier frequency indicated a call rate of 97.87% and a diagnostic accuracy of 99.96% (+/−0.05%). This study demonstrated the ability of a high throughput qPCR methodology to accurately and reliably genotype 29 mutations in parallel. The universally applicable nature of this technology provides an opportunity to increase the number of mutations that can be screened simultaneously, and reduce the cost and turnaround time for accommodating newly identified and clinically relevant mutations.
Biscarbamate cross-linked polyethylenimine derivative (PEI-Et) has been reported as a
novel nonviral vector for efficient and safe gene transfer in our previous work. However,
it had no cell-specificity. To achieve specific delivery of genes to hepatocytes,
galactosylated poly(ethylene glycol)-graft-polyethylenimine derivative (GPE) was prepared
through modification of PEI-Et with poly(ethylene glycol) and lactobionic acid, bearing a
galactose group as a hepatocyte-targeting moiety. The composition of GPE was characterized
by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. The weight-average molecular weight of GPE measured
with a gel permeation chromatography instrument was 9489 Da, with a polydispersity of
1.44. GPE could effectively condense plasmid DNA (pDNA) into nanoparticles. Gel
retardation assay showed that GPE/pDNA complexes were completely formed at weigh ratios
(w/w) over 3. The particle size of GPE/pDNA complexes was 79–100 nm and zeta
potential was 6–15 mV, values which were appropriate for cellular uptake. The
morphology of GPE/pDNA complexes under atomic force microscopy appeared spherical and
uniform in size, with diameters of 53–65 nm. GPE displayed much higher
transfection efficiency than commercially available PEI 25 kDa in BRL-3A cell lines.
Importantly, GPE showed good hepatocyte specificity. Also, the polymer exhibited
significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to PEI 25 kDa at the same concentration or
weight ratio in BRL-3A cell lines. To sum up, our results indicated that GPE might carry
great potential in safe and efficient hepatocyte-targeting gene delivery.
gene delivery; hepatocyte targeting; galactose; cytotoxicity; transfection efficiency
The goal of this study was to understand the knowledge about AIDS, identify the correlates and determine the prevalence of HIV infection, syphilis, HCV among migrant workers in Zhejiang, China.
A cross-sectional study using face-to-face anonymous questionnaire interviews was conducted and blood samples were collected for HIV, syphilis and Hepatitis C infection screening.
17,377 (92.8%) of 18,730 migrant workers approached were interviewed. Among 17,377 participants, the HIV/AIDS knowledge rate was 66.2%. A total of 12,694 (73%) of the participants reported having ever had sexual intercourse, with 30.1% of single participants reporting having had sexual intercourse. Among those respondents with sexual experiences, 7.5% admitted they had two or more sexual partners and 4.9% reported having had sex with casual (unpaid) partners in the previous 12 months, whilst 3.7% had paid for sex. More than half of those who had paid for sex (59.4%) had not used a condom every time in their sexual acts with the sex workers. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that high risk sexual behavior (defined as sex with a casual or commercial sex partner without using a condom consistently) was associated with being divorced or widowed (P<0.05 for single); male gender; shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang; working in factory, market or domestic service (P<0.05 for odd job); having a province of origin inside Zhejiang; and drug use. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infections were 0.02% (95% CI: 0.01%–0.06%) and 0.40% (95%CI: 0.31%–0.51%), respectively. The prevalence of syphilis among those who were sexually active was 0.55% (95% CI: 0.43%–0.70%). Risk factors for syphilis included shorter duration of stay in Zhejiang, ethnic minority status, being divorced or widowed and having had multiple sex partners.
Much greater efforts are needed to promote safer sex, and programs for the control of syphilis need to be tailored for migrant workers in China.
This study sought to determine whether morphology of simultaneously biopsied polar bodies is predictive of their cell division origin.
Levels of heterozygosity were measured using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays in sequentially biopsied polar bodies to establish the predictive value on samples with known cell division origins. The validated method of predicting cell division origin of polar bodies using heterozygosity rates was then applied to simultaneously biopsied polar bodies which had origin predictions made by morphological assessment.
