One of the major problems associated with the chemotherapy of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) that selectively kills tumor cells is decreased drug resistance. This warranted the development of safe novel pharmacological agents that could sensitize the tumor cells to TRAIL. Here in, we examined the role of aldose reductase (AR) in sensitizing cancer cells to TRAIL and potentiating TRAIL-induced apoptosis of human colon cancer cells. We demonstrate that AR inhibition potentiates TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells by upregulation of both death receptor (DR)-5 and DR4. Knockdown of DR5 and DR4 significantly (>85%) reduced the sensitizing effect of AR inhibitor. fidarestat, on TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Further, AR inhibition also down-regulates cell survival proteins (Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, survivin, XIAP, and FLIP) and up-regulates the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins such as Bax and alters mitochondrial membrane potential leading to cytochrome-C release, caspases-3 activation and PARP cleavage. We found that AR inhibition regulates AKT/PI3K-dependent activation of forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a. Knockdown of FOXO3a significantly (>80%) abolished AR inhibition-induced upregulation of DR5 and DR4 and apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Overall, our results show that fidarestat, potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of cell survival proteins and upregulation of death receptors via activation of AKT/FOXO3a pathway.
Colon cancer; TRAIL; Aldose reductase; Death receptors; apoptosis
Airway inflammation induced by reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors is the hallmark of asthma, a prevalent chronic respiratory disease. In various cellular and animal models, we have recently demonstrated that, in response to multiple stimuli, aldose reductase (AR) regulates the inflammatory signals mediated by NF-κB. Because NF-κB-mediated inflammation is a major characteristic of asthma pathogenesis, we have investigated the effect of AR inhibition on NF-κB and various inflammatory markers in cellular and animal models of asthma using primary human small airway epithelial cells and OVA-sensitized/challenged C57BL/6 mice, respectively. We observed that pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of AR by small interfering RNA prevented TNF-α- as well as LPS-induced apoptosis; reactive oxygen species generation; synthesis of inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2; and activation of NF-κB and AP-1 in small airway epithelial cells. In OVA-challenged mice, we observed that administration of an AR inhibitor markedly reduced airway hyperresponsiveness, IgE levels, eisonophils infiltration, and release of Th2 type cytokines in the airway. Our results indicate that AR inhibitors may offer a novel therapeutic approach to treat inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma.
Aims: We have shown earlier that inhibition of aldose reductase (AR), an oxidative stress-response protein, prevents colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Changes in microribonucleic acid (miR) expression can contribute to cancer by modulating the functional expression of critical genes involved in cancer growth and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which AR regulates miR expression and their dependent mitogenic effects in cancer cells are not known. Therefore, we investigated how AR regulates growth factor-induced expression of miRs and growth of colon cancer cells. Results: Inhibition of AR significantly downregulated growth factor-induced miR-21 expression in human colon cancer cells, HT29, SW480, and Caco-2. Further, AR inhibition also increased phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) (a direct target of miR-21) and forkhead box O3A (FOXO3a) in colon cancer cells. Our results obtained with HT29 cells ablated with FOXO3a siRNA showed increased activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation and miR-21 expression, indicating that FOXO3a represses miR-21 via AP-1 inactivation. Inhibition of AR also prevented the epidermal growth factor-induced phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), serine/threonine kinase (AKT), c-Jun, c-Fos, PTEN, and FOXO3a, and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding activity of AP-1. More importantly, in human colon adenocarcinoma xenograft tissues, miR-21 expression was lower, and PTEN and FOXO3a levels were significantly higher in AR inhibitor-treated mice compared to controls. Innovation: These findings demonstrate a novel role of AR in the regulation of miR-21 and its target PTEN in growth factor-induced colon cancer cell growth. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show a novel role of AR in mediation of growth factor-induced colon cancer growth by modulating miR-21, PTEN, and FOXO3a expression through reactive oxygen species (ROS)/PI3K/AKT/AP-1. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1249–1262.
