At birth, there is a switch from placental to pulmonary circulation and the heart commences its aerobic metabolism. In cardiac myocytes, this transition is marked by increased mitochondrial biogenesis and remodeling of the intracellular architecture. The mechanisms governing the formation of new mitochondria and their expansion within myocytes remain largely unknown. Mitofusins (Mfn-1 and Mfn-2) are known regulators of mitochondrial networks but their role during perinatal maturation of the heart has yet to be examined.
Determine the significance of mitofusins, during early postnatal cardiac development.
Methods and Results
We genetically inactivated Mfn-1 and Mfn-2 in mid-gestational and postnatal cardiac myocytes using a loxP/Myh6-cre approach. At birth, cardiac morphology and function of double-knockout (DKO) mice are normal. At that time, DKO mitochondria increase in numbers, appear to be spherical and heterogeneous in size but exhibit normal electron-density. By postnatal day 7, the mitochondrial numbers in DKO myocytes remain abnormally expanded and many lose matrix components and membrane organization. In this context, DKO mice develop dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This leads to a rapid decline in survival and all DKO mice perish before 16 days of age. Gene expression analysis of DKO hearts shows that mitochondria biogenesis genes are down regulated, the mitochondrial DNA is reduced and so are mitochondrially-encoded transcripts and proteins. Furthermore, mitochondrial turnover pathways are dysregulated.
Our findings establish that Mfn-1 and Mfn-2 are essential in mediating mitochondrial remodeling during postnatal cardiac development, a time of dramatic transitions in the bioenergetics and growth of the heart.
Cardiac growth; mitochondria; biogenesis; mtDNA; p62
There is growing evidence suggesting that dietary fat intake affects the development and progression of heart failure. Studies in rodents show that in the absence of obesity replacing refined carbohydrate with fat can attenuate or prevent ventricular expansion and contractile dysfunction in response to hypertension, infarction or genetic cardiomyopathy. Relatively low intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine sources alters cardiac membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, decreases the onset of new heart failure, and slows the progression of established heart failure. This effect is associated with decreased inflammation and improved resistance to mitochondrial permeability transition. High intake of saturated, monounsaturated or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids has also shown beneficial effects in rodent studies. The underlying mechanisms are complex and a more thorough understanding is needed of the effects on cardiac phospholipids, lipid metabolites and metabolic flux in the normal and failing heart. In summary, manipulation of dietary fat intake shows promise in the prevention and treatment of heart failure. Clinical studies generally support high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine sources to prevent and treat heart failure. Additional clinical and animals studies are needed to determine the optimal diet in terms of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake for this vulnerable patient population.
Heart Failure; Lipids; Mitochondria; Nutrition; Polyunsaturated fatty acids
High sugar intake increases heart disease risk in humans. In animals, sugar intake accelerates heart failure development via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can fuel ROS production by providing NADPH for superoxide generation by NADPH oxidase. On the other hand, G6PD also facilitates ROS scavenging via the glutathione pathway. We hypothesized that high sugar intake would increase flux through G6PD to increase myocardial [NADPH] and ROS, and accelerate cardiac dysfunction and death.
Research Methods & Procedures
Six-week old TO-2 hamsters, a nonhypertensive model of genetic cardiomyopathy caused by a δ-sarcoglycan mutation, were fed a long-term diet of either high starch or high sugar (57% of energy from sucrose+fructose).
After 24 weeks, δ-sarcoglycan deficient animals displayed expected decreases in survival and cardiac function associated with cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction: control=68.7±4.5%; TO-2 starch=46.1±3.7, p<0.05 TO-2 starch vs control; TO-2 sugar=58.0±4.2%, N.S. vs TO-2 starch or control; median survival: TO-2 starch=278 days, TO-2 sugar=318 days, P=0.133). Although we expected high sugar intake to exacerbate cardiomyopathy, surprisingly there was no further decrease in ejection fraction or survival with high sugar compared to starch in cardiomyopathic animals. Cardiomyopathic animals had systemic and cardiac metabolic abnormalities (elevated serum lipids and glucose, and decreased myocardial oxidative enzymes) which were unaffected by diet. High sugar intake increased myocardial superoxide, but [NADPH] and lipid peroxidation were unaffected.