SNP microarray heterozygosity analysis was proven to be 94% predictive when tested against the known origin of sequentially biopsied polar bodies (n = 133). This methodology subsequently demonstrated that morphology was only 63% consistent when tested on simultaneously biopsied polar bodies (n = 455; P < 0.0001). Predictions of the origins of aneuploidy using morphology assignment were also significantly different than with heterozygosity assignment of polar body cell division origin (P = 0.0003).
Studies of the origin of aneuploidy utilizing morphological assignment of polar body cell division origin without heterozygosity analysis may be inaccurate and should be interpreted with caution.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10815-011-9683-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Polar body; SNP microarray; Meiosis; Heterozygosity
There are two homologous thyroid hormone (TH) receptors (TRs α and β), which are members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR) family. While TRs regulate different processes in vivo and other highly related NRs regulate distinct gene sets, initial studies of TR action revealed near complete overlaps in their actions at the level of individual genes. Here, we assessed the extent that TRα and TRβ differ in target gene regulation by comparing effects of equal levels of stably expressed exogenous TRs +/− T3 in two cell backgrounds (HepG2 and HeLa). We find that hundreds of genes respond to T3 or to unliganded TRs in both cell types, but were not able to detect verifiable examples of completely TR subtype-specific gene regulation. TR actions are, however, far from identical and we detect TR subtype-specific effects on global T3 response kinetics in HepG2 cells and many examples of TR subtype specificity at the level of individual genes, including effects on magnitude of response to TR +/− T3, TR regulation patterns and T3 dose response. Cycloheximide (CHX) treatment confirms that at least some differential effects involve verifiable direct TR target genes. TR subtype/gene-specific effects emerge in the context of widespread variation in target gene response and we suggest that gene-selective effects on mechanism of TR action highlight differences in TR subtype function that emerge in the environment of specific genes. We propose that differential TR actions could influence physiologic and pharmacologic responses to THs and selective TR modulators (STRMs).
QDMRK was a phase III clinical trial of raltegravir given once daily (QD) (800-mg dose) versus twice daily (BID) (400 mg per dose), each in combination with once-daily coformulated tenofovir-emtricitabine, in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients. Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analyses were conducted using a 2-step approach: individual non-model-based PK parameters from observed sparse concentration data were determined, followed by statistical analysis of potential relationships between PK and efficacy response parameters after 48 weeks of treatment. Sparse PK sampling was performed for all patients (QD, n = 380; BID, n = 384); selected sites performed an intensive PK evaluation at week 4 (QD, n = 22; BID, n = 20). In the intensive PK subgroup, daily exposures (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0–24]) were similar between the two regimens, but patients on 800 mg QD experienced ∼4-fold-higher maximum drug concentration in plasma (Cmax) values and ∼6-fold-lower trough drug concentration (Ctrough) values than those on 400 mg BID. Geometric mean (GM) Ctrough values were similarly lower in the sparse PK analysis. With BID dosing, there was no indication of any significant PK/PD association over the range of tested PK parameters. With QD dosing, Ctrough values correlated with the likelihood of virologic response. Failure to achieve an HIV RNA level of <50 copies/ml appeared predominantly at high baseline HIV RNA levels in both treatment arms and was associated with lower values of GM Ctrough in the 800-mg-QD arm, though other possible drivers of efficacy, such as time above a threshold concentration, could not be evaluated due to the sparse sampling scheme. Together, these findings emphasize the importance of the shape of the plasma concentration-versus-time curve for long-term efficacy.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation on intraocular pressure (IOP) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) in patients with cataract or cataract associated with primary angle closure (PAC). A total of 361 patients (481 affected eyes) with senile cataract (cataract group) and 44 patients (52 affected eyes) with cataract associated with PAC (cataract with PAC group) underwent phacoemulsification with IOL implantation from July 2005 to May 2007 and were followed up for 3 to 25 months. There was a significant difference between pre-operative and post-operative IOPs (t=9.270, P<0.01) in the cataract group and in the cataract with PAC group (t=3.29, P<0.01). No significant differences were identified in pre-operative IOP (t=−2.437, P>0.05) and the IOP three months after surgery (t=2.154, P>0.05) between the two groups. There was a significant difference between the pre-operative and post-operative ACDs (t=7.781, P<0.01) in the cataract group and in the cataract with PAC group (t=4.528, P<0.01). A significant difference in ACD between the two groups (t=8.325, P<0.01) existed prior to surgery but following surgery, the ACDs of the two groups were not significantly different (t=2.86, P>0.05). Phacoemulsification with IOL implantation has IOP-lowering effects on cataract and cataract with PAC patients. The International Society of Geography and Epidemiology of Ophthalmology classification method for angle closure glaucoma was adopted in our study. Furhter studies are required to prove the safety and mechanism of lowering IOP impact of phacoemulsifation towards PAC glaucoma (PACG).
