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1.  Update on lipids and mitochondrial function: impact of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids 
Purpose of review
Recent evidence has linked n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation with dramatic alterations of mitochondrial phospholipid membranes and favorable changes in mitochondrial function. In the present review, we examine the novel effects of n-3 PUFA on mitochondria, with an emphasis on cardiac mitochondrial phospholipids.
Recent findings
There is growing evidence that dietary n-3 PUFA, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has profound effects on mitochondrial membrane phospholipid composition and mitochondrial function. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA increases membrane phospholipid DHA and depletes arachidonic acid, and can increase cardiolipin, a tetra-acyl phospholipid that is unique to mitochondrial and essential for optimal mitochondrial function. Recent studies show that supplementation with DHA decreases propensity for cardiac mitochondria to undergo permeability transition, a catastrophic event often leading to cell death. This finding provides a potential mechanism for the cardioprotective effect of DHA. Interestingly, other n-3 PUFAs that modify membrane composition to a lesser extent have substantially less of an effect on mitochondria and do not appear to directly protect the heart.
Summary
Current data support a role for n-3 PUFA supplementation, particularly DHA, on mitochondria that are strongly associated with changes in mitochondrial phospholipid composition.
doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32834fdaf7
PMCID: PMC4067133  PMID: 22248591
2.  Dietary saturated fat and docosahexaenoic acid differentially effect cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl composition and Ca2+ uptake, without altering permeability transition or left ventricular function 
Physiological Reports  2013;1(1):e00009.
High saturated fat diets improve cardiac function and survival in rodent models of heart failure, which may be mediated by changes in mitochondrial function. Dietary supplementation with the n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n3) is also beneficial in heart failure and can affect mitochondrial function. Saturated fatty acids and DHA likely have opposing effects on mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition and mitochondrial membrane function, though a direct comparison has not been previously reported. We fed healthy adult rats a standard low-fat diet (11% of energy intake from fat), a low-fat diet supplemented with DHA (2.3% of energy intake) or a high-fat diet comprised of long chain saturated fatty acids (45% fat) for 6 weeks. There were no differences among the three diets in cardiac mass or function, mitochondrial respiration, or Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition. On the other hand, there were dramatic differences in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chains. Dietary supplementation with DHA increased DHA from 7% to ∼25% of total phospholipid fatty acids in mitochondrial membranes, and caused a proportional depletion of arachidonic acid (20:4n6). The saturated fat diet increased saturated fat and DHA in mitochondria and decreased linoleate (18:2n6), which corresponded to a decrease in Ca2+ uptake by isolated mitochondria compared to the other diet groups. In conclusion, despite dramatic changes in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acyl side chain composition by both the DHA and high saturated fat diets, there were no effects on mitochondrial respiration, permeability transition, or cardiac function.
doi:10.1002/phy2.9
PMCID: PMC3831937  PMID: 24303101
Cardiovascular; mitochondria; n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids; nutrition; phospholipid; saturated fatty acids
3.  High Sugar Intake Does Not Exacerbate Metabolic Abnormalities or Cardiac Dysfunction in Genetic Cardiomyopathy 
Objective
High sugar intake increases heart disease risk in humans. In animals, sugar intake accelerates heart failure development via increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) can fuel ROS production by providing NADPH for superoxide generation by NADPH oxidase. On the other hand, G6PD also facilitates ROS scavenging via the glutathione pathway. We hypothesized that high sugar intake would increase flux through G6PD to increase myocardial [NADPH] and ROS, and accelerate cardiac dysfunction and death.
Research Methods & Procedures
Six-week old TO-2 hamsters, a nonhypertensive model of genetic cardiomyopathy caused by a δ-sarcoglycan mutation, were fed a long-term diet of either high starch or high sugar (57% of energy from sucrose+fructose).
Results
After 24 weeks, δ-sarcoglycan deficient animals displayed expected decreases in survival and cardiac function associated with cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction: control=68.7±4.5%; TO-2 starch=46.1±3.7, p<0.05 TO-2 starch vs control; TO-2 sugar=58.0±4.2%, N.S. vs TO-2 starch or control; median survival: TO-2 starch=278 days, TO-2 sugar=318 days, P=0.133). Although we expected high sugar intake to exacerbate cardiomyopathy, surprisingly there was no further decrease in ejection fraction or survival with high sugar compared to starch in cardiomyopathic animals. Cardiomyopathic animals had systemic and cardiac metabolic abnormalities (elevated serum lipids and glucose, and decreased myocardial oxidative enzymes) which were unaffected by diet. High sugar intake increased myocardial superoxide, but [NADPH] and lipid peroxidation were unaffected.
