DEC205/CD205, an endocytic receptor of C-type multilectin, is expressed highly in dendritic cells (DCs). DEC205 was shown to efficiently deliver vaccine antigens in surrogate ligands to the antigen processing and presentation machinery of DCs, which resulted in the development of DC-targeted vaccines employing anti-DC monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). During our studies to characterize a variety of anti-DC mAbs including anti-DEC205 by flow cytometric analysis, we discovered that a secondary anti-immunoglobulin antibody conjugated with PE-Cy5.5 bound strongly to the cells expressing mouse DEC205 (mDEC205) without incubation of a primary anti-mDEC205 mAb. In the present study we demonstrate that various antibodies and streptavidin conjugated with PE-Cy5.5 bind to the mDEC205-expressing cells including CHO, KIT6, and HEK293 cells. The interaction between the PE-Cy5.5 conjugates and the cells expressing mDEC205 appears distinctive, since none of PE-Cy5.5 conjugates bind to the cells that express human DEC205 on surface. Besides, only PE-Cy5.5 conjugates bind strongly to mDEC205-expressing cells; PerCP-Cy5.5, APC-Cy5.5, and Cy5.5 conjugates bind weakly; PE, PE-Cy5, Cy5, FITC, or Alexa488 conjugates do not bind. Therefore the use of PE-Cy5.5 conjugates, widely utilized in multicolor flow cytometry, requires precaution against nonspecific binding to mDEC205-positive cells.
CD205; DEC205; PE-Cy5.5; Nonspecific binding; Dendritic Cells
It is of great interest to develop a pneumonic plague vaccine that would induce combined humoral and cellular immunity in the lung. Here we investigate a novel approach based on targeting of dendritic cells using the DEC-205/CD205 receptor (DEC) via the intranasal route as way to improve mucosal cellular immunity to the vaccine. Intranasal administration of Y. pestis LcrV (V) protein fused to anti-DEC antibody together with poly IC as an adjuvant induced high frequencies of IFN-γ secreting CD4+ T cells in the airway and lung as well as pulmonary IgG and IgA antibodies. Anti-DEC:LcrV was more efficient to induce IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-2 secreting polyfunctional CD4+ T cells when compared to non-targeted soluble protein vaccine. In addition, the intranasal route of immunization with anti-DEC:LcrV was associated with improved survival upon pulmonary challenge with the virulent CO92 Y. pestis. Taken together, these data indicate that targeting dendritic cells via the mucosal route is a potential new avenue for the development of a mucosal vaccine against pneumonic plague.
Dendritic cells; CD205/DEC-205; Y. pestis; LcrV; Cellular immunity; Mucosal
Regulatory T cells generated by allostimulation with dendritic cells, transforming growth factor β, and retinoic acid stably express Foxp3 and can suppress even ongoing GVHD in mice.
Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (T reg cells) effectively suppress immunity, but it is not determined if antigen-induced T reg cells (iT reg cells) are able to persist under conditions of inflammation and to stably express the transcription factor Foxp3. We used spleen cells to stimulate the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) in the presence of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and retinoic acid. We found that the CD11chigh dendritic cell fraction was the most potent at inducing high numbers of alloreactive Foxp3+ cells. The induced CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells appeared after extensive proliferation. When purified from the MLR, iT reg cells suppressed both primary and secondary MLR in vitro in an antigen-specific manner. After transfer into allogeneic mice, iT reg cells persisted for 6 mo and prevented graft versus host disease (GVHD) caused by co-transferred CD45RBhi T cells. Similar findings were made when iT reg cells were transferred after onset of GVHD. The CNS2 intronic sequence of the Foxp3 gene in the persisting iT reg cells was as demethylated as the corresponding sequence of naturally occurring T reg cells. These results indicate that induced Foxp3+ T reg cells, after proliferating and differentiating into antigen-specific suppressive T cells, can persist for long periods while suppressing a powerful inflammatory disease.