cataract; intraocular pressure; glaucoma; lenses; intraocular
While improvements in genotyping technology have allowed for increased throughput and reduced time and expense, protocols remain hindered by the slow upstream steps of isolating, purifying, and normalizing DNA. Various methods exist for genotyping samples directly through blood, without having to purify the DNA first. These procedures were designed to be used on smaller throughput systems, however, and have not yet been tested for use on current high-throughput real-time (q)PCR based genotyping platforms. In this paper, a method of quantitative qPCR-based genotyping on blood without DNA purification was developed using a high-throughput qPCR platform.
The performances of either DNA purified from blood or the same blood samples without DNA purification were evaluated through qPCR-based genotyping. First, 60 different mutations prevalent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population were genotyped in 12 Ashkenazi Jewish individuals using the QuantStudio™12K Flex Real-Time PCR System. Genotyping directly from blood gave a call rate of 99.21%, and an accuracy of 100%, while the purified DNA gave a call rate of 92.49%, and an accuracy of 99.74%. Although no statistical difference was found for these parameters, an F test comparing the standard deviations of the wild type clusters for the two different methods indicated significantly less variation when genotyping directly from blood instead of after DNA purification. To further establish the ability to perform high-throughput qPCR based genotyping directly from blood, 96 individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish decent were genotyped for the same 60 mutations (5,760 genotypes in 5 hours) and resulted in a call rate of 98.38% and a diagnostic accuracy of 99.77%.
This study shows that accurate qPCR-based high-throughput genotyping can be performed without DNA purification. The direct use of blood may further expedite the entire genotyping process, reduce costs, and avoid tracking errors which can occur during sample DNA purification.
High-throughput; Genotyping; Blood; Sample-to-SNP; QuantStudio
Lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta (LAPTM4B) is a novel cancer-related gene which has two alleles designated LAPTM4B*1 and LAPTM4B*2. In this study we investigated the correlation of LAPTM4B genotype with prognosis and clinicopathologic features in patients who had undergone curative resection for gallbladder carcinoma (GBC).
PCR assay was performed to determine the LAPTM4B genotype in 85 patients. The correlation of LAPTM4B genotype with clinicopathologic parameters was assessed with the Chi-squared test. Differences in patient survival were determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was carried out with Cox regression analysis. Patients with LAPTM4B *2 had both significantly shorter overall survival (OS) and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (both P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that LAPTM4B genotype is a prognostic factor for OS and DFS (both P<0.001).
LAPTM4B allele *2 is a risk factor associated with poor prognosis in patients with resected GBC, and LAPTM4B status may be therefore be useful preoperatively as an adjunct in evaluation of the operability of GBC.
Lysosomal protein transmembrane 4 beta (LAPTM4B) is a gene related to hepatocellular carcinoma that has two alleles designated LAPTM4B*1 and LAPTM4B*2. This study aimed to investigate the correlation of LAPTM4B genotype with prognosis and clinicopathologic features in patients who have undergone resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
The LAPTM4B genotype was analyzed by PCR in 68 patients who had undergone curative hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma. The correlation of LAPTM4B genotype with clinicopathologic parameters was assessed with the Chi-squared test. Differences in patient survival were determined by the Kaplan–Meier method. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors was carried out with Cox regression analysis. Patients with LAPTM4B *2 had both significantly shorter overall survival (OS) and shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (both P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that LAPTM4B genotype is an independent prognostic factor for OS and DFS (both P<0.001).
Allele *2 of LAPTM4B is a risk factor associated with poor prognosis in patients with resected HCC. LAPTM4B status may be useful preoperatively as an adjunct in evaluation of the operability of HCC.