Airway inflammation induced by reactive oxygen species-mediated activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors is the hallmark of asthma, a prevalent chronic respiratory disease. In various cellular and animal models, we have recently demonstrated that, in response to multiple stimuli, aldose reductase (AKR1B1) regulates the inflammatory signals via NF-kappa B activation. Since NF-κB activation is implicated in asthma pathogenesis, we investigated whether AKR1B1 inhibition could prevent ovalbumin (Ova)- and ragweed pollen extract (RWE)-induced airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness in mice models and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-, lipopolysachharide (LPS)- and RWE-induced cytotoxic and inflammatory signals in primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). Sensitization and challenge with Ova or RWE caused airway inflammation and production of inflammatory cytokines, accumulation of eosinophils in airways and sub-epithelial regions, mucin production in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, airway hyperresponsiveness, elevated IgE levels and release of Th2 cytokines in the airway and treatment with AKR1B1 inhibitors markedly reduced these pathological changes in mice. In SAEC, treatment with TNF-α, LPS or RWE induced apoptosis, reactive oxygen species generation, synthesis of inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, and PGE2 and activation of NF-κB and AP-1. Pharmacological inhibition prevented these changes suggesting that AKR1B1 mediates ROS induced inflammation in small airway epithelial cells. Our results indicate that AKR1B1 inhibitors may offer a novel therapeutic approach to treat inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma.
airway inflammation; aldose reductase; ROS; asthma; ragweed pollen extract
Protein thiol modifications occur under both physiological and pathological conditions and can regulate protein function, redox signaling, and cell viability. The thiolation of proteins by glutathione appears to be a particularly important mode of post-translational modification that is increased under conditions of oxidative or nitrosative stress. Modification of proteins by glutathiolation has been shown to affect the structure and function of several susceptible proteins and protect them from subsequent oxidative injury. In many cases, the glutathiolated proteins are low in abundance, and de-thiolation occurs readily. Therefore, sensitive, reliable, and reproducible methods are required for measuring both the total levels of protein glutathiolation and for identifying glutathiolated proteins under given conditions. These methods necessitate the preservation or the controlled removal of the glutathione adducts during sample preparation for the accurate measurement of total S-glutathiolation and for identification of protein-glutathione adducts. In this article, we briefly review and provide protocols for chemical, mass spectrometric, immunological, and radioactive tagging techniques for measuring protein S-glutathiolation in cells and tissues.
Metastable aldehydes produced by lipid peroxidation act as 'toxic second messengers' that extend the injurious potential of free radicals. 4-hydroxy 2-nonenal (HNE), a highly toxic and most abundant stable end product of lipid peroxidation, has been implicated in the tissue damage, dysfunction, injury associated with aging and other pathological states such as cancer, Alzheimer, diabetes, cardiovascular and inflammatory complications. Further, HNE has been considered as a oxidative stress marker and it act as a secondary signaling molecule to regulates a number of cell signaling pathways. Biological activity of HNE depends on its intracellular concentration, which can differentially modulate cell death, growth and differentiation. Therefore, the mechanisms responsible for maintaining the intracellular levels of HNE are most important, not only in the defense against oxidative stress but also in the pathophysiology of a number of disease processes. In this review, we discusse the significance of HNE in mediating various disease processes and how regulation of its metabolism could be therapeutically effective.
4-hydroxy 2-nonenal; oxidative stress; cancer; cataract; Alzheimer
Colon cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women worldwide. The deregulated cell cycle control or decreased apoptosis of normal epithelial cells leading to uncontrolled proliferation is one of the major features of tumor progression. We have previously shown that aldose reductase (AR), a NADPH dependent- aldo-keto reductase, has been shown to be involved in growth factors–induced proliferation of colon cancer cells. Herein, we report that inhibition of AR prevents epidermal growth factor (EGF) - and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)–induced HT29 cell proliferation by accumulating cells at G1 phase of cell cycle. Similar results were observed in SW480 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Treatment of HT29 cells with AR inhibitor, sorbinil or zopolrestat prevented EGF– and bFGF-induced DNA binding activity of E2F-1 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Inhibition of AR also prevented EGF– and bFGF-induced phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-2 and expression of G1/S transition regulatory proteins such as cyclin D1, cdk-4, PCNA, cyclin E and c-myc. More importantly, inhibition of AR prevented the EGF– and bFGF-induced activation of PI3K/AKT and reactive oxygen species generation in colon cancer cells. Further, inhibition of AR also prevented the tumor growth of human colon cancer cells in nude mice xenografts. Collectively, these results show that AR mediates EGF– and bFGF–induced colon cancer cell proliferation by activating/expressing G1/S phase proteins such as E2F-1, cdks and cyclins through ROS/PI3K/AKT indicating the use of AR inhibitors in the prevention of colon carcinogenesis.
