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1.  Gene-expression profiling of buccal epithelium among non-smoking women exposed to household air pollution from smoky coal 
Carcinogenesis  2015;36(12):1494-1501.
Summary
Buccal epithelial gene-expression reflects the physiological host response to household air pollution (HAP) from smoky versus smokeless coal. These transcriptional changes highlight coal type as an important determinant in shaping the relationship between HAP exposure and lung cancer risk.
In China’s rural counties of Xuanwei and Fuyuan, lung cancer rates are among the highest in the world. While the elevated disease risk in this population has been linked to the usage of smoky (bituminous) coal as compared to smokeless (anthracite) coal, the underlying molecular changes associated with this exposure remains unclear. To understand the physiologic effects of smoky coal exposure, we analyzed the genome-wide gene-expression profiles in buccal epithelial cells collected from healthy, non-smoking female residents of Xuanwei and Fuyuan who burn smoky (n = 26) and smokeless (n = 9) coal. Gene-expression was profiled via microarrays, and changes associated with coal type were correlated to household levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Expression levels of 282 genes were altered with smoky versus smokeless coal exposure (P < 0.005), including the 2-fold increase of proinflammatory IL8 and decrease of proapoptotic CASP3. This signature was more correlated with carcinogenic PAHs (e.g. Benzo[a]pyrene; r = 0.41) than with non-carcinogenic PAHs (e.g. Fluorene; r = 0.08) or PM2.5 (r = 0.05). Genes altered with smoky coal exposure were concordantly enriched with tobacco exposure in previously profiled buccal biopsies of smokers and non-smokers (GSEA, q < 0.05). This is the first study to identify a signature of buccal epithelial gene-expression that is associated with smoky coal exposure, which in part is similar to the molecular response to tobacco smoke, thereby lending biologic plausibility to prior epidemiological studies that have linked this exposure to lung cancer risk.
doi:10.1093/carcin/bgv150
PMCID: PMC4675833  PMID: 26468118
2.  Defining the Nasal Transcriptome in Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis 
Objectives
To determine whether disease processes related to granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) are reflected in gene expression profiles of nasal mucosa.
Methods
Nasal brushings of the inferior turbinate were obtained from 32 patients with GPA (10 with active nasal disease, 13 with prior nasal disease, 9 with no history of nasal disease) and a composite comparator group with and without inflammatory nasal disease (12 healthy people, 15 with sarcoidosis, 8 with allergic rhinitis). Differential gene expression was assessed between subgroups of GPA and comparators.
Results
339 genes were differentially expressed between the GPA and comparator groups (absolute fold change > 1.5; false discovery rate < 0.05). Top canonical pathways upregulated in nasal brushings from patients with GPA include granulocyte adhesion and diapedesis (p=8.6 E-22), agranulocyte adhesion and diapedesis (p=1.3 E-14), interleukin 10 signaling (3.0 E-11), and TREM1 signaling (9.0 E-11). A set of genes differentially expressed in GPA independent of nasal disease activity status included genes related to epithelial barrier integrity (fibronectin 1, desmosomal proteins) and several matricellular proteins (e.g. osteonectin, osteopontin). Significant overlap of differentially expressed genes was observed between active and prior nasal disease GPA subgroups. Peripheral blood neutrophil and mononuclear gene expression levels associated with GPA were similarly altered in the nasal gene expression profiles of patients with active or prior nasal disease.
Conclusions
Profiling the nasal transcriptome in GPA reveals gene expression signatures related to innate immunity, inflammatory cell chemotaxis, extracellular matrix composition, and epithelial barrier integrity. Airway-based expression profiling is feasible and informative in GPA.
doi:10.1002/art.39185
PMCID: PMC4519398  PMID: 25939343
vasculitis; granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA Wegener’s); gene expression; ANCA-associated vasculitis; nasal mucosa
3.  Asthma–COPD Overlap. Clinical Relevance of Genomic Signatures of Type 2 Inflammation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 
Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease and likely includes a subgroup that is biologically comparable to asthma. Studying asthma-associated gene expression changes in COPD could add insight into COPD pathogenesis and reveal biomarkers that predict a favorable response to corticosteroids.
Objectives: To determine whether asthma-associated gene signatures are increased in COPD and associated with asthma-related features.