Efficient vaccination against the parasite Leishmania major, the causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis, requires development of type 1 T-helper (Th1) CD4+ T cell immunity. Because of their unique capacity to initiate and modulate immune responses, dendritic cells (DCs) are attractive targets for development of novel vaccines. In this study, for the first time, we investigated the capacity of a DC-targeted vaccine to induce protective responses against L. major. To this end, we genetically engineered the N-terminal portion of the stress-inducible 1 protein of L. major (LmSTI1a) into anti-DEC205/CD205 (DEC) monoclonal antibody (mAb) and thereby delivered the conjugated protein to DEC+ DCs in situ in the intact animal. Delivery of LmSTI1a to adjuvant-matured DCs increased the frequency of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells producing IFN-γ+, IL-2+, and TNF-α+ in two different strains of mice (C57BL/6 and Balb/c), while such responses were not observed with the same doses of a control Ig-LmSTI1a mAb without receptor affinity or with non-targeted LmSTI1a protein. Using a peptide library for LmSTI1a, we identified at least two distinct CD4+ T cell mimetopes in each MHC class II haplotype, consistent with the induction of broad immunity. When we compared T cell immune responses generated after targeting DCs with LmSTI1a or other L. major antigens, including LACK (Leishmania receptor for activated C kinase) and LeIF (Leishmania eukaryotic ribosomal elongation and initiation factor 4a), we found that LmSTI1a was superior for generation of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, which correlated with higher protection of susceptible Balb/c mice to a challenge with L. major. For the first time, this study demonstrates the potential of a DC-targeted vaccine as a novel approach for cutaneous leishmaniasis, an increasing public health concern that has no currently available effective treatment.
Dendritic cells present exogenous proteins to MHC class I restricted CD8+ T cells. This function does not require endogenous antigen synthesis within DC, providing the potential to elicit CD8+ T cell responses to immune complexes, inactivated microbes, dying cells and proteins like ovalbumin. In mice, the CD8+ or DEC-205+ DC are specialized for cross-presentation, and this subset can be increased 10 fold in numbers following Flt3L treatment in vivo. Therefore we studied cross-presentation by abundant Flt3L DC using HIV gag protein. When enriched by positive selection with anti-CD11c beads, cells from Flt3L mice are not only more abundant but are more highly enriched in CD11c high DC, particularly the DEC-205+ subset. DC cross-present HIV gag to primed CD8+ T cells, but when the antigen is delivered within an antibody to DEC-205 receptor, cross-presentation becomes 100 fold more efficient than non-targeted antigen. This finding requires gag to be engineered into anti-DEC antibody, not just mixed with antibody. Flt3L DC are a valuable tool to study cross-presentation, since their use overcomes the obstacle posed by the low number of cross-presenting DC in the steady state. These findings support future experiments to use Flt3L to enhance presentation of DC-targeted vaccines.
DC; Flt3L; poly IC
DEC205/CD205 is a C-type multilectin receptor, expressed highly in dendritic cells (DCs). Previous efforts to generate anti-human DEC205 (anti-hDEC205) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from mice immunized with subdomain proteins of hDEC205 resulted in a few mAbs. Recently, we expressed and utilized a full-length extracellular domain protein of hDEC205 to successfully generate 5 strong anti-hDEC205 mAbs from mice. In this study, DEC205 knockout (KO) mice were immunized with this full-length extracellular domain protein of hDEC205. One of the 3 immunized DEC205 KO mice was chosen for the highest anti-hDEC205 titer by flow cytometric analysis of serum samples on CHO cells stably expressing hDEC205 (CHO/hDEC205 cells) and used for hybridoma fusion. From a single fusion, more than 400 anti-hDEC205 hybridomas were identified by flow cytometric screen with CHO/hDEC205 cells, and a total of 115 hybridomas secreting strong anti-hDEC205 mAb were saved and named HD1 through HD115. To characterize in detail, 10 HD mAbs were chosen for superior anti-hDEC205 reactivity and further subjected to cloning and purification. Interestingly, out of those 10 chosen anti-hDEC205 HD mAbs, 5 mAbs were also strongly reactive to mouse DEC205 while 8 mAbs were found to stain DEC205+ DCs on monkey spleen sections. In addition, we also identified that HD83, one of the 10 chosen HD mAbs, stains DEC205+ DCs in rat spleen and lymph node. Therefore, by immunizing DEC205 KO mice with a full-length extracellular domain protein of hDEC205, we generated a large number of strong anti-hDEC205 mAbs many of which are cross-species reactive and able to visualize DEC205+ DCs in lymphoid tissues of other mammals.