Conclusions
A sugar enriched diet did not exacerbate ventricular function, metabolic abnormalities, or survival in heart failure despite an increase in NADPH and superoxide production.
doi:10.1016/j.nut.2011.09.017
PMCID: PMC3327887  PMID: 22304857
heart failure; reactive oxygen species; δ-sarcoglycan; diet; sugar; fructose; sucrose
4.  DOES JUNK FOOD LEAD TO HEART FAILURE? IMPORTANCE OF DIETARY MACRONUTRIENT COMPOSITION IN HYPERTENSION 
Hypertension  2009;54(6):1209-1210.
doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.128660
PMCID: PMC2803034  PMID: 19841293
5.  Dietary Fat and Heart Failure: Moving from Lipotoxicity to Lipoprotection 
Circulation Research  2012;110(5):764-776.
There is growing evidence suggesting that dietary fat intake affects the development and progression of heart failure. Studies in rodents show that in the absence of obesity replacing refined carbohydrate with fat can attenuate or prevent ventricular expansion and contractile dysfunction in response to hypertension, infarction or genetic cardiomyopathy. Relatively low intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine sources alters cardiac membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition, decreases the onset of new heart failure, and slows the progression of established heart failure. This effect is associated with decreased inflammation and improved resistance to mitochondrial permeability transition. High intake of saturated, monounsaturated or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids has also shown beneficial effects in rodent studies. The underlying mechanisms are complex and a more thorough understanding is needed of the effects on cardiac phospholipids, lipid metabolites and metabolic flux in the normal and failing heart. In summary, manipulation of dietary fat intake shows promise in the prevention and treatment of heart failure. Clinical studies generally support high intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids from marine sources to prevent and treat heart failure. Additional clinical and animals studies are needed to determine the optimal diet in terms of saturated, monounsaturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids intake for this vulnerable patient population.
doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.253104
PMCID: PMC3356700  PMID: 22383711
Heart Failure; Lipids; Mitochondria; Nutrition; Polyunsaturated fatty acids
6.  Metabolomic Analysis of Two Different Models of Delayed Preconditioning 
Recently we described an ischemic preconditioning induced by repetitive coronary stenosis, which is induced by 6 episodes of non-lethal ischemia over 3 days, and which also resembles the hibernating myocardium phenotype. When compared with traditional second window of ischemic preconditioning using DNA microarrays, many genes which differed in the repetitive coronary stenosis appeared targeted to metabolism. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to provide a more in depth analysis of changes in metabolism in the different models of delayed preconditioning, i.e., second window and repetitive coronary stenosis. This was accomplished using a metabolomic approach based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Myocardial samples from the ischemic section of porcine hearts subjected to both models of late preconditioning were compared against sham controls. Interestingly, although both models involve delayed preconditioning, their metabolic signatures were radically different; of the total number of metabolites that changed in both models (135 metabolites) only 7 changed in both models, and significantly more, p<0.01, were altered in the repetitive coronary stenosis (40%) than in the second window (8.1%). The most significant changes observed were in energy metabolism, e.g., phosphocreatine was increased 4 fold and creatine kinase activity increased by 27.2%, a pattern opposite from heart failure, suggesting that the repetitive coronary stenosis and potentially hibernating myocardium have enhanced stress resistance capabilities. The improved energy metabolism could also be a key mechanism contributing to the cardioprotection observed in the repetitive coronary stenosis and in hibernating myocardium.
doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2012.10.012
PMCID: PMC3980464  PMID: 23127662
metabolomics; delayed cardiac ischemic preconditioning
7.  Transient Activation of P38 MAP Kinase and Up-regulation of Pim-1 Kinase in Cardiac Hypertrophy Despite No Activation of AMPK 
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), is an important regulator of cardiac metabolism, but it’s role is not clearly understood in pressure overload induced hypertrophy. In addition, the relationship between AMPK and other important protein kinases such as p38 MAP kinase, Akt and Pim-1 are unclear. Thus we studied the time course of AMPK activity and phosphorylation of its α-subunit during the development of cardiac hypertrophy. In parallel, we examined the expression and activation of key kinases known to be involved in cardiac hypertrophy that could interact with AMPK (i.e. p38 MAP kinase, Akt and Pim-1). Male C57BL/6J mice underwent sham or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery and the hearts were harvested 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks later. Despite significant left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, LV dilation and impaired LV contractile function at all time points in TAC compared to sham mice, the activity and phosphorylation of AMPK were similar to sham. In contrast, p38 and Pim-1 protein expression were transiently increased in TAC mice at 2 and 4 weeks and at 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. In addition, p38 activation by phosphorylation was also transiently increased at 2 to 6 weeks. There were no differences between sham and TAC mice in p38, Akt or Pim-1 at 8 weeks. In conclusion, TAC resulted in a transient upregulation in the expression of p38 and Pim-1 despite no activation of AMPK or Akt.
doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2008.06.008
PMCID: PMC3330243  PMID: 18639556
heart failure; hypertrophy; AMP activated protein kinase; p38 MAPK; Pim-1; Akt
8.  Chronic Hypoxia Impairs Cytochrome Oxidase Activity Via Oxidative Stress in Selected Fetal Guinea Pig Organs 
Reproductive Sciences  2013;20(3):299-307.
We hypothesized that chronic hypoxia disrupts mitochondrial function via oxidative stress in fetal organs. Pregnant guinea pig sows were exposed to either normoxia or hypoxia (10.5% O2, 14 days) in the presence or absence of the antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Near-term anesthetized fetuses were delivered via hysterotomy, and fetal livers, hearts, lungs, and forebrains harvested. We quantified the effects of chronic hypoxia on cytochrome oxidase (CCO) activity and 2 factors known to regulate CCO activity: malondialdehyde (MDA) and CCO subunit 4 (COX4). Hypoxia increased the MDA levels in fetal liver, heart, and lung with a corresponding reduction in CCO activity, prevented by prenatal NAC. The COX4 expression paralleled CCO activity in fetal liver and lung, but was unaltered in fetal hearts due to hypoxia. Hypoxia reduced the brain COX4 expression despite having no effect on CCO activity. This study identifies the mitochondrion as an important target site in tissue-specific oxidative stress for the induction of fetal hypoxic injury.
doi:10.1177/1933719112453509
PMCID: PMC3676261  PMID: 22923417
fetal; hypoxia; mitochondria; guinea pig; cytochrome c oxidase
10.  Dietary Supplementation with Docosahexaenoic Acid, but Not Eicosapentanoic Acid, Dramatically Alters Cardiac Mitochondrial Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition and Prevents Permeability Transition 
Biochimica et biophysica acta  2010;1797(8):1555-1562.
Treatment with the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) exerts cardioprotective effects, and suppresses Ca2+-induced opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). These effects are associated with increased DHA and EPA, and lower arachidonic acid (ARA) in cardiac phospholipids. While clinical studies suggest the triglyceride lowering effects of DHA and EPA are equivalent, little is known about the independent effects of DHA and EPA on mitochondria function. We compared the effects of dietary supplementation with the ω-3 PUFAs DHA and EPA on cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acid composition and Ca2+-induced MPTP opening. Rats were fed a standard lab diet with either normal low levels of ω-3 PUFA, or DHA or EPA at 2.5% of energy intake for 8 weeks, and cardiac mitochondria were isolated and analyzed for Ca2+-induced MPTP opening and phospholipid fatty acyl composition. DHA supplementation increased both DHA and EPA and decreased ARA in mitochondrial phospholipid, and significantly delayed MPTP opening as assessed by increased Ca2+ retention capacity and decreased Ca2+-induced mitochondria swelling. EPA supplementation increased EPA in mitochondrial phospholipids, but did not affect DHA, only modestly lowered ARA, and did not affect MPTP opening. In summary, dietary supplementation with DHA but not EPA, profoundly altered mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acid composition and delayed Ca2+-induced MPTP opening.
doi:10.1016/j.bbabio.2010.05.007
PMCID: PMC3071681  PMID: 20471951
cardiac; eicosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; fish oil; heart; mitochondrial permeability transition pore
11.  Common Mechanisms for Calorie Restriction and AC5 Knockout Models of Longevity 
Aging cell  2012;11(6):1110-1120.