Methods: We compared disease-associated airway epithelial gene expression alterations in an asthma cohort (n = 105) and two COPD cohorts (n = 237, 171). The T helper type 2 (Th2) signature (T2S) score, a gene expression metric induced in Th2-high asthma, was evaluated in these COPD cohorts. The T2S score was correlated with asthma-related features and response to corticosteroids in COPD in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, the Groningen and Leiden Universities study of Corticosteroids in Obstructive Lung Disease (GLUCOLD; n = 89).
Measurements and Main Results: The 200 genes most differentially expressed in asthma versus healthy control subjects were enriched among genes associated with more severe airflow obstruction in these COPD cohorts (P < 0.001), suggesting significant gene expression overlap. A higher T2S score was associated with decreased lung function (P < 0.001), but not asthma history, in both COPD cohorts. Higher T2S scores correlated with increased airway wall eosinophil counts (P = 0.003), blood eosinophil percentage (P = 0.03), bronchodilator reversibility (P = 0.01), and improvement in hyperinflation after corticosteroid treatment (P = 0.019) in GLUCOLD.
Conclusions: These data identify airway gene expression alterations that can co-occur in asthma and COPD. The association of the T2S score with increased severity and “asthma-like” features (including a favorable corticosteroid response) in COPD suggests that Th2 inflammation is important in a COPD subset that cannot be identified by clinical history of asthma.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201408-1458OC
PMCID: PMC4407484  PMID: 25611785
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; gene expression profiling; biological markers
4.  DNA Methylation Is Globally Disrupted and Associated with Expression Changes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Small Airways 
DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is highly disrupted in response to cigarette smoke and involved in a wide spectrum of malignant and nonmalignant diseases, but surprisingly not previously assessed in small airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Small airways are the primary sites of airflow obstruction in COPD. We sought to determine whether DNA methylation patterns are disrupted in small airway epithelia of patients with COPD, and evaluate whether changes in gene expression are associated with these disruptions. Genome-wide methylation and gene expression analysis were performed on small airway epithelial DNA and RNA obtained from the same patient during bronchoscopy, using Illumina’s Infinium HM27 and Affymetrix’s Genechip Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays. To control for known effects of cigarette smoking on DNA methylation, methylation and gene expression profiles were compared between former smokers with and without COPD matched for age, pack-years, and years of smoking cessation. Our results indicate that aberrant DNA methylation is (1) a genome-wide phenomenon in small airways of patients with COPD, and (2) associated with altered expression of genes and pathways important to COPD, such as the NF-E2–related factor 2 oxidative response pathway. DNA methylation is likely an important mechanism contributing to modulation of genes important to COPD pathology. Because these methylation events may underlie disease-specific gene expression changes, their characterization is a critical first step toward the development of epigenetic markers and an opportunity for developing novel epigenetic therapeutic interventions for COPD.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2013-0304OC
PMCID: PMC4068945  PMID: 24298892
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; small airways; epigenetic regulation; DNA methylation; integrative omics
5.  Personalized Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease via Transcriptomic Profiling of the Airway and Lung 
Annals of the American Thoracic Society  2013;10(Suppl):S190-S196.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a clinically heterogeneous disease composed of variable degrees of airflow obstruction, emphysematous destruction, and small airway wall thickening. The natural history of this disease, although generally characterized by continued decline in lung function, is also highly variable. Novel transcriptomic approaches to study the airway and lung tissue in COPD hold the potential to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying this heterogeneity and identify molecular subtypes of disease that have similar clinical manifestations. This new understanding can be leveraged to develop targeted COPD therapies and ultimately personalize treatment of COPD based on each patient’s specific molecular subphenotype.
doi:10.1513/AnnalsATS.201306-190AW
PMCID: PMC3960986  PMID: 24313772
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; airway gene expression; bioinformatics; class discovery; drug discovery
6.  A prediction model for lung cancer diagnosis that integrates genomic and clinical features 
Background
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, in part due to lack of early diagnostic tools. Bronchoscopy represents a relatively noninvasive initial diagnostic test in smokers with suspect disease, but has low sensitivity. We have reported a gene expression profile in cytologically normal large airway epithelium obtained via bronchoscopic brushings that is a sensitive and specific biomarker for lung cancer. Here, we evaluate the independence of the biomarker from other clinical risk factors and determine the performance of a clinicogenomic model that combines clinical factors and gene expression.