Monoclonal Antibody; Conserved Epitope; CD205; DEC205; Dendritic Cells
Current vaccines primarily work by inducing protective antibodies. However, in many infections like HIV, malaria and tuberculosis as well as cancers there remains a need for durable and protective T-cell immunity. Here, we summarize our efforts to develop a safe T-cell based protein vaccine that exploits the pivotal role of dendritic cells (DC) in initiating adaptive immunity. Focusing on HIV, gag-p24 protein antigen is introduced into a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that efficiently and specifically targets the DEC-205 antigen uptake receptor on DC. When administered together with synthetic double stranded RNA, polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly IC) or its analogue poly ICLC (poly IC stabilized with carboxymethylcellulose and poly-L-lysine), as adjuvant, HIV gag-p24 within anti-DEC-205 mAb is highly immunogenic in mice, rhesus macaques, and in ongoing research, healthy human volunteers. Human subjects form both T and B cell responses to DC-targeted protein. Thus, DC-targeted protein vaccines are a potential new vaccine platform, either alone or in combination with highly attenuated viral vectors, to induce integrated immune responses against microbial or cancer antigens, with improved ease of manufacturing and clinical use.
dendritic cells; protein vaccine; adjuvant; T cells; DEC-205; cross-presentation
Members of the Trem receptor family (Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells) fine-tune inflammatory responses. We previously identified one of these receptors, called Trem-like 4 (Treml4), expressed mainly in the spleen, and at high levels by CD8α+ DCs and macrophages. Like other Trem family members, Treml4 has an immunoglobulin-like extracellular domain and a short cytoplasmic tail that associates with the adaptor DAP12. To follow our initial results that Treml4-Fc fusion proteins bind necrotic cells, we now generated a knock out mouse to assess the role of Treml4 in the uptake and presentation of dying cells in vivo. Loss of Treml4 expression did not impair uptake of dying cells by CD8α+ DCs or cross-presentation of cell-associated antigen to CD8+ T cells, suggesting overlapping function between Treml4 and other receptors in vivo. To further investigate Treml4 function, we took advantage of a newly generated mAb against Treml4, and engineered its heavy chain to express 3 different antigens, i.e., ovalbumin, HIV GAGp24 and the extracellular domain of the breast cancer protein HER2. Ovalbumin directed to Treml4 was efficiently presented to CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in vivo. Anti-Treml4-GAGp24 mAbs, given along with a maturation stimulus, induced Th1 antigen-specific responses which were not observed in Treml4 knock out mice. Also, HER2 targeting using anti-Treml4 mAbs elicited combined CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immunity, and both T cells participated in resistance to a transplantable tumor. Therefore, Treml4 participates in antigen presentation in vivo, and targeting antigens with anti-Treml4 antibodies enhances immunization of otherwise naïve mice.