A sugar enriched diet did not exacerbate ventricular function, metabolic abnormalities, or survival in heart failure despite an increase in NADPH and superoxide production.
heart failure; reactive oxygen species; δ-sarcoglycan; diet; sugar; fructose; sucrose
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is an important regulator of cardiac metabolism, but it’s role is not clearly understood in pressure overload induced hypertrophy. In addition, the relationship between AMPK and other important protein kinases such as p38 MAP kinase, Akt and Pim-1 are unclear. Thus we studied the time course of AMPK activity and phosphorylation of its α-subunit during the development of cardiac hypertrophy. In parallel, we examined the expression and activation of key kinases known to be involved in cardiac hypertrophy that could interact with AMPK (i.e. p38 MAP kinase, Akt and Pim-1). Male C57BL/6J mice underwent sham or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery and the hearts were harvested 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks later. Despite significant left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV dilation and impaired LV contractile function at all time points in TAC compared to sham mice, the activity and phosphorylation of AMPK were similar to sham. In contrast, p38 and Pim-1 protein expression were transiently increased in TAC mice at 2 and 4 weeks and at 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. In addition, p38 activation by phosphorylation was also transiently increased at 2 to 6 weeks. There were no differences between sham and TAC mice in p38, Akt or Pim-1 at 8 weeks. In conclusion, TAC resulted in a transient upregulation in the expression of p38 and Pim-1 despite no activation of AMPK or Akt.
heart failure; hypertrophy; AMP activated protein kinase; p38 MAPK; Pim-1; Akt
The impact of a high-fat diet on the failing heart is unclear, and the differences between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and saturated fat have not been assessed. Here, we compared a standard low-fat diet to high-fat diets enriched with either saturated fat (palmitate and stearate) or PUFA (linoleic and α-linolenic acids) in hamsters with genetic cardiomyopathy.
Methods and results
Male δ-sarcoglycan null Bio TO2 hamsters were fed a standard low-fat diet (12% energy from fat), or high-fat diets (45% fat) comprised of either saturated fat or PUFA. The median survival was increased by the high saturated fat diet (P< 0.01; 278 days with standard diet and 361 days with high saturated fat)), but not with high PUFA (260 days) (n = 30–35/group). Body mass was modestly elevated (∼10%) in both high fat groups. Subgroups evaluated after 24 weeks had similar left ventricular chamber size, function, and mass. Mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activity and the yield of interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were decreased to a similar extent in all TO2 groups compared with normal F1B hamsters. Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening was enhanced in IFM in all TO2 groups compared with F1B hamsters, but to a significantly greater extent in those fed the high PUFA diet compared with the standard or high saturated fat diet.
These results show that a high intake of saturated fat improves survival in heart failure compared with a high PUFA diet or low-fat diet, despite persistent mitochondrial defects.
Cardiomyopathy; Low-carbohydrate diet; Metabolism; Obesity
In the advanced stages of heart failure, many key enzymes involved in myocardial energy substrate metabolism display various degrees of down-regulation. The net effect of the altered metabolic phenotype consists of reduced cardiac fatty oxidation, increased glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and rigidity of the metabolic response to changes in workload. Is this metabolic shift an adaptive mechanism that protects the heart or a maladaptive process that accelerates structural and functional derangement? The question remains open; however, the metabolic remodelling of the failing heart has induced a number of investigators to test the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of myocardial substrate utilization might prove therapeutically advantageous. The present review addresses the effects of indirect and direct modulators of fatty acid (FA) oxidation, which are the best pharmacological agents available to date for ‘metabolic therapy’ of failing hearts. Evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic strategies based on modulators of FA metabolism is mixed, pointing to the possibility that the molecular/biochemical alterations induced by these pharmacological agents are more complex than originally thought. Much remains to be understood; however, the beneficial effects of molecules such as perhexiline and trimetazidine in small clinical trials indicate that this promising therapeutic strategy is worthy of further pursuit.
Heart failure; β-Oxidation; Fatty acid; Modulators; Therapy
Currently, a high carbohydrate/low fat diet is recommended for patients with hypertension; however, the potentially important role that the composition of dietary fat and carbohydrate plays in hypertension and the development of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has not been well characterized. Recent studies demonstrate that LVH can also be triggered by activation of insulin signaling pathways, altered adipokine levels, or the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), suggesting that metabolic alterations play a role in the pathophysiology of LVH. Hypertensive patients with high plasma insulin or metabolic syndrome have a greater occurrence of LVH, which could be due to insulin activation of the serine-threonine kinase Akt and its downstream targets in the heart, resulting in cellular hypertrophy. PPARs also activate cardiac gene expression and growth and are stimulated by fatty acids and consumption of a high fat diet. Dietary intake of fats and carbohydrate and the resultant effects of plasma insulin, adipokine, and lipid concentrations may affect cardiomyocyte size and function, particularly in the setting of chronic hypertension. This review discusses potential mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrates and fats ca affect cardiac growth, metabolism, and function, mainly in the context of pressure overload-induced LVH.