Aldose reductase; cell cycle; E2F-1; colon cancer; cyclins
4-Hydroxy-trans 2-nonenal (HNE) is one of the most abundant and toxic lipid aldehydes formed during lipid peroxidation by reactive oxygen species. We have investigated the genotoxic effects of HNE and its regulation by cellular glutathione (GSH) levels in human erythroleukemia (K562) cells. Incubation of K562 cells with HNE (5–10 μM) significantly elicited a 3- to 5-fold increased DNA damage in a time and dose dependent manner as measured by comet assay. Depletion of GSH in cells by L-Buthionine-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO) significantly increased HNE-induced DNA damage, whereas supplementation of GSH by incubating the cells with GSH-ethyl ester significantly decreased HNE-induced genotoxicity. Further, over-expression of mGSTA4-4, a HNE detoxifying GST isozyme, significantly prevented HNE-induced DNA damage in cells, and ablation of GSTA4-4 and aldose reductase with respective siRNAs further augmented HNE-induced DNA damage. These results suggest that the genotoxicity of HNE is highly dependent on cellular GSH/GST/AR levels and favorable modulation of the aldehyde detoxification system may help in controlling the oxidative stress- induced complications.
HNE; DNA Damage; GSH; GST; aldose reductase; comet assay
Inhibition of polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase (AR) has been shown to prevent colon cancer cells growth in culture and in nude mice xenografts. However, the role of AR in the mediation of growth factor-induced colon cancer cells growth is not well understood. In this study, we have investigated how AR inhibition prevents tumor growth via regulation of microRNA (miR)-21-mediated PDCD4 expression in colon cancer cells in in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of colon cancer cells (HT29, SW480 and Caco-2) with EGF caused increased expression of miR-21 and inhibition of AR prevented it. Further, AR inhibition also increased PDCD4, a putative target of miR-21 in human colon cancer cells. Inhibition of AR also prevented EGF-induced phosphorylation of PDCD4. Treatment of HT29 cells with AR inhibitor, fidarestat, prevented the EGF-induced phosphorylation of mTOR, Raptor, eIF4E, S6K and 4E-BP1 and increased the phosphorylation of AMPK. Similarly, in nude mice xenograft tissues, PDCD4 and 4E-BP1 levels were significantly higher in AR inhibitor-treated mice compared to controls. Collectively, these results indicate that AR inhibition prevents growth factors-induced colon cancer growth by down-regulating miR-21 expression and increasing PDCD4 levels through the ROS/AMPK/mTOR/AP1/4E-BP1 pathway.
Aldose reductase (AR) initially thought to be involved in the secondary diabetic complications because of its glucose reducing potential. However, evidence from recent studies indicates that AR is an excellent reducer of a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes as well as their glutathione conjugates, which regulate inflammatory signals initiated by oxidants such as cytokines, growth factors and bacterial endotoxins, and revealed the potential use of AR inhibition as an approach to prevent inflammatory complications.
An extensive Internet and Medline search was performed to retrieve information on understanding the role of AR inhibition in the pathophysiology of endotoxin-mediated inflammatory disorders. Overall, inhibition of AR appears to be a promising strategy for the treatment of endotoxemia, sepsis and other related inflammatory diseases.
Current knowledge provides enough evidence to indicate that AR inhibition is a logical therapeutic strategy for the treatment of endotoxin-related inflammatory diseases. Since, AR inhibitors have already gone to Phase-iii clinical studies for diabetic complications and found to be safe for human use, their use in endotoxin–related inflammatory diseases could be expedited. However, one of the major challenges will be the discovery of AR regulated clinically-relevant biomarkers to identify susceptible individuals at risk of developing inflammatory diseases, thereby warranting future research in this area.
Aldose Reductase; Endotoxin; Inflammation; Sepsis
Long-term and unresolved airway inflammation and airway remodeling, characteristic features of chronic asthma, if not treated could lead to permanent structural changes in the airways. Aldose reductase (AR), an aldo-sugar and lipid aldehyde metabolizing enzyme, mediates allergen-induced airway inflammation in mice, but its role in the airway remodeling is not known. In the present study, we have examined the role of AR on airway remodeling using ovalbumin (OVA)-induced chronic asthma mouse model and cultured human primary airway epithelial cells (SAECs) and mouse lung fibroblasts (mLFs).
Airway remodeling in chronic asthma model was established in mice sensitized and challenged twice a week with OVA for 6 weeks. AR inhibitor, fidarestat, was administered orally in drinking water after first challenge. Inflammatory cells infiltration in the lungs and goblet cell metaplasia, airway thickening, collagen deposition and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) in response to increasing doses of methacholine were assessed. The TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in SAECs and changes in mLFs were examined to investigate AR-mediated molecular mechanism(s) of airway remodeling.