Dendritic cells; Monocytes/Macrophages; Antibodies; Antigen presentation
Harnessing DCs for immunotherapies in vivo requires the elucidation of the physiological role of distinct DC populations. Migratory DCs traffic from peripheral tissues to draining lymph nodes charged with tissue self antigens. We hypothesized that these DC populations have a specialized role in the maintenance of peripheral tolerance, specifically, to generate suppressive Foxp3+ Tregs. To examine the differential capacity of migratory DCs versus blood-derived lymphoid-resident DCs for Treg generation in vivo, we targeted a self antigen, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, using antibodies against cell surface receptors differentially expressed in these DC populations. Using this approach together with mouse models that lack specific DC populations, we found that migratory DCs have a superior ability to generate Tregs in vivo, which in turn drastically improve the outcome of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These results provide a rationale for the development of novel therapies targeting migratory DCs for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
Protein-based vaccines offer safety and cost advantages but require adjuvants to induce immunity. Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA) is a new synthetic non-toxic analogue of lipopolysaccharide. In mice, in comparison to non-formulated LPS and another analog Monophosphoryl Lipid A, formulated GLA induced higher antibody titers and generated Type 1 T cell responses to HIV gag-p24 protein in spleen and lymph nodes, which was dependent on TLR4 expression. Immunization was greatly improved by targeting HIV gag p24 to dendritic cells (DCs) within anti-DEC antibody, a DC receptor for antigen uptake and processing. Subcutaneous immunization induced antigen-specific T cell responses in the intestinal lamina propria. Immunity did not develop in mice transiently depleted of DCs. To understand how GLA works, we studied DCs directly from the vaccinated mice. Within 4 hrs, GLA caused DCs in vivo to upregulate CD86 and CD40 and produce cytokines including IL-12p70. Importantly, DCs removed from mice 4 hrs after vaccination became immunogenic, capable of inducing T cell immunity upon injection into naïve mice. These data indicate that a synthetic and clinically feasible TLR4 agonist rapidly stimulates full maturation of DCs in vivo and this allows for adaptive immunity to develop many weeks to months later.
Adjuvants; Vaccination; Dendritic cells; mucosal immunity; Innate Immunity
Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) molecules are expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells and display short bound peptide fragments derived from self and nonself antigens. These peptide-MHC complexes function to maintain immunological tolerance in the case of self antigens and initiate the CD4+ T cell response in the case of foreign proteins. Here we report the application of LC-MS/MS analysis to identify MHC II peptides derived from endogenous proteins expressed in freshly isolated murine splenic DCs. The cell number was enriched in vivo upon treatment with Flt3L-B16 melanoma cells. In a typical experiment, starting with about 5× 108 splenic DCs, we were able to reliably identify a repertoire of over 100 MHC II peptides originating from about 55 proteins localized in membrane (23%), intracellular (26%), endo-lysosomal (12%), nuclear (14%) and extracellular (25%) compartments. Using synthetic isotopically labeled peptides corresponding to the sequences of representative bound MHC II peptides, we quantified by LC-MS relative peptide abundance. In a single experiment, peptides were detected in a wide concentration range spanning from 2.5 fmol/μL to 12 pmol/μL or from approximately 13 copies to 2×105 copies per DC. These peptides were found in similar amounts on B cells where we detected about 80 peptides originating from 55 proteins distributed homogenously within the same cellular compartments as in DCs. About 90 different binding motifs predicted by the epitope prediction algorithm were found within the sequences of the identified MHC II peptides. These results set a foundation for future studies to quantitatively investigate the MHC II repertoire on DCs generated under different immunization conditions.
Endogenous peptides; MHC; DCs; Flt3L; LC-MS/MS; AQUA analysis; isotopically labeled peptides
In the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes, the immune system recognizes many autoantigens expressed in pancreatic islet β cells. To silence autoimmunity, we used dendritic cells (DCs) from NOD mice to expand CD25+ CD4+ suppressor T cells from BDC2.5 mice, which are specific for a single islet autoantigen. The expanded T cells were more suppressive in vitro than their freshly isolated counterparts, indicating that DCs from autoimmune mice can increase the number and function of antigen-specific, CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells. Importantly, only 5,000 expanded CD25+ CD4+ BDC2.5 T cells could block autoimmunity caused by diabetogenic T cells in NOD mice, whereas 105 polyclonal, CD25+ CD4+ T cells from NOD mice were inactive. When islets were examined in treated mice, insulitis development was blocked at early (3 wk) but not later (11 wk) time points. The expanded CD25+ CD4+ BDC2.5 T cells were effective even if administered 14 d after the diabetogenic T cells. Our data indicate that DCs can generate CD25+ CD4+ T cells that suppress autoimmune disease in vivo. This might be harnessed as a new avenue for immunotherapy, especially because CD25+ CD4+ regulatory cells responsive to a single autoantigen can inhibit diabetes mediated by reactivity to multiple antigens.
insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus; dendritic cells; CD25+ CD4+ regulatory; T cells; BDC2.5; autoimmunity
An important pathway for immune tolerance is provided by thymic-derived CD25+ CD4+ T cells that suppress other CD25− autoimmune disease–inducing T cells. The antigen-presenting cell (APC) requirements for the control of CD25+ CD4+ suppressor T cells remain to be identified, hampering their study in experimental and clinical situations. CD25+ CD4+ T cells are classically anergic, unable to proliferate in response to mitogenic antibodies to the T cell receptor complex. We now find that CD25+ CD4+ T cells can proliferate in the absence of added cytokines in culture and in vivo when stimulated by antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs), especially mature DCs. With high doses of DCs in culture, CD25+ CD4+ and CD25− CD4+ populations initially proliferate to a comparable extent. With current methods, one third of the antigen-reactive T cell receptor transgenic T cells enter into cycle for an average of three divisions in 3 d. The expansion of CD25+ CD4+ T cells stops by day 5, in the absence or presence of exogenous interleukin (IL)-2, whereas CD25− CD4+ T cells continue to grow. CD25+ CD4+ T cell growth requires DC–T cell contact and is partially dependent upon the production of small amounts of IL-2 by the T cells and B7 costimulation by the DCs. After antigen-specific expansion, the CD25+ CD4+ T cells retain their known surface features and actively suppress CD25− CD4+ T cell proliferation to splenic APCs. DCs also can expand CD25+ CD4+ T cells in the absence of specific antigen but in the presence of exogenous IL-2. In vivo, both steady state and mature antigen-processing DCs induce proliferation of adoptively transferred CD25+ CD4+ T cells. The capacity to expand CD25+ CD4+ T cells provides DCs with an additional mechanism to regulate autoimmunity and other immune responses.
dendritic cells; CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells; anergy; IL-2; CD86
The maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) allows these antigen-presenting cells to initiate immunity. We pursued this concept in situ by studying the adjuvant action of α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) in mice. A single i.v. injection of glycolipid induced the full maturation of splenic DCs, beginning within 4 h. Maturation was manifest by marked increases in costimulator and major histocompatibility complex class II expression, interferon (IFN)-γ production, and stimulation of the mixed leukocyte reaction. These changes were not induced directly by αGalCer but required natural killer T (NKT) cells acting independently of the MyD88 adaptor protein. To establish that DC maturation was responsible for the adjuvant role of αGalCer, mice were given αGalCer together with soluble or cell-associated ovalbumin antigen. Th1 type CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses developed, and the mice became resistant to challenge with ovalbumin-expressing tumor. DCs from mice given ovalbumin plus adjuvant, but not the non-DCs, stimulated ovalbumin-specific proliferative responses and importantly, induced antigen-specific, IFN-γ producing, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells upon transfer into naive animals. In the latter instance, immune priming did not require further exposure to ovalbumin, αGalCer, NKT, or NK cells. Therefore a single dose of αGalCer i.v. rapidly stimulates the full maturation of DCs in situ, and this accounts for the induction of combined Th1 CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immunity to a coadministered protein.
α-galactosylceramide; dendritic cell maturation; dendritic cells; exogenous pathway; T cell–mediated immunity
T lymphocytes recirculate continually through the T cell areas of peripheral lymph nodes. During each passage, the T cells survey the surface of large dendritic cells (DCs), also known as interdigitating cells. However, these DCs have been difficult to release from the lymph node. By emphasizing the use of calcium-free media, as shown by Vremec et al. (Vremec, D., M. Zorbas, R. Scollay, D.J. Saunders, C.F. Ardavin, L. Wu, and K. Shortman. 1992. J. Exp. Med. 176:47–58.), we have been able to release and enrich DCs from the T cell areas. The DCs express the CD11c leukocyte integrin, the DEC-205 multilectin receptor for antigen presentation, the intracellular granule antigens which are recognized by monoclonal antibodies M342, 2A1, and MIDC-8, very high levels of MHC I and MHC II, and abundant accessory molecules such as CD40, CD54, and CD86. When examined with the Y-Ae monoclonal which recognizes complexes formed between I-Ab and a peptide derived from I-Eα, the T cell area DCs expressed the highest levels. The enriched DCs also stimulated a T-T hybridoma specific for this MHC II–peptide complex, and the hybridoma underwent apoptosis. Therefore DCs within the T cell areas can be isolated. Because they present very high levels of self peptides, these DCs should be considered in the regulation of self reactivity in the periphery.