Summary
Adenylyl cyclase type 5 knockout mice (AC5 KO) live longer and are stress resistant, similar to calorie restriction (CR). AC5 KO mice eat more, but actually weigh less and accumulate less fat compared to WT mice. CR applied to AC5 KO result in rapid decrease in body weight, metabolic deterioration and death. These data suggest that despite restricted food intake in CR, but augmented food intake in AC5 KO, the two models affect longevity and metabolism similarly. To determine shared molecular mechanisms, mRNA expression was examined genome-wide for brain, heart, skeletal muscle and liver. Significantly more genes were regulated commonly rather than oppositely in all the tissues in both models, indicating commonality between AC5 KO and CR. Gene Ontology analysis identified many significantly regulated, tissue-specific pathways shared by the two models, including sensory perception in heart and brain, muscle function in skeletal muscle, and lipid metabolism in liver. Moreover, when comparing gene expression changes in the heart under stress, the glutathione regulatory pathway was consistently upregulated in the longevity models but downregulated with stress. In addition, AC5 and CR shared changes in genes and proteins involved in the regulation of longevity and stress resistance, including Sirt1, ApoD and olfactory receptors in both young and intermediate age mice. Thus, the similarly regulated genes and pathways in AC5 KO and CR, particularly related to the metabolic phenotype, suggest a unified theory for longevity and stress resistance.
doi:10.1111/acel.12013
PMCID: PMC3646327  PMID: 23020244
calorie restriction; type 5 adenylyl cyclase; longevity; stress resistance
12.  High-sugar diets increase cardiac dysfunction and mortality in hypertension compared to low-carbohydrate or high-starch diets 
Journal of hypertension  2008;26(7):1402-1410.
Objective
Sugar consumption affects insulin release and, in hypertension, may stimulate cardiac signaling mechanisms that accelerate left ventricular hypertrophy and the development of heart failure. We investigated the effects of high-fructose or sucrose diets on ventricular function and mortality in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats.
Methods
Rats were fed chows that were either high starch (70% starch, 10% fat by energy), high fat (20% carbohydrates, 60% fat), high fructose (61% fructose, 9% starch, 10% fat), or high sucrose (61% sucrose, 9% starch, 10% fat). Hypertension was induced by adding 6% salt to the chow (n = 8–11/group).
Results
After 8 weeks of treatment, systolic blood pressure and left ventricular mass were similarly increased in all rats that were fed high-salt diets. Hypertension caused a switch in mRNA myosin heavy chain isoform from α to β, and this effect was greater in the high-salt sucrose and fructose groups than in starch and fat groups. The cardiac mRNA for atrial natriuretic factor was also increased in all high-salt groups compared to respective controls, with the increase being significantly greater in the hypertensive sucrose fed group. Mortality was greater in the sucrose group (44%) compared to all the other hypertensive groups (12–18%), as was cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in the high-salt sucrose group, which was due to an increase in end-systolic volume, and not increased end-diastolic volume.
Conclusion
Diets high in sugar accelerated cardiac systolic dysfunction and mortality in hypertension compared to either a low-carbohydrate/high-fat or high-starch diet.
doi:10.1097/HJH.0b013e3283007dda
PMCID: PMC3103886  PMID: 18551017
cardiac; fat; glucose; heart failure; insulin; nutrition
13.  The Cardioprotective Effects of Fish Oil During Pressure Overload Are Blocked by High Fat Intake 
Hypertension  2009;54(3):605-611.
Supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil may prevent development of heart failure through alterations in cardiac phospholipids that favorably impact inflammation and energy metabolism. A high-fat diet may block these effects in chronically stressed myocardium. Pathological left ventricle (LV) hypertrophy was generated by subjecting rats to pressure overload by constriction of the abdominal aorta. Animals were fed: (1) standard diet (10% of energy from fat), (2) standard diet with EPA+DHA (2.3% of energy intake as EPA+DHA), (3) high fat (60% fat); or (4) high fat with EPA+DHA. Pressure overload increased LV mass by ≈40% in both standard and high-fat diets without fish oil. Supplementation with fish oil increased their incorporation into cardiac phospholipids, and decreased the proinflammatory fatty acid arachidonic acid and urine thromboxane B2 with both the standard and high-fat diet. Linoleic acid and tetralinoloyl cardiolipin (an essential mitochondrial phospholipid) were decreased with pressure overload on standard diet, which was prevented by fish oil. Animals fed high-fat diet had decreased linoleic acid and tetralinoloyl cardiolipin regardless of fish oil supplemention. Fish oil limited LV hypertrophy on the standard diet, and prevented upregulation of fetal genes associated with heart failure (myosin heavy chain-β and atrial natriuetic factor). These beneficial effects of fish oil were absent in animals on the high-fat diet. In conclusion, whereas treatment with EPA+DHA prevented tetralinoloyl cardiolipin depletion, LV hypertrophy, and abnormal genes expression with pressure overload, these effects were absent with a high-fat diet.
doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.109.135806
PMCID: PMC3103889  PMID: 19597033
Omega-3 fatty acids; cardiac hypertrophy; heart failure; cardiolipin; phospolipids
14.  Mitofusins 1 and 2 are Essential for Postnatal Metabolic Remodeling in Heart 
Circulation research  2012;111(8):1012-1026.