In the OVA-exposed mice for 6 wks inflammatory cells infiltration, levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, goblet cell metaplasia, collagen deposition and AHR were significantly decreased by treatment with AR inhibitor, fidarestat. Further, inhibition of AR prevented TGFβ1-induced altered expression of E-cadherin, Vimentin, Occludin, and MMP-2 in SAECs, and alpha-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin in mLFs. Further, in SAECs, AR inhibition prevented TGFβ1- induced activation of PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathway but not the phosphorylation of Smad2/3.
Our results demonstrate that allergen-induced airway remodeling is mediated by AR and its inhibition blocks the progression of remodeling via inhibiting TGFβ1-induced Smad-independent and PI3K/AKT/GSK3β-dependent pathway.
The metabolism of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE), an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde generated during lipid peroxidation, was studied in isolated perfused rat hearts. High performance liquid chromatography separation of radioactive metabolites recovered from [3H]HNE-treated hearts revealed four major peaks. Based on the retention times of synthesized standards, peak I, which accounted for 20% radioactivity administered to the heart, was identified to be due to glutathione conjugates of HNE. Peaks II and III, containing 2 and 37% radioactivity, were assigned to 1,4-dihydroxy-2-nonene (DHN) and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid, respectively. Peak IV was due to unmetabolized HNE. The electrospray ionization mass spectrum of peak I revealed two prominent metabolites with m/z values corresponding to [M + H]+ of HNE and DHN conjugates with glutathione. The presence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid in peak III was substantiated using gas chromatography-chemical ionization mass spectroscopy. When exposed to sorbinil, an inhibitor of aldose reductase, no GS-DHN was recovered in the coronary effluent, and treatment with cyanamide, an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, attenuated 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid formation. These results show that the major metabolic transformations of HNE in rat heart involve conjugation with glutathione and oxidation to 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid. Further metabolism of the GS-HNE conjugate involves aldose reductase-mediated reduction, a reaction catalyzed in vitro by homogenous cardiac aldose reductase.
To investigate the therapeutic effects of metformin, a commonly used antidiabetic drug, in preventing endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats.
EIU in Lewis rats was developed by subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 μg). Metformin (300 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) or its carrier was injected either 12 hours before or 2 hours after LPS induction. Three and 24 hours after EIU, eyes were enucleated and aqueous humor (AqH) was collected. The MILLIPLEX-MAG Rat cytokine-chemokine magnetic bead array was used to determine inflammatory cytokines. The expression of Cox-2, phosphorylation of AMPK, and NF-κB (p65) were determined immunohistochemically. Primary human nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPECs) were used to determine the in vitro efficacy of metformin.
Compared with controls, the EIU rat AqH had significantly increased number of infiltrating cells and increased levels of various cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, IL-1β, MIP-1α, IL-6, Leptin, and IL-18) and metformin significantly prevented the increase. Metformin also prevented the expression of Cox-2 and phosphorylation of p65, and increased the activation of AMPK in the ciliary bodies and retinal tissues. Moreover, metformin prevented the expression of Cox-2, iNOS, and activation of NF-kB in the HNPECs and decreased the levels of NO and PGE2 in cell culture media.
Our results for the first time demonstrate a novel role of the antidiabetic drug, metformin, in suppressing uveitis in rats and suggest that this drug could be developed to prevent uveitis complications.
Our studies found that metformin, a commonly used drug for diabetes, prevents endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats via activating AMPK and suppressing NF-kB-mediated ocular inflammatory response. Thus, our studies indicate that metformin could be developed as a potential agent to prevent uveitis.
Bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to induce release of arachidonic acid (AA) and its metabolic products which play important role in inflammatory process. We have shown earlier that LPS-induced signals in macrophages are mediated by aldose reductase (AR). Here we have investigated the role of AR in LPS-induced release of AA metabolites and their modulation using a potent pharmacological inhibitor fidarestat and AR-siRNA ablation in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and AR-knockout mice peritoneal macrophages and heart tissue. Inhibition or genetic ablation of AR prevented the LPS-induced synthesis and release of AA metabolites such as PGE2, TXB, PGI2 and LTBs in macrophages. LPS-induced activation of cPLA2 was also prevented by AR inhibition. Similarly, AR inhibition also prevented the calcium ionophore A23187 –induced cPLA2 and LTB4 in macrophages. Further, AR inhibition with fidarestat prevented the expression of AA metabolizing enzymes such as COX-2 and LOX-5 in RAW 264.7 cells and AR-knockout mice derived peritoneal macrophages. LPS-induced expression of AA metabolizing enzymes and their catalyzed metabolic products were significantly lower in peritoneal macrophages and heart tissue from AR-knockout mice. LPS-induced activation of redox-sensitive signaling intermediates such as MAPKs, transcription factor NF-kB as well as Egr-1, a transcription regulator of mPGES-1, which in collaboration with COX-2 leads to the production of PGE2, were also significantly prevented by AR inhibition. Taken together, our results indicate that AR mediates LPS-induced inflammation by regulating AA metabolic pathway and thus provide novel role of AR inhibition in preventing inflammatory complications such as sepsis.