diet; fat; glucose; hypertension; hypertrophy; metabolism
Mitofusin-2 (Mfn-2) is a dynamin-like protein that is involved in the rearrangement of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Research using various experimental systems has shown that Mfn-2 is a mediator of mitochondrial fusion, an evolutionarily conserved process responsible for the surveillance of mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we find that cardiac myocyte mitochondria lacking Mfn-2 are pleiomorphic and have the propensity to become enlarged. Consistent with an underlying mild mitochondrial dysfunction, Mfn-2-deficient mice display modest cardiac hypertrophy accompanied by slight functional deterioration. The absence of Mfn-2 is associated with a marked delay in mitochondrial permeability transition downstream of Ca2+ stimulation or due to local generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, Mfn-2-deficient adult cardiomyocytes are protected from a number of cell death-inducing stimuli and Mfn-2 knockout hearts display better recovery following reperfusion injury. We conclude that in cardiac myocytes, Mfn-2 controls mitochondrial morphogenesis and serves to predispose cells to mitochondrial permeability transition and to trigger cell death.
Treatment with the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) exerts cardioprotective effects, and suppresses Ca2+-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). These effects are associated with increased DHA and EPA, and lower arachidonic acid (ARA) in cardiac phospholipids. While clinical studies suggest the triglyceride lowering effects of DHA and EPA are equivalent, little is known about the independent effects of DHA and EPA on mitochondria function. We compared the effects of dietary supplementation with the ω-3 PUFAs DHA and EPA on cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acid composition and Ca2+-induced MPTP opening. Rats were fed a standard lab diet with either normal low levels of ω-3 PUFA, or DHA or EPA at 2.5% of energy intake for 8 weeks, and cardiac mitochondria were isolated and analyzed for Ca2+-induced MPTP opening and phospholipid fatty acyl composition. DHA supplementation increased both DHA and EPA and decreased ARA in mitochondrial phospholipid, and significantly delayed MPTP opening as assessed by increased Ca2+ retention capacity and decreased Ca2+-induced mitochondria swelling. EPA supplementation increased EPA in mitochondrial phospholipids, but did not affect DHA, only modestly lowered ARA, and did not affect MPTP opening. In summary, dietary supplementation with DHA but not EPA, profoundly altered mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acid composition and delayed Ca2+-induced MPTP opening.
cardiac; eicosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; fish oil; heart; mitochondrial permeability transition pore
Sugar consumption affects insulin release and, in hypertension, may stimulate cardiac signaling mechanisms that accelerate left ventricular hypertrophy and the development of heart failure. We investigated the effects of high-fructose or sucrose diets on ventricular function and mortality in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats.
Rats were fed chows that were either high starch (70% starch, 10% fat by energy), high fat (20% carbohydrates, 60% fat), high fructose (61% fructose, 9% starch, 10% fat), or high sucrose (61% sucrose, 9% starch, 10% fat). Hypertension was induced by adding 6% salt to the chow (n = 8–11/group).
After 8 weeks of treatment, systolic blood pressure and left ventricular mass were similarly increased in all rats that were fed high-salt diets. Hypertension caused a switch in mRNA myosin heavy chain isoform from α to β, and this effect was greater in the high-salt sucrose and fructose groups than in starch and fat groups. The cardiac mRNA for atrial natriuretic factor was also increased in all high-salt groups compared to respective controls, with the increase being significantly greater in the hypertensive sucrose fed group. Mortality was greater in the sucrose group (44%) compared to all the other hypertensive groups (12–18%), as was cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in the high-salt sucrose group, which was due to an increase in end-systolic volume, and not increased end-diastolic volume.