Rationale
At birth, there is a switch from placental to pulmonary circulation and the heart commences its aerobic metabolism. In cardiac myocytes, this transition is marked by increased mitochondrial biogenesis and remodeling of the intracellular architecture. The mechanisms governing the formation of new mitochondria and their expansion within myocytes remain largely unknown. Mitofusins (Mfn-1 and Mfn-2) are known regulators of mitochondrial networks but their role during perinatal maturation of the heart has yet to be examined.
Objective
Determine the significance of mitofusins, during early postnatal cardiac development.
Methods and Results
We genetically inactivated Mfn-1 and Mfn-2 in mid-gestational and postnatal cardiac myocytes using a loxP/Myh6-cre approach. At birth, cardiac morphology and function of double-knockout (DKO) mice are normal. At that time, DKO mitochondria increase in numbers, appear to be spherical and heterogeneous in size but exhibit normal electron-density. By postnatal day 7, the mitochondrial numbers in DKO myocytes remain abnormally expanded and many lose matrix components and membrane organization. In this context, DKO mice develop dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This leads to a rapid decline in survival and all DKO mice perish before 16 days of age. Gene expression analysis of DKO hearts shows that mitochondria biogenesis genes are down regulated, the mitochondrial DNA is reduced and so are mitochondrially-encoded transcripts and proteins. Furthermore, mitochondrial turnover pathways are dysregulated.
Conclusions
Our findings establish that Mfn-1 and Mfn-2 are essential in mediating mitochondrial remodeling during postnatal cardiac development, a time of dramatic transitions in the bioenergetics and growth of the heart.
doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.274142
PMCID: PMC3518037  PMID: 22904094
Cardiac growth; mitochondria; biogenesis; mtDNA; p62
15.  Dietary ω-3 Fatty Acids Alter Cardiac Mitochondrial Phospholipid Composition and Delay Ca2+-Induced Permeability Transition 
Consumption of ω-3 fatty acids from fish oil, specifically eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), decreases risk for heart failure and attenuates pathologic cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload. Dietary supplementation with EPA+DHA may also impact cardiac mitochondrial function and energetics through alteration of membrane phospholipids. We assessed the role of EPA+DHA supplementation on left ventricular (LV) function, cardiac mitochondrial membrane phospholipid composition, respiration, and sensitivity to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening in normal and infarcted myocardium. Rats were subjected to sham surgery or myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (n=10–14), and fed a standard diet, or supplemented with EPA+DHA (2.3% of energy intake) for 12 weeks. EPA+DHA altered fatty acid composition of total mitochondrial phospholipids and cardiolipin by reducing arachidonic acid content and increasing DHA incorporation. EPA+DHA significantly increased calcium uptake capacity in both subsarcolemmal and intrafibrillar mitochondria from sham rats. This treatment effect persisted with the addition of cyclosporin A, and was not accompanied by changes in mitochondrial respiration or coupling, or cyclophilin D protein expression. Myocardial infarction resulted in heart failure as evidenced by LV dilation and contractile dysfunction. Infarcted LV myocardium had decreased mitochondrial protein yield and activity of mitochondrial marker enzymes, however respiratory function of isolated mitochondria was normal. EPA+DHA had no effect on LV function, mitochondrial respiration, or MPTP opening in rats with heart failure. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with EPA+DHA altered mitochondrial membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in normal and infarcted hearts, but delayed MPTP opening only in normal hearts.
doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2009.08.014
PMCID: PMC2783943  PMID: 19703463
eicosapentaenoic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; myocardial infarction; mitochondrial permeability transition pore
16.  Dietary Supplementation with ω-3 PUFA Increases Adiponectin and Attenuates Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction with Pressure Overload 
Cardiovascular research  2007;76(2):303-310.