LPS; Inflammation; Aldose reductase; Arachidonic acid; COX-2 and LOX-5
Oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) generates high concentrations of unsaturated aldehydes, such as 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal (HNE). These aldehydes are mitogenic to vascular smooth muscle cells and sustain a vascular inflammation. Nevertheless, the processes that mediate and regulate the vascular metabolism of these aldehydes have not been examined. In this communication, we report the identification of the major metabolic pathways and products of [3H]-HNE in rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture. High-performance liquid chromatography separation of the radioactivity recovered from these cells revealed that a large (60–65%) proportion of the metabolism was linked to glutathione (GSH). Electrospray mass spectrometry showed that glutathionyl-1,4 dihydroxynonene (GS-DHN) was the major metabolite of HNE in these cells. The formation of GS-DHN appears to be due aldose reductase (AR)-catalyzed reduction of glutathionyl 4-hydroxynonanal (GS-HNE), since inhibitors of AR (tolrestat or sorbinil) prevented GS-DHN formation, and increased the fraction of the glutathione conjugate remaining as GS-HNE. Gas chromatography–chemical ionization mass spectroscopy of the metabolites identified a subsidiary route of HNE metabolism leading to the formation of 4-hydroxynonanoic acid (HNA). Oxidation to HNA accounted for 25–30% of HNE metabolism. The formation of HNA was inhibited by cyanamide, indicating that the acid is derived from an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-catalyzed pathway. The overall rate of HNE metabolism was insensitive to inhibition of AR or ALDH, although inhibition of HNA formation by cyanamide led to a corresponding increase in the fraction of HNE metabolized by the GSH-linked pathway, indicating that ALDH-catalyzed oxidation competes with glutathione conjugation. These metabolic pathways may be the key regulators of the vascular effects of HNE and oxidized LDL.
Lipid peroxidation; 4-Hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal; Glutathione conjugates; Aldose reductase; Vascular smooth muscle cells; Atherosclerosis
The objective of this study was to determine whether the polyol pathway enzyme aldose reductase mediates diabetes abnormalities in vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) growth. Aldose reductase inhibitors (tolrestat or sorbinil) or antisense aldose reductase mRNA prevented hyperproliferation of cultured rat aortic SMCs induced by high glucose. Cell cycle progression in the presence of high glucose was blocked by tolrestat, which induced a G0-G1 phase growth arrest. In situ, diabetes increased SMC growth and intimal hyperplasia in balloon-injured carotid arteries of streptozotocin-treated rats, when examined 7 or 14 days after injury. Treatment with tolrestat (15 mg · kg−1 · day−1) diminished intimal hyperplasia and decreased SMC content of the lesion by 25%. Although tolrestat treatment increased immunoreactivity of the lesion with antibodies raised against protein adducts of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy trans-2-nonenal, no compensatory increase in lesion fibrosis was observed. Collectively, these results suggest that inhibition of aldose reductase prevents glucose-induced stimulation of SMC growth in culture and in situ. Even though inhibition of aldose reductase increases vascular oxidative stress, this approach may be useful in preventing abnormal SMC growth in vessels of diabetic patients.