Given their relative simplicity of manufacture and ability to be injected repeatedly, vaccines in a protein format are attractive for breast and other cancers. However, soluble human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)/neu protein as a vaccine has not been immunogenic. When protein is directly targeted to antigen uptake receptors, such as DEC205 (DEC), efficient processing and presentation of antigen take place. The aim of this study was to determine the immunogenicity of a HER2 protein vaccine that directly targets to DEC+ dendritic cells (DCs) in a mouse breast cancer model.
We genetically engineered the HER2 extracellular domain into a monoclonal antibody specific for DEC (DEC-HER2). Mice of various genetic backgrounds were immunized with DEC-HER2 in combination with DC maturation stimuli (poly IC ± CD40 Ab). Vaccine-induced T cell immunity was determined by analyzing the ability of CD4+/CD8+ T cell to produce interferon (IFN)-gamma and proliferate upon antigen rechallenge. Sera were assessed for the presence of antigen specific antibody (Ab). For vaccine efficacy, FVB/N mice were immunized with DEC-HER2 in combination with poly IC and protection against neu-expressing mammary tumors was assessed. Protection mechanisms and tumor-specific T cell responses were also evaluated.
We demonstrate that DEC-HER2 fusion mAb, but not Ctrl Ig-HER2, elicits strong, broad and multifunctional CD4+ T cell immunity, CD8+ T cell responses, and humoral immunity specific for HER2 antigen. Cross-reactivity to rat neu protein was also observed. Importantly, mice xeno-primed with DEC-HER2 were protected from a neu-expressing mammary tumor challenge. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells mediated the tumor protection. Robust anti-tumor T cell immunity was detected in tumor protected mice.
Immunization of mice with HER2 protein vaccine targeting DEC+ DCs in vivo induced high levels of T- and B-cell immunity. Non-targeted HER2 protein was poorly immunogenic for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This vaccination approach provided long-term survival benefit for mice challenged with neu-expressing tumor following as little as 2.7 μg of HER2 protein incorporated in the vaccine. Vaccine-induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were both essential for tumor protection. This immunization strategy demonstrates great potential towards the development of vaccines for breast cancer patients.
As shown by analyses of morphology, gene expression, antigen-presenting function, and Flt3 dependence, the steady-state mouse brain contains a population of DCs that exhibits similarities to splenic DCs and differences from microglia.
Antigen-presenting cells in the disease-free brain have been identified primarily by expression of antigens such as CD11b, CD11c, and MHC II, which can be shared by dendritic cells (DCs), microglia, and monocytes. In this study, starting with the criterion of Flt3 (FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase 3)-dependent development, we characterize the features of authentic DCs within the meninges and choroid plexus in healthy mouse brains. Analyses of morphology, gene expression, and antigen-presenting function established a close relationship between meningeal and choroid plexus DCs (m/chDCs) and spleen DCs. DCs in both sites shared an intrinsic requirement for Flt3 ligand. Microarrays revealed differences in expression of transcripts encoding surface molecules, transcription factors, pattern recognition receptors, and other genes in m/chDCs compared with monocytes and microglia. Migrating pre-DC progenitors from bone marrow gave rise to m/chDCs that had a 5–7-d half-life. In contrast to microglia, DCs actively present self-antigens and stimulate T cells. Therefore, the meninges and choroid plexus of a steady-state brain contain DCs that derive from local precursors and exhibit a differentiation and antigen-presenting program similar to spleen DCs and distinct from microglia.