Objective
Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFA) decreases the risk of heart failure. We assessed the effects of dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFA from fish oil on the response of the left ventricle (LV) to arterial pressure overload.
Methods
Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow or a ω-3 PUFA-supplemented diet. After 1 week rats underwent abdominal aortic banding or sham surgery (n=9-12/group). LV function was assessed by echocardiography after 8 weeks. In addition, we studied the effect of ω-3 PUFA on the cardioprotective adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin, which may alter the pro-growth serine-threonine kinase Akt.
Results
Banding increased LV mass to a greater extent with the standard chow (31%) than with ω-3 PUFA (18%). LV end diastolic and systolic volumes were increased by 19% and 105% with standard chow, respectively, but were unchanged with ω-3 PUFA. The expression of adiponectin was up-regulated in adipose tissue, and the plasma adiponectin concentration was significantly elevated. Treatment with ω-3 PUFA increased total Akt protein expression in the heart, but decreased the fraction of Akt in the active phosphorylated form, and thus did not alter the amount of active phospho-Akt.
Conclusion
Dietary supplementation with ω-3 PUFA attenuated pressure overload-induced LV dysfunction, which was associated with elevated plasma adiponectin.
doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2007.07.002
PMCID: PMC2747038  PMID: 17643403
17.  Fatty Acid Oxidation in Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria is Unaffected by Deletion of CD36 
Recent studies found that the plasma membrane fatty acid transport protein CD36 also resides in mitochondrial membranes in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Pharmacological studies suggest that CD36 may play an essential role in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We isolated cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria from wild type and CD36 knock-out mice. There were no differences between wild type and CD36 knock-out mice in mitochondrial respiration with palmitoyl-CoA, palmitoyl-carnitine or glutamate as substrate. We investigated a potential alternative role for CD36 in mitochondria, ie. the export of fatty acids generated in the matrix. Palmitate export was not different between wild type and CD36 knock out mice. Taken together, CD36 does not appear to play an essential role in mitochondrial uptake of fatty acids or export of fatty acid anions.
doi:10.1016/j.abb.2007.08.020
PMCID: PMC2702466  PMID: 17904092
fatty acids; lipotoxicity; myocardium
18.  Low Carbohydrate/High Fat Diet Attenuates Pressure Overload Induced Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction 
Journal of cardiac failure  2008;14(4):327-335.
Background
It is not known how carbohydrate and fat intake impact the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction in response to pressure overload. We hypothesized that a low carbohydrate/high fat diet prevents LV hypertrophy and dysfunction compared to high carbohydrate diets.
Methods and Results
Rats were fed high carbohydrate diets comprised of either starch or sucrose, or a low carbohydrate/high fat diet, and underwent abdominal aortic banding (AAB) for two months. AAB increased LV mass with all diets. LV end diastolic and systolic volumes, and the ratio of the mRNA for myosin heavy chainβ/α were increased with both high carbohydrate diets, but not with the low carbohydrate/high fat diet. Circulating levels of insulin and leptin, both stimulants for cardiac growth, were lower, and free fatty acids higher, with the low carbohydrate/high fat diet compared to high carbohydrate diets. Among AAB animals LV volumes were positively correlated with insulin, and LV mass correlated with leptin.
Conclusion
A low carbohydrate/high fat diet attenuated pressure overload-induced LV remodeling compared to high carbohydrate diets. This effect corresponded to lower insulin and leptin concentrations, suggesting they may contribute to the development of LV hypertrophy and dysfunction under conditions of pressure overload.
doi:10.1016/j.cardfail.2007.11.003
PMCID: PMC2702243  PMID: 18474346
19.  Potential Impact of Carbohydrate and Fat Intake on Pathological Left Ventricular Hypertrophy 
Cardiovascular research  2006;73(2):257-268.