Diets high in sugar accelerated cardiac systolic dysfunction and mortality in hypertension compared to either a low-carbohydrate/high-fat or high-starch diet.
cardiac; fat; glucose; heart failure; insulin; nutrition
Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil may prevent development of heart failure through alterations in cardiac phospholipids that favorably impact inflammation and energy metabolism. A high-fat diet may block these effects in chronically stressed myocardium. Pathological left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy was generated by subjecting rats to pressure overload by constriction of the abdominal aorta. Animals were fed: (1) standard diet (10% of energy from fat), (2) standard diet with EPA+DHA (2.3% of energy intake as EPA+DHA), (3) high fat (60% fat); or (4) high fat with EPA+DHA. Pressure overload increased LV mass by ≈40% in both standard and high-fat diets without fish oil. Supplementation with fish oil increased their incorporation into cardiac phospholipids, and decreased the proinflammatory fatty acid arachidonic acid and urine thromboxane B2 with both the standard and high-fat diet. Linoleic acid and tetralinoloyl cardiolipin (an essential mitochondrial phospholipid) were decreased with pressure overload on standard diet, which was prevented by fish oil. Animals fed high-fat diet had decreased linoleic acid and tetralinoloyl cardiolipin regardless of fish oil supplemention. Fish oil limited LV hypertrophy on the standard diet, and prevented upregulation of fetal genes associated with heart failure (myosin heavy chain-β and atrial natriuetic factor). These beneficial effects of fish oil were absent in animals on the high-fat diet. In conclusion, whereas treatment with EPA+DHA prevented tetralinoloyl cardiolipin depletion, LV hypertrophy, and abnormal genes expression with pressure overload, these effects were absent with a high-fat diet.
Omega-3 fatty acids; cardiac hypertrophy; heart failure; cardiolipin; phospolipids
Consumption of ω-3 fatty acids from fish oil, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), decreases risk for heart failure and attenuates pathologic cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload. Dietary supplementation with EPA+DHA may also impact cardiac mitochondrial function and energetics through alteration of membrane phospholipids. We assessed the role of EPA+DHA supplementation on left ventricular (LV) function, cardiac mitochondrial membrane phospholipid composition, respiration, and sensitivity to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in normal and infarcted myocardium. Rats were subjected to sham surgery or myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (n=10–14), and fed a standard diet, or supplemented with EPA+DHA (2.3% of energy intake) for 12 weeks. EPA+DHA altered fatty acid composition of total mitochondrial phospholipids and cardiolipin by reducing arachidonic acid content and increasing DHA incorporation. EPA+DHA significantly increased calcium uptake capacity in both subsarcolemmal and intrafibrillar mitochondria from sham rats. This treatment effect persisted with the addition of cyclosporin A, and was not accompanied by changes in mitochondrial respiration or coupling, or cyclophilin D protein expression. Myocardial infarction resulted in heart failure as evidenced by LV dilation and contractile dysfunction. Infarcted LV myocardium had decreased mitochondrial protein yield and activity of mitochondrial marker enzymes, however respiratory function of isolated mitochondria was normal. EPA+DHA had no effect on LV function, mitochondrial respiration, or MPTP opening in rats with heart failure. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with EPA+DHA altered mitochondrial membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in normal and infarcted hearts, but delayed MPTP opening only in normal hearts.
eicosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; myocardial infarction; mitochondrial permeability transition pore
Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome with multiple aetiologies. Current treatment options can slow the progression to HF, but overall the prognosis remains poor. Clinical studies suggest that high dietary intake of the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFA) found in fish oils (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids) may lower the incidence of HF, and that supplementation with pharmacological doses prolongs event-free survival in patients with established HF. The mechanisms for these potential benefits are complex and not well defined. It is well established that fish oil supplementation lowers plasma triglyceride levels, and more recent work demonstrates anti-inflammatory effects, including reduced circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids, and elevated plasma adiponectin. In animal studies, fish oil favourably alters cardiac mitochondrial function. All of these effects may work to prevent the development and progression of HF. The ω-3PUFA found in plant sources, α-linolenic acid, may also be protective in HF; however, the evidence is not as compelling as for fish oil. This review summarizes the evidence related to use of ω-3PUFA supplementation as a potential treatment for HF and discusses possible mechanisms of action. In general, there is growing evidence that supplementation with ω-3PUFA positively impacts established pathophysiological targets in HF and has potential therapeutic utility for HF patients.
α-Linolenic acid; Cardiac; Docosahexaenoic acid; Eicosapentaenoic acid; Inflammation; Metabolism
Clinical studies suggest that intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) may lower the incidence of heart failure. Dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFA exerts metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects that could prevent left ventricle (LV) pathology; however, it is unclear whether these effects occur at clinically relevant doses and whether there are differences between ω-3 PUFA from fish [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and vegetable sources [α-linolenic acid (ALA)].