Colon cancer is the third most common cause of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the USA. Although inhibition of aldose reductase (AR) is known to prevent human colon cancer cell growth in nude mice xenografts, the role of AR in the regulation of cancer metastasis is not known. We now demonstrate the mechanisms by which AR regulates colon cancer metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of AR prevented the epidermal growth factor (EGF) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-induced migration and invasion of human colon cancer (HT29; KM20) cells by >70% and also inhibited (>80%) the adhesion of the cancer cells to endothelial cells. Treatment of endothelial cells with AR inhibitors significantly (∼85%) downregulated the EGF or FGF-induced expression of Inter-Cellular Adhesion Molecule-1, Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular endothelial-cadherin. Furthermore, liver metastasis of green fluorescent protein-labeled KM20 cells injected into the spleen of athymic nude mice was significantly (>65%) prevented by AR inhibitor, fidarestat or ARsiRNA delivered systemically into the mice. Similar results were observed with HT29 cells. AR inhibition or ablation also prevented (70–90%) the increase in the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2, cyclin D1, CD31, CD34 and the activation of nuclear factor-kappa-binding protein in metastatic liver. Thus, our results indicate that AR regulates cancer cell adhesion, invasion and migration events which initiate metastasis and therefore, AR inhibition could be a novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of colon cancer metastasis.
It is strongly established by numerous studies that oxidative stress-induced inflammation is one of the major causative agents in a variety of cancers. Various factors such as bacterial, viral, parasitic infections, chemical irritants, carcinogens are involved in the initiation of oxidative stress-mediated inflammation. Chronic and persistent inflammation promotes the formation of cancerous tumors. Recent investigations strongly suggest that aldose reductase [AR; AKR1B1], a member of aldo-keto reductase superfamily of proteins, is the mediator of inflammatory signals induced by growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, carcinogens etc. Further, AR reduced product(s) of lipid derived aldehydes and their metabolites such as glutathionyl 1,4-dihydroxynonanol (GS-DHN) have been shown to be involved in the activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB and AP-1 which transcribe the genes of inflammatory cytokines. The increased inflammatory cytokines and growth factors promote cell proliferation, a main feature involved in the tumorigenesis process. Inhibition of AR has been shown to prevent cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo models. In this review, we have described the possible association between AR with oxidative stress- and inflammation- initiated carcinogenesis. A thorough understanding of the role of AR in the inflammation – associated cancers could lead to the use of AR inhibitors as novel chemotherapeutic agents against cancer.
Aldose reductase; Oxidative stress; Inflammation; Cancer and NF-kB
Oxidative stress-induced inflammation is a major contributor to several disease conditions including sepsis, carcinogenesis and metastasis, diabetic complications, allergic asthma, uveitis and after cataract surgery posterior capsular opacification. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors are characteristics of inflammatory disorders, we envisioned that by blocking the molecular signals of ROS that activate redox-sensitive transcription factors, various inflammatory diseases could be ameliorated. We have indeed demonstrated that ROS –induced lipid peroxidation-derived lipid aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) and their glutathione-conjugates (e.g. GS-HNE) are efficiently reduced by aldose reductase to corresponding alcohols which mediate the inflammatory signals. Our results showed that inhibition of aldose reductase (AKR1B1) significantly prevented the inflammatory signals induced by cytokines, growth factors, endotoxins, high glucose, allergens and auto-immune reactions in cellular as well as animal models. We have demonstrated that AKR1B1 inhibitor, fidarestat, significantly prevents tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-, growth factors-, lipopolysachharide (LPS)-, and environmental allergens-induced inflammatory signals that cause various inflammatory diseases. In animal models of inflammatory diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular, uveitis, asthma, and cancer (colon, breast, prostate and lung) and metastasis, inhibition of AKR1B1 significantly ameliorated the disease. Our results from various cellular and animal models representing a number of inflammatory conditions suggest that ROS-induced inflammatory response could be reduced by inhibition of AKR1B1, thereby decreasing the progression of the disease and if the therapy is initiated early, the disease could be eliminated. Since fidarestat has already undergone phase III clinical trial for diabetic neuropathy and found to be safe, though clinically not very effective, our results indicate that it can be developed for the therapy of a number of inflammation- related diseases. Our results thus offer a novel therapeutic approach to treat a wide array of inflammatory diseases.