Methods
Training (n = 76) and test sets (n = 62) consisted of smokers undergoing bronchoscopy for suspicion of lung cancer at five medical centers. Logistic regression models describing the likelihood of having lung cancer using the biomarker, clinical factors, and these data combined were tested using the independent set of patients with non-diagnostic bronchoscopies. The model predictions were also compared with physicians’ clinical assessment.
Results
The gene expression biomarker is associated with cancer status in the combined clinicogenomic model (p < 0.005). There is a significant difference in performance of the clinicogenomic relative to the clinical model (p < 0.05). In the test set, the clinicogenomic model increases sensitivity and NPV to 100%, and results in higher specificity (91%) and PPV (81%) compared to other models. The clinicogenomic model has high accuracy where physician assessment is most uncertain.
Conclusions
The airway gene expression biomarker provides information about the likelihood of lung cancer not captured by clinical factors, and the clinicogenomic model has the highest prediction accuracy. These findings suggest that use of the clinicogenomic model may expedite more invasive testing and definitive therapy for smokers with lung cancer and reduce invasive diagnostic procedures for individuals without lung cancer.
doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-08-0011
PMCID: PMC4167688  PMID: 19138936
7.  Updates and Controversies in the Rapidly Evolving Field of Lung Cancer Screening, Early Detection, and Chemoprevention 
Cancers  2014;6(2):1157-1179.
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Cigarette smoking is a well-recognized risk factor for lung cancer, and a sustained elevation of lung cancer risk persists even after smoking cessation. Despite identifiable risk factors, there has been minimal improvement in mortality for patients with lung cancer primarily stemming from diagnosis at a late stage when there are few effective therapeutic options. Early detection of lung cancer and effective screening of high-risk individuals may help improve lung cancer mortality. While low dose computerized tomography (LDCT) screening of high risk smokers has been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, the high rates of false positives and potential for over-diagnosis have raised questions on how to best implement lung cancer screening. The rapidly evolving field of lung cancer screening and early-detection biomarkers may ultimately improve the ability to diagnose lung cancer in its early stages, identify smokers at highest-risk for this disease, and target chemoprevention strategies. This review aims to provide an overview of the opportunities and challenges related to lung cancer screening, the field of biomarker development for early lung cancer detection, and the future of lung cancer chemoprevention.
doi:10.3390/cancers6021157
PMCID: PMC4074822  PMID: 24840047
lung cancer; screening; early detection; chemoprevention
8.  A Dynamic Bronchial Airway Gene Expression Signature of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Function Impairment 
Rationale: Molecular phenotyping of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been impeded in part by the difficulty in obtaining lung tissue samples from individuals with impaired lung function.
Objectives: We sought to determine whether COPD-associated processes are reflected in gene expression profiles of bronchial airway epithelial cells obtained by bronchoscopy.
Methods: Gene expression profiling of bronchial brushings obtained from 238 current and former smokers with and without COPD was performed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays.
Measurements and Main Results: We identified 98 genes whose expression levels were associated with COPD status, FEV1% predicted, and FEV1/FVC. In silico analysis identified activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) as a potential transcriptional regulator of genes with COPD-associated airway expression, and ATF4 overexpression in airway epithelial cells in vitro recapitulates COPD-associated gene expression changes. Genes with COPD-associated expression in the bronchial airway epithelium had similarly altered expression profiles in prior studies performed on small-airway epithelium and lung parenchyma, suggesting that transcriptomic alterations in the bronchial airway epithelium reflect molecular events found at more distal sites of disease activity. Many of the airway COPD-associated gene expression changes revert toward baseline after therapy with the inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone in independent cohorts.