Methods and results
We assessed the development of LV remodelling and pathology in rats subjected to aortic banding treated with ω-3 PUFA over a dose range that spanned the intake of humans taking ω-3 PUFA supplements. Rats were fed a standard food or diets supplemented with EPA+DHA or ALA at 0.7, 2.3, or 7% of energy intake. Without supplementation, aortic banding increased LV mass and end-systolic and -diastolic volumes. ALA supplementation had little effect on LV remodelling and dysfunction. In contrast, EPA+DHA dose-dependently increased EPA and DHA, decreased arachidonic acid in cardiac membrane phospholipids, and prevented the increase in LV end-diastolic and -systolic volumes. EPA+DHA resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin, and there was a strong correlation between the prevention of LV chamber enlargement and plasma levels of adiponectin (r = −0.78). Supplementation with EPA+DHA had anti-aggregatory and anti-inflammatory effects as evidenced by decreases in urinary thromboxane B2 and serum tumour necrosis factor-α.
Dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFA derived from fish, but not from vegetable sources, increased plasma adiponectin, suppressed inflammation, and prevented cardiac remodelling and dysfunction under pressure overload conditions.
α-linolenic acid; Diet; Docosahexaenoic acid; Eicosapentaenoic acid; Heart failure
Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) decreases the risk of heart failure. We assessed the effects of dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFA from fish oil on the response of the left ventricle (LV) to arterial pressure overload.
Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow or a ω-3 PUFA-supplemented diet. After 1 week rats underwent abdominal aortic banding or sham surgery (n=9-12/group). LV function was assessed by echocardiography after 8 weeks. In addition, we studied the effect of ω-3 PUFA on the cardioprotective adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin, which may alter the pro-growth serine-threonine kinase Akt.
Banding increased LV mass to a greater extent with the standard chow (31%) than with ω-3 PUFA (18%). LV end diastolic and systolic volumes were increased by 19% and 105% with standard chow, respectively, but were unchanged with ω-3 PUFA. The expression of adiponectin was up-regulated in adipose tissue, and the plasma adiponectin concentration was significantly elevated. Treatment with ω-3 PUFA increased total Akt protein expression in the heart, but decreased the fraction of Akt in the active phosphorylated form, and thus did not alter the amount of active phospho-Akt.
Dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFA attenuated pressure overload-induced LV dysfunction, which was associated with elevated plasma adiponectin.
The malate-aspartate (M-A) shuttle provides an important mechanism to regulate glycolysis and lactate metabolism in the heart by transferring reducing equivalents from cytosol into mitochondria. However, experimental characterization of the M-A shuttle has been incomplete because of the limitations in quantifying cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolites. In this study, we developed a multi-compartment model of cardiac metabolism with detailed presentation of the M-A shuttle to quantitatively predict non-observable fluxes and metabolite concentrations under normal and ischemic conditions in vivo. Model simulations predicted that the M-A shuttle is functionally localized to a subdomain that spans the mitochondrial and cytosolic spaces. With the onset of ischemia, the M-A shuttle flux rapidly decreased to a new steady-state in proportion to the reduction in blood flow. Simulation results suggest that the reduced M-A shuttle flux during ischemia was not due to changes in shuttle-associated enzymes and transporters. However, there was a redistribution of shuttle-associated metabolites in both cytosol and mitochondria. Therefore, the dramatic acceleration in glycolysis and the switch to lactate production that occur immediately after the onset of ischemia is mediated by reduced M-A shuttle flux through metabolite redistribution of shuttle associated-species across the mitochondrial membrane.
malate-aspartate shuttle; metabolic compartmentation; mathematical modeling; myocardial ischemia
Recent studies found that the plasma membrane fatty acid transport protein CD36 also resides in mitochondrial membranes in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Pharmacological studies suggest that CD36 may play an essential role in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We isolated cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria from wild type and CD36 knock-out mice. There were no differences between wild type and CD36 knock-out mice in mitochondrial respiration with palmitoyl-CoA, palmitoyl-carnitine or glutamate as substrate. We investigated a potential alternative role for CD36 in mitochondria, ie. the export of fatty acids generated in the matrix. Palmitate export was not different between wild type and CD36 knock out mice. Taken together, CD36 does not appear to play an essential role in mitochondrial uptake of fatty acids or export of fatty acid anions.
fatty acids; lipotoxicity; myocardium
It is not known how carbohydrate and fat intake impact the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction in response to pressure overload. We hypothesized that a low carbohydrate/high fat diet prevents LV hypertrophy and dysfunction compared to high carbohydrate diets.