inflammation; oxidative stress; aldose reductase; ROS; colon cancer; uveitis; asthma
Aldose reductase (AKR1B1), which catalyzes the reduction of glucose to sorbitol and lipid aldehydes to lipid alcohols, has been shown to be involved in secondary diabetic complications including cataractogenesis. Rats have high levels of AKR1B1 in lenses and readily develop diabetic cataracts, whereas mice have very low levels of AKR1B1 in their lenses and are not susceptible to hyperglycemic cataracts. Studies with transgenic mice that over-express AKR1B1 indicate that it is the key protein for the development of diabetic complications including diabetic cataract. However, no such studies were performed in genetically altered AKR1B1 rats. Hence, we developed siRNA-based AKR1B1 knockdown rats (ARKO) using the AKR1B1-siRNA-pSuper vector construct. Genotyping analysis suggested that more than 90% of AKR1B1 was knocked down in the littermates. Interestingly, all the male animals were born dead and only 3 female rats survived. Furthermore, all 3 female animals were not able to give birth to F1 generation. Hence, we could not establish an AKR1B1 rat knockdown colony. However, we examined the effect of AKR1B1 knockdown on sugar-induced lens opacification in ex vivo. Our results indicate that rat lenses obtained from AKR1B1 knockdown rats were resistant to high glucose–induced lens opacification as compared to wild-type (WT) rat lenses. Biochemical analysis of lens homogenates showed that the AKR1B1 activity and sorbitol levels were significantly lower in sugar-treated AKR1B1 knockdown rat lenses as compared to WT rat lenses treated with 50 mM glucose. Our results thus confirmed the significance of AKR1B1 in the mediation of sugar-induced lens opacification and indicate the use of AKR1B1 inhibitors in the prevention of cataractogenesis.
Aldose Reductase; SiRNA knock-down Rats; Lens Opacification; Cataract; Oxidative Stress
We have recently shown that aldose reductase (AR, EC 18.104.22.168) a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent aldo-keto reductase, known to be involved in oxidative stress-signaling, prevents human colon cancer cell growth in culture as well as in nude mice xenografts. Inhibition of AR also prevents azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation in mice. In order to understand the chemopreventive mechanism(s) of AR inhibition in colon cancer, we have investigated the role of AR in the mediation of angiogenic signals in vitro and in vivo models. Our results show that inhibition of AR significantly prevented the VEGF- and FGF -induced proliferation and expression of proliferative marker Ki67 in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Further, AR inhibition or ablation with siRNA prevented the VEGF-and FGF –induced invasion and migration in HUVEC. AR inhibition also prevented the VEGF-and FGF- induced secretion/expression of IL-6, MMP2, MMP9, ICAM, and VCAM. The anti-angiogenic feature of AR inhibition in HUVEC was associated with inactivation of PI3K/AKT and NF-κB (p65) and suppression of VEGF receptor 2 protein levels. Most importantly, matrigel plug model of angiogenesis in rats showed that inhibition of AR prevented infiltration of blood cells, invasion, migration and formation of capillary like structures, and expression of blood vessels markers CD31 and vWF. Thus, our results demonstrate that AR inhibitors could be novel agents to prevent angiogenesis.
Aldose reductase; angiogenesis; endothelial cells; cancer; inflammation
The results of this study suggest that AR deficiency protects against autoimmune- and endotoxin-induced uveitis in mice. Thus, inhibition of this enzyme could be a novel approach for the therapeutic interventions of ocular inflammatory complications such as uveitis. Since AR inhibitors have already undergone phase III clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic complications and were found to be safe without any major toxicity, they could be developed as novel anti-inflammatory drugs for the prevention of uveitis complications in a relatively shorter time.
To investigate the effect of aldose reductase (AR) deficiency in protecting the chronic experimental autoimmune (EAU) and acute endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in c57BL/6 mice.
The WT and AR-null (ARKO) mice were immunized with human interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding peptide (hIRPB-1–20), to induce EAU, or were injected subcutaneously with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg) to induce EIU. The mice were killed on day 21 for EAU and at 24 hours for EIU, when the disease was at its peak, and the eyes were immediately enucleated for histologic and biochemical studies. Spleen-derived T-lymphocytes were used to study the antigen-specific immune response in vitro and in vivo.
In WT-EAU mice, severe damage to the retinal wall, especially to the photoreceptor layer was observed, corresponding to a pathologic score of ∼2, which was significantly prevented in the ARKO or AR inhibitor–treated mice. The levels of cytokines and chemokines increased markedly in the whole-eye homogenates of WT-EAU mice, but not in ARKO-EAU mice. Further, expression of inflammatory marker proteins such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 was increased in the WT-EIU mouse eyes but not in the ARKO-EIU eyes. The T cells proliferated vigorously when exposed to the hIRPB antigen in vitro and secreted various cytokines and chemokines, which were significantly inhibited in the T cells isolated from the ARKO mice.
These findings suggest that AR-deficiency/inhibition protects against acute as well as chronic forms of ocular inflammatory complications such as uveitis.
The authors' studies indicate that the treatment of rats with an aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor significantly prevented leukocyte infiltration and increased inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in rat aqueous humor and in eye tissues in response to experimental autoimmune-induced uveitis. These results provide a novel therapeutic approach to preventing uveitis complications by using AR inhibitors.
