Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-9 (9)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Severity and persistence of asthma and mental health: a birth cohort study 
Psychological medicine  2012;43(6):10.1017/S0033291712001754.
The goal of the current study was to investigate asthma and mental health among youth in the community, and to consider the role of asthma severity and persistence in this link.
Data were drawn from the Raine Study, a population-based birth cohort study in Western Australia. Logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between asthma at age 5 years and the range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems at ages 5–17 years. Analyses were stratified by asthma severity and persistence, and adjusted for a range of potential confounders.
More severe and persistent asthma at age 5 was associated with significantly increased odds of affective, anxiety, somatic, oppositional defiant and conduct problems at ages 5–17. Mild asthma and remitted asthma were not associated with heightened vulnerability to mental disorders.
Our results suggest that youth with symptomatic asthma are more likely to suffer from a wide range of mental health problems, and that the likelihood of mental health problems appears to increase as a function of asthma severity. Youth with poorly controlled and/or more severe and persistent asthma may be considered a vulnerable group who might benefit from mental health screening in clinical, school and community settings.
PMCID: PMC3857579  PMID: 23171853
ADHD; anxiety; asthma; depression; youth
2.  Caring for babies of very low birth weight. 
British Medical Journal  1979;1(6165):750.
PMCID: PMC1598849  PMID: 435763
3.  Association between breast feeding and asthma in 6 year old children: findings of a prospective birth cohort study 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1999;319(7213):815-819.
To investigate the association between the duration of exclusive breast feeding and the development of asthma related outcomes in children at age 6 years.
Prospective cohort study.
Western Australia.
2187 children ascertained through antenatal clinics at the major tertiary obstetric hospital in Perth and followed to age 6 years.
Main outcome measures
Unconditional logistic regression to model the association between duration of exclusive breast feeding and outcomes related to asthma or atopy at 6 years of age, allowing for several important confounders: sex, gestational age, smoking in the household, and early childcare.
After adjustment for confounders, the introduction of milk other than breast milk before 4 months of age was a significant risk factor for all asthma and atopy related outcomes in children aged 6 years: asthma diagnosed by a doctor (odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.52); wheeze three or more times since 1 year of age (1.41, 1.14 to 1.76); wheeze in the past year (1.31, 1.05 to 1.64); sleep disturbance due to wheeze within the past year (1.42, 1.07 to 1.89); age when doctor diagnosed asthma (hazard ratio 1.22, 1.03 to 1.43); age at first wheeze (1.36, 1.17 to 1.59); and positive skin prick test reaction to at least one common aeroallergen (1.30, 1.04 to 1.61).
A significant reduction in the risk of childhood asthma at age 6 years occurs if exclusive breast feeding is continued for at least the 4 months after birth. These findings are important for our understanding of the cause of childhood asthma and suggest that public health interventions to optimise breast feeding may help to reduce the community burden of childhood asthma and its associated traits.
Key messagesAsthma is the leading cause of admission to hospital in Australian children and its prevalence is increasingWhether breast feeding protects against asthma or atopy, or both, is controversialAsthma is a complex disease, and the relative risks between breast feeding and asthma or atopy are unlikely to be large; this suggests the need for investigation in a large prospective birth cohort with timely assessment of atopic outcomes and all relevant exposuresExclusive breast feeding for at least 4 months is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of asthma and atopy at age 6 years and with a significant delay in the age at onset of wheezing and asthma being diagnosed by a doctorPublic health interventions to promote an increased duration of exclusive breast feeding may help to reduce the morbidity and prevalence of childhood asthma and atopy
PMCID: PMC314207  PMID: 10496824
4.  Hospital admissions before the age of 2 years in Western Australia. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1994;70(3):205-210.
A linked data file of birth records and hospital admissions was used to investigate inpatient hospital morbidity before 2 years of age for all non-Aboriginal and Aboriginal children born in Western Australia in 1986. Of the non-Aboriginal children, 31.8% were admitted to hospital at least once before the age of 2 years, with an overall admission rate of 526/1000 live births; the corresponding figures for Aboriginal children were 68.7% and 2797. The mean number of days in hospital for each non-Aboriginal child admitted was 7.4, and 26.5 for Aboriginal children. Of the total cohort, 21% of non-Aboriginal and 20% of Aboriginal children were admitted only once, and 4% of non-Aboriginal and 36% of Aboriginal children were admitted at least three times; 23% of non-Aboriginal and 24% of Aboriginal children were admitted for only one major disease category, and 1% of non-Aboriginal and 16% of Aboriginal children were in at least four categories. The highest admission rates and highest percentages of the cohort admitted were for gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases and social admissions. These results illustrate the importance for both descriptive and analytical research of relating admissions to hospital for the total population to the individual child, and of using clinically relevant disease classifications.
PMCID: PMC1029743  PMID: 8135564
5.  Periconceptional vitamin supplementation and neural tube defects; evidence from a case-control study in Western Australia and a review of recent publications. 
STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the association of neural tube defects with periconceptional vitamin supplementation. DESIGN--This was a matched, population based case-control study. SETTING--Western Australia, 1982-1984. PARTICIPANTS--Mothers of 77 cases (93% of those eligible) with isolated neural tube defects, mothers of 77 matched control infants with defects other than neural tube defects (control group I), and mothers of 154 liveborn, matched, control infants with no birth defects (control group II) participated in the study. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Information was collected by interview and self administered questionnaire. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (and their 95% confidence intervals) showed a small but non-significant protective effect of folate supplementation in comparisons with both control groups. The adjusted ratios for the three months before pregnancy were 0.69 (0.06, 8.53) with control group I, and 0.11 (0.01, 1.33) with control group II. In the first six weeks of pregnancy, the adjusted odds ratios were 0.70 (0.32, 1.52) with control group I and 0.74 (0.29, 1.88) with control group II. The odds ratios for vitamin supplementation of any kind were all very close to or greater than one, and all confidence intervals embraced unity. CONCLUSIONS--These data do not provide evidence of an association between periconceptional vitamin supplementation and neural tube defects, although a protective effect of folate supplementation cannot be excluded with confidence, due to the low power of the study. Of three other observational studies of vitamins and neural tube defects, two have shown an association. While further studies of this kind may be of value, evidence must now be sought from randomised controlled trials.
PMCID: PMC1059526  PMID: 1583432
6.  Analysis of dyslexia candidate genes in the Raine cohort representing the general Australian population 
Genes, Brain, and Behavior  2011;10(2):158-165.
Several genes have been suggested as dyslexia candidates. Some of these candidate genes have been recently shown to be associated with literacy measures in sample cohorts derived from the general population. Here, we have conducted an association study in a novel sample derived from the Australian population (the Raine cohort) to further investigate the role of dyslexia candidate genes. We analysed markers, previously reported to be associated with dyslexia, located within the MRPL19/C2ORF3, KIAA0319, DCDC2 and DYX1C1 genes in a sample of 520 individuals and tested them for association with reading and spelling measures. Association signals were detected for several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within DYX1C1 with both the reading and spelling tests. The high linkage disequilibrium (LD) we observed across the DYX1C1 gene suggests that the association signal might not be refined by further genetic mapping.
PMCID: PMC3084500  PMID: 20846247
Association study; dyslexia; DYX1C1; Raine study; reading skills
8.  Trends in perinatal mortality and cerebral palsy in Western Australia, 1967 to 1985. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1992;304(6843):1658-1663.
OBJECTIVE--To analyse the trends in stillbirths, neonatal deaths, and cerebral palsy in all infants born in Western Australia from 1967 to 1985. To relate these trends to changes in perinatal care, particularly in relation to avoidance of intrapartum asphyxia in term infants and the increased survival of low birthweight infants. DESIGN--Descriptive epidemiological study calculating population rates for perinatal deaths and cerebral palsy according to year of birth and birth weight. SETTING--Western Australia. SUBJECTS--All infants born after 20 weeks' gestation or weighing at least 400 g (live and stillborn). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Stillbirths, neonatal deaths (from perinatal death certificates), and cerebral palsy (from a population based register). RESULTS--Overall stillbirth rates fell from 12.1/1000 total births in 1967-70 to 8.1 in 1983-5. Early neonatal mortality fell from 13.0/1000 live births to 4.4 over the same period whereas total cerebral palsy rates remained at around 2-2.5/1000 live births. Death rates fell in all birth weight categories, particularly in low birthweight infants between 1975 and 1985, the period when birthweight data were available. In contrast, cerebral palsy rates in infants under 1500 g rose significantly over this period (from 12.1 in 1968 to 64.9 in 1985). The rise was seen in all spastic categories, including severely and multiply handicapped children. CONCLUSIONS--Large increases in the use of interventions aimed at reducing birth asphyxia and handicaps had not (by 1985) resulted in lower rates of cerebral palsy. This suggests that birth asphyxia is not a major cause. The increased survival of low birthweight infants has resulted in more cerebral palsy in this group, due either to postnatal complications of immaturity or prenatal damage to the fetal brain. These findings have implications for planning perinatal care and for litigation for putative obstetric malpractice in cerebral palsy cases.
PMCID: PMC1882364  PMID: 1633518
9.  Genitourinary tract infections in pregnancy and low birth weight: case-control study in Australian aboriginal women. 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  1991;303(6814):1369-1373.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the association between genital and urinary tract infections in pregnant Aboriginal women and low birth weight. DESIGN--Retrospective case-control study controlling for potential confounding variables. SETTING--Western Australia from 1985 to 1987. SUBJECTS--All Aboriginal women (n = 269) who had given birth to singleton infants weighing 2250 g or less (cases), and 269 randomly selected Aboriginal women who had given birth to singleton infants weighing 3000 g or more (controls). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Proportions of women in case and control groups who had had genital and urinary tract infections; odds ratios for low birth weight when genitourinary tract infection was present; population attributable fraction of low birth weight to genitourinary tract infection. RESULTS--At the time of delivery 51% of women in the case group (109/215) had genitourinary tract infections compared with 13% of controls (35/266). After controlling for potential confounding variables the odds ratio for giving birth to infants weighing 2250 g or less when genitourinary tract infection was present was 4.0 (95% confidence interval 2.3 to 7.0). The proportion of infants with low birth weight attributable to genitourinary tract infection in the whole population of Aboriginal women was 32% (95% confidence interval 17% to 49%). CONCLUSIONS--There was a strong association between low birth weight and the presence of genitourinary tract infections in Aboriginal women both during pregnancy and at the time of delivery. A community intervention trial of screening and treatment of genitourinary infections in this population is recommended.
PMCID: PMC1671608  PMID: 1760603

Results 1-9 (9)