Methods and Results
Rats were fed high carbohydrate diets comprised of either starch or sucrose, or a low carbohydrate/high fat diet, and underwent abdominal aortic banding (AAB) for two months. AAB increased LV mass with all diets. LV end diastolic and systolic volumes, and the ratio of the mRNA for myosin heavy chainβ/α were increased with both high carbohydrate diets, but not with the low carbohydrate/high fat diet. Circulating levels of insulin and leptin, both stimulants for cardiac growth, were lower, and free fatty acids higher, with the low carbohydrate/high fat diet compared to high carbohydrate diets. Among AAB animals LV volumes were positively correlated with insulin, and LV mass correlated with leptin.
A low carbohydrate/high fat diet attenuated pressure overload-induced LV remodeling compared to high carbohydrate diets. This effect corresponded to lower insulin and leptin concentrations, suggesting they may contribute to the development of LV hypertrophy and dysfunction under conditions of pressure overload.
The intracellular circadian clock consists of a series of transcriptional modulators that together allow the cell to perceive the time of day. Circadian clocks have been identified within various components of the cardiovascular system (e.g. cardiomyocytes, vascular smooth muscle cells), and possess the potential to regulate numerous aspects of cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology. The present study tested the hypothesis that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R; 30 minute occlusion of the rat left main coronary artery in vivo) alters the circadian clock within the ischemic, versus non-ischemic, region of the heart. Left ventricular anterior (ischemic) and posterior (non-ischemic) regions were isolated from I/R, sham-operated, and naïve rats over a 24 hour period, after which mRNAs encoding for both circadian clock components and known clock-controlled genes were quantified. Circadian clock gene oscillations (i.e. peak-to-trough fold differences) were rapidly attenuated in the I/R, versus the non-ischemic, region. Consistent with decreased circadian clock output, we observe a rapid induction of E4BP4 in the ischemic region of the heart at both the mRNA and protein levels. In contrast with I/R, chronic (1 week) hypobaric chamber-induced hypoxia did not attenuate oscillations in circadian clock genes in either the left or right ventricle of the rat heart. In conclusion, these data show that in a rodent model of myocardial I/R, circadian clocks within the ischemic region become rapidly impaired, through a mechanism that appears to be independent of hypoxia.
Chronobiology; Gene Expression; Hypoxia; Ischemia; Metabolism
Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (CHH) increases load on the right ventricle (RV) resulting in RV hypertrophy. We hypothesized that CHH elicits distinct responses, i.e., the hypertrophied RV, unlike the left ventricle (LV), displaying enhanced mitochondrial respiratory and contractile function. Wistar rats were exposed to 4 weeks CHH (11% O2) versus normoxic controls. RV/body weight ratio increased (P < 0.001 vs. control) while RV systolic and developed pressures were higher. However, LV systolic and developed pressures were significantly reduced. Mitochondrial O2 consumption was sustained in the hypertrophied RV, ADP/O increased (P < 0.01 vs. control) and proton leak significantly decreased. Conversely, LV mitochondrial O2 consumption was attenuated (P < 0.05 vs. control) and proton leak significantly increased. In parallel, expression of mitochondrial regulators was upregulated in the hypertrophied RV but not the LV. Our data show that the hypertrophied RV induces expression of mitochondrial regulatory genes linking respiratory capacity and enhanced efficiency to sustained contractile function.
Gene expression; Heart; Mitochondria; Right ventricular hypertrophy; Hypobaric hypoxia
A computational model of myocardial energy metabolism was used to assess the metabolic responses to normal and reduced myocardial blood flow. The goal was to examine to what extent glycolysis and lactate formation are controlled by the supply of glycolytic substrate and/or the cellular redox (NADH/NAD+) and phosphorylation (ATP/ADP) states.
Flow was reduced over a wide range and for a sufficient duration in order to investigate the sequence of events that occur during the transition to a new metabolic steady state.
Simulation results indicated multiple time-dependent controls over both glycolysis and lactate formation.
Changes in phosphorylation state and glucose uptake only significantly affect the initial phase of the glycolytic response to ischemia, while glycogen breakdown exerts control over glycolysis during the entire duration of ischemia. Similarly, changes in the redox state affect the rates of lactate formation and release primarily during the initial transient phase of the response to the reductions in blood flow, while the rate of glycolysis controls the rate of lactate formation throughout the entire period of adaptation.