Dendritic cells (DCs), critical antigen presenting cells for immune control, normally derive from bone marrow precursors distinct from monocytes. It is not yet established if the large reservoir of monocytes can develop into cells with critical features of DCs in vivo. We now show that fully differentiated Mo-DCs develop in mice and DC-SIGN/CD209a marks the cells. Mo-DCs are recruited from blood monocytes into lymph nodes by lipopolysaccharide and live or dead gram negative bacteria. Mobilization requires TLR4 and its CD14 coreceptor and Trif. When tested for antigen presenting function, Mo-DCs are as active as classical DCs, including cross presentation of proteins and live gram negative bacteria on MHC I in vivo. Fully differentiated Mo-DCs acquire DC morphology and localize to T cell areas via L-selectin and CCR7. Thus the blood monocyte reservoir becomes the dominant presenting cell in response to select microbes, yielding DC-SIGN+ cells with critical functions of DCs.
Development of a fully effective vaccine against the pre-erythrocytic stage of malaria infection will likely require induction of both humoral and cellular immune responses. Protein based vaccines can elicit such broad-based immunity depending on the adjuvant and how the protein is formulated. Here to assess these variables, non-human primates (NHP) were immunized three times with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) circumsporozoite protein (CSP) or CSP cloned into MG38, a monoclonal antibody that targets DEC-205 (αDEC-CSP), an endocytic receptor on dendritic cells (DCs). Both vaccines were administered with or without poly(I:C) as adjuvant. Following three immunizations, the magnitude and quality of cytokine secreting CD4+ T cells were comparable between CSP + poly(I:C) and αDEC-CSP + poly(I:C) groups with both regimens eliciting multi-functional cytokine responses. However, NHP immunized with CSP + poly(I:C) had significantly higher serum titers of CSP-specific IgG antibodies and indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) titers against Pf sporozoites. Furthermore, sera from both CSP or αDEC-CSP + poly(I:C) immunized animals limited sporozoite invasion of a hepatocyte cell line (HC04) in vitro. To determine whether CSP-specific responses could be enhanced, all NHP primed with CSP or αDEC-CSP + poly(I:C) were boosted with a single dose of 150,000 irradiated Pf sporozoites (PfSPZ) intravenously. Remarkably, boosting had no effect on the CSP-specific immunity. Finally, immunization with CSP + poly-ICLC reduced malaria parasite burden in the liver in an experimental mouse model. Taken together, these data showing that poly(I:C) is an effective adjuvant for inducing potent antibody and Th1 immunity with CSP based vaccines offers a potential alternative to the existing protein based pre-erythrocytic vaccines.
Pre-erythrocytic vaccines; Poly(I:C); Circumsporozoite protein (CSP)
Viral vaccine vectors have emerged as an attractive strategy for the development of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) stands out as a vaccine vector since it has a proven safety profile in humans, it is a potent inducer of both alpha interferon (IFN-α) and IFN-β) production, and it is a potent inducer of dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Our group has previously generated an rNDV vector expressing a codon-optimized HIV Gag protein and demonstrated its ability to induce a Gag-specific CD8+ T cell response in mice. In this report we demonstrate that the Gag-specific immune response can be further enhanced by the targeting of the rNDV-encoded HIV Gag antigen to DCs. Targeting of the HIV Gag antigen was achieved by the addition of a single-chain Fv (scFv) antibody specific for the DC-restricted antigen uptake receptor DEC205 such that the DEC205 scFv-Gag molecule was encoded for expression as a fusion protein. The vaccination of mice with rNDV coding for the DC-targeted Gag antigen induced an enhanced Gag-specific CD8+ T cell response and enhanced numbers of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in the spleen relative to vaccination with rNDV coding for a nontargeted Gag antigen. Importantly, mice vaccinated with the DEC205-targeted vaccine were better protected from challenge with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the HIV Gag protein. Here we demonstrate that the targeting of the HIV Gag antigen to DCs via the DEC205 receptor enhances the ability of an rNDV vector to induce a potent antigen-specific immune response.