Currently, a high carbohydrate/low fat diet is recommended for patients with hypertension; however, the potentially important role that the composition of dietary fat and carbohydrate plays in hypertension and the development of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has not been well characterized. Recent studies demonstrate that LVH can also be triggered by activation of insulin signaling pathways, altered adipokine levels, or the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), suggesting that metabolic alterations play a role in the pathophysiology of LVH. Hypertensive patients with high plasma insulin or metabolic syndrome have a greater occurrence of LVH, which could be due to insulin activation of the serine-threonine kinase Akt and its downstream targets in the heart, resulting in cellular hypertrophy. PPARs also activate cardiac gene expression and growth and are stimulated by fatty acids and consumption of a high fat diet. Dietary intake of fats and carbohydrate and the resultant effects of plasma insulin, adipokine, and lipid concentrations may affect cardiomyocyte size and function, particularly in the setting of chronic hypertension. This review discusses potential mechanisms by which dietary carbohydrates and fats ca affect cardiac growth, metabolism, and function, mainly in the context of pressure overload-induced LVH.
doi:10.1016/j.cardiores.2006.11.007
PMCID: PMC2700717  PMID: 17166490
diet; fat; glucose; hypertension; hypertrophy; metabolism
20.  High intake of saturated fat, but not polyunsaturated fat, improves survival in heart failure despite persistent mitochondrial defects 
Cardiovascular Research  2011;93(1):24-32.
Aims
The impact of a high-fat diet on the failing heart is unclear, and the differences between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and saturated fat have not been assessed. Here, we compared a standard low-fat diet to high-fat diets enriched with either saturated fat (palmitate and stearate) or PUFA (linoleic and α-linolenic acids) in hamsters with genetic cardiomyopathy.
Methods and results
Male δ-sarcoglycan null Bio TO2 hamsters were fed a standard low-fat diet (12% energy from fat), or high-fat diets (45% fat) comprised of either saturated fat or PUFA. The median survival was increased by the high saturated fat diet (P< 0.01; 278 days with standard diet and 361 days with high saturated fat)), but not with high PUFA (260 days) (n = 30–35/group). Body mass was modestly elevated (∼10%) in both high fat groups. Subgroups evaluated after 24 weeks had similar left ventricular chamber size, function, and mass. Mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activity and the yield of interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were decreased to a similar extent in all TO2 groups compared with normal F1B hamsters. Ca2+-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening was enhanced in IFM in all TO2 groups compared with F1B hamsters, but to a significantly greater extent in those fed the high PUFA diet compared with the standard or high saturated fat diet.
Conclusion
These results show that a high intake of saturated fat improves survival in heart failure compared with a high PUFA diet or low-fat diet, despite persistent mitochondrial defects.
doi:10.1093/cvr/cvr258
PMCID: PMC3243037  PMID: 21960686
Cardiomyopathy; Low-carbohydrate diet; Metabolism; Obesity
21.  Modulating fatty acid oxidation in heart failure 
Cardiovascular Research  2011;90(2):202-209.
In the advanced stages of heart failure, many key enzymes involved in myocardial energy substrate metabolism display various degrees of down-regulation. The net effect of the altered metabolic phenotype consists of reduced cardiac fatty oxidation, increased glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and rigidity of the metabolic response to changes in workload. Is this metabolic shift an adaptive mechanism that protects the heart or a maladaptive process that accelerates structural and functional derangement? The question remains open; however, the metabolic remodelling of the failing heart has induced a number of investigators to test the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of myocardial substrate utilization might prove therapeutically advantageous. The present review addresses the effects of indirect and direct modulators of fatty acid (FA) oxidation, which are the best pharmacological agents available to date for ‘metabolic therapy’ of failing hearts. Evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic strategies based on modulators of FA metabolism is mixed, pointing to the possibility that the molecular/biochemical alterations induced by these pharmacological agents are more complex than originally thought. Much remains to be understood; however, the beneficial effects of molecules such as perhexiline and trimetazidine in small clinical trials indicate that this promising therapeutic strategy is worthy of further pursuit.
doi:10.1093/cvr/cvr038
PMCID: PMC3078800  PMID: 21289012
Heart failure; β-Oxidation; Fatty acid; Modulators; Therapy
22.  Lipotoxicity and the Development of Heart Failure: Moving from Mouse to Man 
Cell Metabolism  2010;12(6):555-556.
doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2010.11.016
PMCID: PMC3330240  PMID: 21109186
23.  Improved Mitochondrial Function with Diet-Induced Increase in Either Docosahexaenoic Acid or Arachidonic Acid in Membrane Phospholipids 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(3):e34402.