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a molecular field of injury throughout the bronchial airway of active and former smokers with COPD that may be driven in part by ATF4 and is modifiable with therapy. Bronchial airway epithelium may ultimately serve as a relatively accessible tissue in which to measure biomarkers of disease activity for guiding clinical management of COPD.
doi:10.1164/rccm.201208-1449OC
PMCID: PMC3707363  PMID: 23471465
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; gene expression profiling; biologic markers
9.  Transcriptomic Studies of the Airway Field of Injury Associated with Smoking-Related Lung Disease 
The “field of injury” hypothesis proposes that exposure to an inhaled insult such as cigarette smoke elicits a common molecular response throughout the respiratory tract. This response can therefore be quantified in any airway tissue, including readily accessible epithelial cells in the bronchus, nose, and mouth. High-throughput technologies, such as whole-genome gene expression microarrays, can be employed to catalog the physiological consequences of such exposures in the airway epithelium. Pulmonary diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, and asthma are also thought to be associated with a field of injury, and in patients with these diseases, airway epithelial cells can be a useful surrogate for diseased tissue that is often difficult to obtain. Global measurement of mRNA and microRNA expression in these cells can provide useful information about the molecular pathogenesis of such diseases and may be useful for diagnosis and for predicting prognosis and response to therapy. In this review, our aim is to summarize the history and state of the art of such “transcriptomic” studies in the human airway epithelium, especially in smoking and smoking-related lung diseases, and to highlight future directions for this field.
doi:10.1513/pats.201011-066MS
PMCID: PMC3159071  PMID: 21543797
epithelium; lung neoplasms; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; asthma; tobacco
10.  Airway Gene Expression in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 
Although cigarette smoking is the major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), only a subset of smokers develops this disease. There is significant clinical, radiographic, and pathologic heterogeneity within smokers who develop COPD that likely reflects multiple molecular mechanisms of disease. It is possible that variations in the individual response to cigarette smoking form the basis for the distinct clinical and molecular phenotypes and variable natural history associated with COPD. Using the biologic premise of a molecular field of airway injury created by cigarette smoking, this response to tobacco exposure can be measured by molecular profiling of the airway epithelium. Noninvasive study of this field effect by profiling airway gene expression in patients with COPD holds important implications for our understanding of disease heterogeneity, early disease detection, and identification of novel disease-modifying therapies.
doi:10.1513/pats.200907-076DP
PMCID: PMC2797071  PMID: 20008878
airway gene expression; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; bioinformatics
11.  The Field of Tissue Injury in the Lung and Airway 
The concept of field cancerization was first introduced over six decades ago in the setting of oral cancer. Later, field cancerization involving histologic and molecular changes of neoplasms and adjacent tissue began to be characterized in smokers with or without lung cancer. Investigators also described a diffuse, non-neoplastic field of molecular injury throughout the respiratory tract that is attributable to cigarette smoking and susceptibility to smoking-induced lung disease. The potential molecular origins of field cancerization and the field of injury following cigarette smoke exposure in lung and airway epithelia are critical to understanding the impact of the field of injury on clinical diagnostics and therapeutics for smoking-induced lung disease.
doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-08-0174
PMCID: PMC2705781  PMID: 19138985
field of injury; field cancerization; lung cancer; tobacco smoke; molecular diagnosis and prognosis
12.  Comparison of Proteomic and Transcriptomic Profiles in the Bronchial Airway Epithelium of Current and Never Smokers 
PLoS ONE  2009;4(4):e5043.
Background
Although prior studies have demonstrated a smoking-induced field of molecular injury throughout the lung and airway, the impact of smoking on the airway epithelial proteome and its relationship to smoking-related changes in the airway transcriptome are unclear.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Airway epithelial cells were obtained from never (n = 5) and current (n = 5) smokers by brushing the mainstem bronchus. Proteins were separated by one dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-PAGE). After in-gel digestion, tryptic peptides were processed via liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and proteins identified. RNA from the same samples was hybridized to HG-U133A microarrays. Protein detection was compared to RNA expression in the current study and a previously published airway dataset. The functional properties of many of the 197 proteins detected in a majority of never smokers were similar to those observed in the never smoker airway transcriptome. LC-MS/MS identified 23 proteins that differed between never and current smokers. Western blotting confirmed the smoking-related changes of PLUNC, P4HB1, and uteroglobin protein levels. Many of the proteins differentially detected between never and current smokers were also altered at the level of gene expression in this cohort and the prior airway transcriptome study. There was a strong association between protein detection and expression of its corresponding transcript within the same sample, with 86% of the proteins detected by LC-MS/MS having a detectable corresponding probeset by microarray in the same sample. Forty-one proteins identified by LC-MS/MS lacked detectable expression of a corresponding transcript and were detected in ≤5% of airway samples from a previously published dataset.
