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1.  Treatment and outcome of patients with extragonadal germ cell tumours--the Norwegian Radium Hospital's experience 1979-94. 
British Journal of Cancer  1998;77(2):329-335.
This report reviews 48 patients who from 1979 to 1994 were treated at the Norwegian Radium Hospital for newly diagnosed noncerebral extragonadal malignant germ cell tumour (EGGCT). Based on histology and/or serum tumour markers, 12 patients had a seminoma and 36 a non-seminoma. At diagnosis, 33 and 15 patients were classified as having abdominal and mediastinal EGGCT respectively. At the time of diagnosis 13 patients, all with non-seminomatous tumours, had metastases to bone, liver or brain. One patient with abdominal seminoma was cured by radiotherapy alone, whereas cisplatin-based chemotherapy (with or without surgery) was planned in the 47 remaining patients. Twenty-seven out of 42 patients receiving four or more chemotherapy cycles were rendered tumour free by induction chemotherapy, including 5 of the 13 patients with extralymphatic non-pulmonal disease. An additional tumour-free patient died of septicaemia after only two cycles of chemotherapy. Late relapses (after > 2 years) were observed in three patients, and a testicular primary was diagnosed during follow-up in three cases. Seven patients died of treatment-related complications, five of these because of neutropenic septicaemia. The median age of these patients was 52 years compared with 35 years in the remaining 41 patients (P < 0.05). The 5-year overall survival for all 48 patients was 60% (95% CI 46-74%) [cancer-specific 5-year survival 71% (95% CI 50-92%)]. EGGCT is a potentially curable disease, even in patients with very advanced disease. Special attention should, however, be devoted to patients above the age of 40 years because of an increased risk of treatment-related side-effects. Late relapses and the subsequent development of testicular tumours indicate the need for long-term follow-up.
PMCID: PMC2151244  PMID: 9461006
2.  How safe is surveillance in patients with histologically low-risk non-seminomatous testicular cancer in a geographically extended country with limited computerised tomographic resources? 
British Journal of Cancer  1994;70(6):1156-1160.
In patients with clinical stage I non-seminomatous testicular cancer only limited information is available about the administrative problems with the surveillance programme, in particular if this policy is to be implemented in a geographically extended country with limited computerised tomography (CT) resources. One hundred and two patients with non-seminomatous testicular cancer clinical stage I and low-risk histology (MRC criteria, UK) were followed by the surveillance policy for at least 1 year after orchiectomy (median 47 months, range 21-81 months). Twenty-two patients (22%) relapsed after a median time of 5 months (range 2-18 months), 14 of them in the retroperitoneal space. Serum alpha-fetoprotein and/or human chorionic gonadotrophin were elevated in eight of the 22 relapsing patients. The progression-free and cancer-corrected survival rates were 78% and 99% respectively. Patient non-compliance did not represent a major problem, whereas the regular and adequate performance of necessary CT examinations yielded some administrative difficulties. One and 3 years after orchiectomy about 50% of the relapse-free patients had no psychological problems and were satisfied with the surveillance programme, whereas 46% reported minor and 4% major psychological distress. Despite non-negligible administrative difficulties in geographically extended countries, surveillance is feasible and safe in compliant patients with low-risk non-seminomatous testicular cancer stage I. The responsible cancer centre and the local hospitals should establish a high degree of cooperation and enable adequate follow-up examinations in these patients.
PMCID: PMC2033670  PMID: 7981068
3.  Salvage treatment in male patients with germ cell tumours. 
British Journal of Cancer  1993;67(3):568-572.
The outcome of salvage treatment was reviewed in 55 patients relapsing during or after their primary chemotherapy for advanced malignant germ cell tumours. Fifty-two patients had been given cisplatin-based chemotherapy as their primary treatment, whereas three patients had received carboplatin-based chemotherapy. The median time to relapse was 2 months (range: 0-96 months) from discontinuation of the primary treatment. Two patients underwent radical surgery only, and one patient had radiotherapy to a brain metastasis as his only curatively intended salvage treatment. Six patients did not receive any treatment for their recurrent malignancy (refusal, terminal condition) except for purely palliative measures. The disease-free survival for the total group was 27% at 5 years. Complete response to primary treatment lasting for > or = 6 months was the only parameter which significantly predicted a favourable outcome (45% 5 year disease-free survival in 12 eligible patients).
PMCID: PMC1968255  PMID: 8382512
4.  High-dose methotrexate in the treatment of malignant mesothelioma of the pleura. A phase II study. 
British Journal of Cancer  1992;65(6):956-960.
From 1984 to 1989, 63 patients with diffuse, malignant mesothelioma of the pleura were treated with 4-8 courses of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX, 3 g total dose) and citrovorum factor rescue. There were 61 male and two female patients of median age 60 years. CT scan was performed before and after treatment and used for response evaluation. Of 60 patients evaluable for response, 37% showed partial or complete remission, 32% showed no change and 32% showed progressive disease. Median survival from start of treatment for all patients was 11 months, for 42 patients with the epithelial type 12 months, and for 20 patients with sarcomatous or mixed types only 5 months. Toxicity was acceptable, with only five patients (8%) terminating therapy due to toxicity. One toxic death occurred. We conclude that HDMTX is an active regimen in malignant pleural mesothelioma. The significantly shorter survival for patients with the sarcomatous or mixed subtypes indicates that further investigations on the activity of HDMTX in mesothelioma should be limited to patients with the epithelial subtype.
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PMCID: PMC1977753  PMID: 1616870

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