Mitochondria can depolarize and trigger cell death through the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). We recently showed that an increase in the long chain n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n3) and depletion of the n6 PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n6) in mitochondrial membranes is associated with a greater Ca2+ load required to induce MPTP opening. Here we manipulated mitochondrial phospholipid composition by supplementing the diet with DHA, ARA or combined DHA+ARA in rats for 10 weeks. There were no effects on cardiac function, or respiration of isolated mitochondria. Analysis of mitochondrial phospholipids showed DHA supplementation increased DHA and displaced ARA in mitochondrial membranes, while supplementation with ARA or DHA+ARA increased ARA and depleted linoleic acid (18:2n6). Phospholipid analysis revealed a similar pattern, particularly in cardiolipin. Tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin was depleted by 80% with ARA or DHA+ARA supplementation, with linoleic acid side chains replaced by ARA. Both the DHA and ARA groups had delayed Ca2+-induced MPTP opening, but the DHA+ARA group was similar to the control diet. In conclusion, alterations in mitochondria membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition caused by dietary DHA or ARA was associated with a greater cumulative Ca2+ load required to induced MPTP opening. Further, high levels of tetralinoleoyl cardiolipin were not essential for normal mitochondrial function if replaced with very-long chain n3 or n6 PUFAs.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034402
PMCID: PMC3316678  PMID: 22479624
24.  Mitofusin-2 Maintains Mitochondrial Structure and Contributes to Stress-Induced Permeability Transition in Cardiac Myocytes ▿ †  
Molecular and Cellular Biology  2011;31(6):1309-1328.
Mitofusin-2 (Mfn-2) is a dynamin-like protein that is involved in the rearrangement of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Research using various experimental systems has shown that Mfn-2 is a mediator of mitochondrial fusion, an evolutionarily conserved process responsible for the surveillance of mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we find that cardiac myocyte mitochondria lacking Mfn-2 are pleiomorphic and have the propensity to become enlarged. Consistent with an underlying mild mitochondrial dysfunction, Mfn-2-deficient mice display modest cardiac hypertrophy accompanied by slight functional deterioration. The absence of Mfn-2 is associated with a marked delay in mitochondrial permeability transition downstream of Ca2+ stimulation or due to local generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Consequently, Mfn-2-deficient adult cardiomyocytes are protected from a number of cell death-inducing stimuli and Mfn-2 knockout hearts display better recovery following reperfusion injury. We conclude that in cardiac myocytes, Mfn-2 controls mitochondrial morphogenesis and serves to predispose cells to mitochondrial permeability transition and to trigger cell death.
doi:10.1128/MCB.00911-10
PMCID: PMC3067905  PMID: 21245373
25.  Dipropionylcysteine Ethyl Ester Compensates for Loss of Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates During Post Ischemia Reperfusion in the Pig Heart 
Purpose
During reperfusion, following myocardial ischemia, uncompensated loss of citric acid cycle (CAC) intermediates may impair CAC flux and energy transduction. Propionate has an anaplerotic effect when converted to the CAC intermediate succinyl-CoA, and may improve contractile recovery during reperfusion. Antioxidant therapy with N-acetylcysteine decreases reperfusion injury. To synergize the antioxidant effects of cysteine with the anaplerotic effects of propionate, we synthesized a novel bi-functional compound, N,S-dipropionyl cysteine ethyl ester (DPNCE) and tested its anaplerotic and anti-oxidative capacity in anesthetized pigs.
Methods
Ischemia was induced by a 70% reduction in left anterior descending coronary artery flow for one hour, followed by 1 h of reperfusion. After 30 min of ischemia and throughout reperfusion animals were treated with saline or intravenous DPNCE (1.5 mg·kg−1·min−1, n=8/group). Arterial concentrations and myocardial propionate, cysteine, free fatty acids, glucose and lactate uptakes, cardiac mechanical functions, myocardial content of CAC intermediates and oxidative stress were assessed.
Results
Ischemia resulted in reduction in myocardial tissue concentration of CAC intermediates. DPNCE treatment elevated arterial propionate and cysteine concentrations and myocardial propionate uptake, and increased myocardial concentrations of citrate, succinate, fumarate, and malate compared to saline treated animals. DPNCE treatment did not affect blood pressure or myocardial contractile function, but increased arterial free fatty acid concentration and myocardial fatty acid uptake. Arterial cysteine concentration was elevated by DPNCE, but there was negligible myocardial cysteine uptake, and no change in markers of oxidative stress.
Conclusion
DPNCE elevated arterial cysteine and propionate, and increased myocardial concentration of CAC intermediates, but did not affect mechanical function or oxidative stress.
doi:10.1007/s10557-009-6208-1
PMCID: PMC2873150  PMID: 19967553
Anaplerosis; Citric acid cycle; Heart; Ischemia; Reperfusion; Propionate

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