Conclusions/Significance
1D-PAGE coupled with LC-MS/MS effectively profiled the airway epithelium proteome and identified proteins expressed at different levels as a result of cigarette smoke exposure. While there was a strong correlation between protein and transcript detection within the same sample, we also identified proteins whose corresponding transcripts were not detected by microarray. This noninvasive approach to proteomic profiling of airway epithelium may provide additional insights into the field of injury induced by tobacco exposure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005043
PMCID: PMC2664466  PMID: 19357784
13.  Smoking-induced gene expression changes in the bronchial airway are reflected in nasal and buccal epithelium 
BMC Genomics  2008;9:259.
Background
Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and a significant cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prior studies have demonstrated that smoking creates a field of molecular injury throughout the airway epithelium exposed to cigarette smoke. We have previously characterized gene expression in the bronchial epithelium of never smokers and identified the gene expression changes that occur in the mainstem bronchus in response to smoking. In this study, we explored relationships in whole-genome gene expression between extrathorcic (buccal and nasal) and intrathoracic (bronchial) epithelium in healthy current and never smokers.
Results
Using genes that have been previously defined as being expressed in the bronchial airway of never smokers (the "normal airway transcriptome"), we found that bronchial and nasal epithelium from non-smokers were most similar in gene expression when compared to other epithelial and nonepithelial tissues, with several antioxidant, detoxification, and structural genes being highly expressed in both the bronchus and nose. Principle component analysis of previously defined smoking-induced genes from the bronchus suggested that smoking had a similar effect on gene expression in nasal epithelium. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that this set of genes was also highly enriched among the genes most altered by smoking in both nasal and buccal epithelial samples. The expression of several detoxification genes was commonly altered by smoking in all three respiratory epithelial tissues, suggesting a common airway-wide response to tobacco exposure.
Conclusion
Our findings support a relationship between gene expression in extra- and intrathoracic airway epithelial cells and extend the concept of a smoking-induced field of injury to epithelial cells that line the mouth and nose. This relationship could potentially be utilized to develop a non-invasive biomarker for tobacco exposure as well as a non-invasive screening or diagnostic tool providing information about individual susceptibility to smoking-induced lung diseases.
doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-259
PMCID: PMC2435556  PMID: 18513428
14.  Airway gene expression in COPD is dynamic with inhaled corticosteroid treatment and reflects biological pathways associated with disease activity 
Thorax  2013;69(1):14-23.
Background
A core feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The recent Groningen and Leiden Universities study of Corticosteroids in Obstructive Lung Disease (GLUCOLD) study suggested that particular phenotypes of COPD benefit from fluticasone±salmeterol by reducing the rate of FEV1 decline, yet the underlying mechanisms are unknown.
Methods
Whole-genome gene expression profiling using the Affymetrix Gene ST array (V.1.0) was performed on 221 bronchial biopsies available from 89 COPD patients at baseline and after 6 and 30 months of fluticasone±salmeterol and placebo treatment in GLUCOLD.
Results
Linear mixed effects modelling revealed that the expression of 138 genes decreased, whereas the expression of 140 genes significantly upregulated after both 6 and 30 months of treatment with fluticasone±salmeterol versus placebo. A more pronounced treatment-induced change in the expression of 50 and 55 of these 278 genes was associated with a lower rate of decline in FEV1 and Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire, respectively. Genes decreasing with treatment were involved in pathways related to cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, epithelial cell signalling, p53 signalling and T cell signalling. Genes increasing with treatment were involved in pathways related to focal adhesion, gap junction and extracellular matrix deposition. Finally, the fluticasone-induced gene expression changes were enriched among genes that change in the airway epithelium in smokers with versus without COPD in an independent data set.
Conclusions
The present study suggests that gene expression in biological pathways of COPD is dynamic with treatment and reflects disease activity. This study opens the gate to targeted and molecular phenotype-driven therapy of COPD.
doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2012-202878
PMCID: PMC3888587  PMID: 23925644
COPD ÀÜ Mechanisms

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