Several recent reports have demonstrated that tyrosine (Y)-methionine (M)-aspartic acid (D)-aspartic acid (D) (YMDD) motif mutations can naturally occur in chronic HBV patients without antiviral treatment such as lamivudine therapy. This paper aims to assess the overall spontaneous incidence and related risk factors of YMDD-motif mutations among lamivudine-naïve chronic HBV carriers, so as to provide some clue for clinical treatment of hepatitis B.
Chinese and English literatures were searched for studies reporting natural YMDD mutations among untreated chronic HBV patients from 2001 to 2010. The incidence estimates were summarized and analyzed by meta-analyses. Forty-seven eligible articles from eight countries were selected in this review (13 in English and 34 in Chinese). The pooled incidence of YMDD-motif mutation among untreated chronic HBV patients from eight countries was 12.21% (95% CI: 9.69%–14.95%). China had an incidence of 13.38% (95% CI: 10.90%–16.07%) and seven other countries had an incidence of 9.90% (95% CI: 3.28%–19.55%), respectively. Lamivudine therapy would increase the risk of mutations 5.23 times higher than the untreated patients. A higher HBV DNA copy number was associated with increased incidence of natural YMDD mutation. No significant difference was found in YMDD mutation incidence between groups of different gender, age, HBeAg status, patients' ALT (alanine aminotransferase) level, and between the groups of HBV genotype B and C.
The YMDD-motif mutations can occur spontaneously with a relatively high incidence in CHB patients untreated with lamivudine. These mutations might be the consequence of accumulated base mismatch due to the nature of viral polymerase. More fundamental and clinical studies are needed to clarify the influence of YMDD mutations in hepatitis B progression and antiviral treatment.
Polyethylenimine (PEI), especially PEI 25 kDa, has been widely studied for delivery of nucleic acid drugs both in vitro and in vivo. However, it lacks degradable linkages and is too toxic for therapeutic applications. Hence, low-molecular-weight PEI has been explored as an alternative to PEI 25 kDa. To reduce cytotoxicity and increase transfection efficiency, we designed and synthesized a novel small-molecular-weight PEI derivative (PEI-Et, Mn: 1220, Mw: 2895) with ethylene biscarbamate linkages. PEI-Et carried the ability to condense plasmid DNA (pDNA) into nanoparticles. Gel retardation assay showed complete condensation of pDNA at w/w ratios that exceeded three. The particle size of polymer/pDNA complexes was between 130 nm and 180 nm and zeta potential was 5–10 mV, which were appropriate for cell endocytosis. The morphology of PEI-Et/pDNA complexes observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was spherically shaped with diameters of 110–190 nm. The transfection efficiency of polymer/pDNA complexes as determined with the luciferase activity assay as well as fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis (FACS) was higher than commercially available PEI 25 kDa and Lipofectamine 2000 in various cell lines. Also, the polymer exhibited significantly lower cytotoxicity compared to PEI 25 kDa at the same concentration in three cell lines. Therefore, our results indicated that the PEI-Et would be a promising candidate for safe and efficient gene delivery in gene therapy.
gene delivery; polyethylenimine; nanoparticles; cytotoxicity; transfection efficiency
Urea transporter UT-B is the major urea transporter in erythrocytes and the descending vasa recta in the kidney. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term UT-B deficiency on functional and structural defect in the kidney of 16-and 52-week-old UT-B-null mice.
UT-B-knockout mice were generated by targeted gene disruption and lacked UT-B protein expression in all organs. The urinary concentrating ability of mice was studied in terms of daily urine output, urine osmolality, and urine and plasma chemistries. Changes in renal morphology were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining.
The UT-B-null mice showed defective urine concentrating ability. The daily urine output in UT-B-null mice (2.5 ± 0.1 ml) was 60% higher and urine osmolality (985 ± 151 mosm) was significantly lower than that in wild-type mice (1463 ± 227 mosm). The 52-week-old UT-B-null mice exhibited polyuria after water deprivation, although urine osmolality was increased. At 52 weeks of age, over 31% of UT-B-null mice exhibited renal medullary atrophy because of severe polyuria and hydronephrosis.
Long-term UT-B deficiency causes severe renal dysfunction and structural damage. These results demonstrate the important role of UT-B in countercurrent exchange and urine concentration.
urea transporter; renal function; kidney; UT-B; knock-out