Mouse DC-SIGN CD209a is a type II transmembrane protein, one of a family of C-type lectin genes syntenic and homologous to human DC-SIGN. Current anti-mouse DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are unable to react with DC-SIGN in acetone fixed cells, limiting the chance to visualize DC-SIGN in tissue sections. We first produced rabbit polyclonal PAb-DSCYT14 against a 14-aa peptide in the cytosolic domain of mouse DC-SIGN, and it specifically detected DC-SIGN and not the related lectins, SIGN-R1 and SIGN-R3 expressed in transfected CHO cells. MAbs were generated by immunizing rats and DC-SIGN knockout mice with the extracellular region of mouse DC-SIGN.. Five rat IgG2a or IgM MAbs, named BMD10, 11, 24, 25, and 30, were selected and each MAb specifically detected DC-SIGN by FACS and Western blots, although BMD25 was cross-reactive to SIGN-R1. Two mouse IgG2c MAbs MMD2 and MMD3 interestingly bound mouse DC-SIGN but at 10 fold higher levels than the rat MAbs. When the binding epitopes of the new BMD and two other commercial rat anti-DC-SIGN MAbs, 5H10 and LWC06, were examined by competition assays, the epitopes of BMD11, 24, and LWC06 were identical or closely overlapping while BMD10, 30, and 5H10 were shown to bind different epitopes. MMD2 and MMD3 epitopes were on a 3rd noncompeting region of mouse DC-SIGN. DC-SIGN expressed on the cell surface was sensitive to collagenase treatment, as monitored by polyclonal and MAb. These new reagents should be helpful to probe the biology of DC-SIGN in vivo.
Monoclonal Antibody; Polyclonal Antibody; DC-SIGN; CD209a; Dendritic Cells
Antigen-presenting cells can capture antigens that are deposited in the skin, including vaccines given subcutaneously. These include different dendritic cells (DC) such as epidermal Langerhans cells (LC), dermal DC and dermal langerin+ DC.
To evaluate access of dermal antigens to skin DC, we used mAb to two C-type lectin endocytic receptors, DEC-205/CD205 and langerin/CD207. When applied to murine and human skin explant cultures, these mAb were efficiently taken up by epidermal LC. Additionally, anti-DEC-205 targeted langerin+ CD103+ and langerin− CD103− mouse dermal DC. Unexpectedly, intradermal injection of either mAb, but not isotype control, resulted in strong and rapid labelling of LC in situ, implying that large molecules can diffuse through the basement membrane into the epidermis. Epidermal LC targeted in vivo by ovalbumin-coupled anti-DEC-205 potently presented antigen to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Thus, epidermal LC play a major role in uptake of lectin-binding ligands under standard vaccination conditions.
Skin; Dendritic Cells; Langerhans Cells; Langerin; Vaccination
Vaccinations in medicine are commonly administered through the skin. Therefore, the vaccine is immunologically processed by antigen-presenting cells of the skin. There is recent evidence that the clinically less often used intradermal route is effective; in cases even superior to the conventional subcutaneous or intramuscular route. Professional antigen-presenting cells of the skin comprise epidermal Langerhans cells (CD207/langerin+), dermal langerin− and dermal langerin+ dendritic cells (DCs). In human skin, langerin− dermal DCs can be further subdivided on the basis of their reciprocal CD1a and CD14 expression. The relative contributions of these subsets to the generation of immunity or tolerance are still unclear. Langerhans cells in human skin seem to be specialized for induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Likewise, mouse Langerhans cells are capable of cross-presentation and of protecting against experimental tumours. It is desirable to harness these properties for immunotherapy. A promising strategy to dramatically improve the outcome of vaccinations is ‘antigen targeting’. Thereby, the vaccine is delivered directly and selectively to defined types of skin DCs. Targeting is achieved by means of coupling antigen to antibodies that recognize cell surface receptors on DCs. This approach is being widely explored. Little is known, however, about the events that take place in the skin and the DCs subsets involved therein. This topic will be discussed in this article.
antigen targeting; dendritic cells; immunogenicity; Langerhans cells; langerin/CD207; vaccine