Recently, the authors showed that the inhibition of aldose reductase (AR) prevents bacterial endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats. They have now investigated the efficacy of AR inhibitors in the prevention of experimental autoimmune-induced uveitis (EAU) in rats.
Lewis rats were immunized with bovine interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding peptide (IRBP) to develop EAU. Two or 8 days after immunization, the rats started receiving the AR inhibitor fidarestat (7 mg/kg/d; intraperitoneally). They were killed when the disease was at its peak; aqueous humor (AqH) was collected from one eye, and the other eye of each rat was used for histologic studies. The protein concentration and the levels of inflammatory markers were determined in AqH. Immunohistochemical analysis of eye sections was performed to determine the expression of inflammatory markers. The effect of AR inhibition on immune response was investigated in isolated T lymphocytes.
Immunization of rats by IRBP peptide resulted in a significant infiltration of leukocytes in the posterior and the anterior chambers of the eye. Further, EAU caused an increase in the concentration of proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines in AqH, and the expression of inflammatory markers such as inducible-nitric oxide synthase and cycloxygenase-2 in the rat eye ciliary bodies and retina. Treatment with fidarestat significantly prevented the EAU-induced ocular inflammatory changes. AR inhibition also prevented the proliferation of spleen-derived T cells isolated from EAU rats in response to the IRBP antigen.
These results suggest that AR could be a novel mediator of bovine IRBP-induced uveitis in rats.
Childhood hospitalization related to asthma remains at historically high levels, and its incidence is on the rise world-wide. Previously, we have demonstrated that aldose reductase (AR), a regulatory enzyme of polyol pathway, is a major mediator of allergen-induced asthma pathogenesis in mouse models. Here, using AR null (AR-/-) mice we have investigated the effect of AR deficiency on the pathogenesis of ragweed pollen extract (RWE)-induced allergic asthma in mice and also examined the efficacy of enteral administration of highly specific AR inhibitor, fidarestat.
The wild type (WT) and AR-/- mice were sensitized and challenged with RWE to induce allergic asthma. AR inhibitor, fidarestat was administered orally. Airway hyper-responsiveness was measured in unrestrained animals using whole body plethysmography. Mucin levels and Th2 cytokine in broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) were determined using mouse anti-Muc5A/C ELISA kit and multiplex cytokine array, respectively. Eosinophils infiltration and goblet cells were assessed by H&E and periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung sections. T regulatory cells were assessed in spleen derived CD4+CD25+ T cells population.
Deficiency of AR in mice led to significantly decreased PENH, a marker of airway hyper-responsiveness, metaplasia of airway epithelial cells and mucus hyper-secretion following RWE-challenge. This was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in infiltration of eosinophils into sub-epithelium of lung as well as in BAL and release of Th2 cytokines in response to RWE-challenge of AR-/- mice. Further, enteral administration of fidarestat significantly prevented eosinophils infiltration, airway hyper-responsiveness and also markedly increased population of T regulatory (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) cells as compared to RWE-sensitized and challenged mice not treated with fidarestat.
Our results using AR-/- mice strongly suggest the role of AR in allergic asthma pathogenesis and effectiveness of oral administration of AR inhibitor in RWE-induced asthma in mice supports the use of AR inhibitors in the treatment of allergic asthma.
aldose reductase; allergic asthma; inflammation; ragweed pollen extract
Aldose reductase, although identified initially as a glucose-reducing enzyme via polyol pathway, is believed to be an important component of antioxidant defense system as well as a key mediator of oxidative stress-induced molecular signaling. The dual role played by AR has made it a very important enzyme for the regulation of not only the cellular redox state by detoxifying the reactive lipid-aldehydes generated by lipid peroxidation which is crucial in the cellular homeostasis, but also in the regulation of molecular signaling cascade that may regulate oxidative stress-induced cytotoxic events. Search for the new molecular targets to restrain the oxidative stress-induced inflammation has resulted in the identification of AR as an unanticipated mediator of oxidative stress-induced signaling. Although, in last one decade or so AR has been implicated in various inflammation-related disease conditions ranging from diabetes, sepsis, cancer, cardiovascular and airway inflammation, however, a critical evaluation of the clinical efficacy of AR inhibitors awaits a better understanding of the role of AR in regulating inflammation, especially in ocular inflammation.
Aldose reductase; inflammation; uveitis; NF-κB; GS-DHN; infection; autoimmunity