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1.  Methyl 1-phenyl-3-p-tolyl-1,9b-di­hydro-3H-chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a(4H)-carboxyl­ate 
In the title compound, C25H23NO4, the pyran ring of the chroman moiety has an envelope conformation with the methyl­ene C atom as the flap. The isoxazole ring has a twist conformation on the O—C bond. The dihedral angle between their mean planes is 57.87 (9)°. The attached phenyl and benzene rings are twisted away from its mean plane by 56.19 (10) and 50.57 (10)°, respectively. These two rings are normal to each other, subtending a dihedral angle of 89.2 (1)°. In the crystal, there are no classical hydrogen bonds; the mol­ecules are linked via C—H⋯π inter­actions, forming a two-dimensional network lying parallel to (10-1).
doi:10.1107/S1600536814002438
PMCID: PMC3998385  PMID: 24764992
2.  8-Bromo-3-(4-ethyl­phen­yl)-1-phenyl-3,3a,4,9b-tetra­hydro-1H-chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-carbo­nitrile 
In the title compound, C25H21BrN2O2, the fused isoxazolidine ring adopts an envelope conformation with the N atom at the flap and the mean plane of the ring makes dihedral angles of 54.37 (12) and 87.32 (13)°, respectively, with the adjacent phenyl and benzene rings. The tetra­hydro­pyran ring has a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into a double-column structure along the b-axis direction through weak C—H⋯O and C—H⋯π inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813023982
PMCID: PMC3790401  PMID: 24098220
3.  Methyl 2-[(2-chloro­quinolin-3-yl)(hy­droxy)meth­yl]acrylate 
There are two independent mol­ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C14H12ClNO3. The mean planes of the methyl ester unit (Cmeth­yl—O—C=O; r.m.s. deviation = 0.051 Å for mol­ecule A and 0.016 Å for mol­ecule B) and the chloro­quilonine ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.023 Å for mol­ecule A and 0.014 Å for mol­ecule B) form dihedral angles of 63.5 (1)° in mol­ecule A and 78.1 (1)° in mol­ecule B. The main difference between the two independent mol­ecules is reflected in the (H)O—C—C=C(H2) torsion angle which is −109.7 (2)° in mol­ecule A and 10.6 (2)° in mol­ecule B. An intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in mol­ecule A. In the crystal, mol­ecules A and B are linked into pairs via bifurcated O—H⋯(N,Cl) hydrogen bonds and a weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bond links pairs of mol­ecules into chains along [100].
doi:10.1107/S1600536813014050
PMCID: PMC3685122  PMID: 23795141
4.  2-[(2-Chloro­quinolin-3-yl)(hy­droxy)meth­yl]acrylo­nitrile 
In the title compound, C13H9ClN2O, the dihedral angle between the acrylo­nitrile C=C—CN plane and the quilonine ring system is 71.3 (2)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [01-1]. The chains are linked into a three-dimensional network through C—H⋯N inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813010155
PMCID: PMC3648303  PMID: 23723923
5.  rac-3-(4-Chloro­phen­yl)-3a,4-di­hydro-3H-chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-carbo­nitrile 
The title compound, C17H11ClN2O2, which contains two stereogenic C atoms, crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group as a racemate. The pyran ring and the isoxazole ring adopt sofa and twisted conformations, respectively. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the mean plane through the near coplanar atoms of the pyran ring is 4.17 (5)°. The mol­ecular conformation features a weak C—H⋯O contact. In the crystal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules, forming chains along the a-axis direction.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813009653
PMCID: PMC3648249  PMID: 23723869
6.  rac-Methyl 3-(2-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-3a,4-di­hydro-3H-chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-carboxyl­ate 
The title compound, C19H17NO5, comprising two stereogenic C atoms of the same configuration, crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group as a racemate. The pyran ring adopts a half-chair conformation, while the isoxazole ring adopts an envelope conformation with the C atom bonded to the meth­oxy­phenyl group as the flap. The dihedral angle between the mean plane of the pyran ring and the adjacent benzene ring is 5.86 (5)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by a weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bond, forming a chain along the a axis.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813008635
PMCID: PMC3647860  PMID: 23723826
7.  8-Bromo-3-phenyl-3a,4-dihydro-3H-chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-carbo­nitrile 
In the title compound, C17H11BrN2O2, the five-membered isoxazole ring has an envelope conformation with the C atom bearing the phenyl ring as the flap. The pyran ring has a half-chair conformation. In the chromeno ring system, the dihedral angle between the mean plane of the pyran ring and the benzene ring is 4.68 (2)°. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the chromeno ring system and the isoxazole ring is 13.79 (15)°. The latter forms a dihedral angle of 34.10 (17)° with the phenyl ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming an undulating two-dimensional network parallel to the ab plane.
doi:10.1107/S1600536813002511
PMCID: PMC3569831  PMID: 23424577
8.  Methyl 6-eth­oxy-3-phenyl-3a,4-dihydro-3H-chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-car­boxylate 
In the title compound, C20H19NO5, the dihedral angle between the mean plane of the pyran ring (which has a half-chair conformation) and the benzene ring of the chromeno ring system is 7.21 (7)°. The dihedral angle between the mean plane of the chromeno ring system and the isoxazole ring is 21.78 (6)°, while the isoxazole ring forms a dihedral angle of 72.60 (8)° with the attached phenyl ring. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked via pairs of C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R 2 2(10) ring motif. These dimers are linked via C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [001].
doi:10.1107/S1600536812051720
PMCID: PMC3569242  PMID: 23424465
9.  3-(2-Methyl­phen­yl)-3a,4-dihydro-3H-chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-carbo­nitrile 
In the title compound, C18H14N2O2, the pyran ring of the chromeno ring system has a half-chair conformation, and the dihedral angle between its mean plane and the benzene ring is 5.3 (2)°. The isoxazole ring forms a dihedral angle of 74.6 (2)° with the attached benzene ring and is inclined to the mean plane of the chromeno ring system by 15.06 (19)°. In the crystal, there are no significant inter­molecular inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812051732
PMCID: PMC3569243  PMID: 23424466
10.  Deliberate Self-Harm and the Elderly: A Volatile Combination—An Overview from the Plastic Surgery Perspective 
Plastic Surgery International  2012;2012:740378.
Aims. To study the factors associated with the DSH in the elderly group of 60 years and above and to recommend changes to be implemented in order to improve the management in this specific group. Materials and Methods. Five-year retrospective study was undertaken from July 2005 to July 2010 in the Plastic Surgery Department of the Royal Preston Hospital, NHS Trust. A Performa was designed to collect data about the inpatient admission and included certain areas of key information. The case notes for all patients were extensively analysed in order to gather adequate information for the devised Performa. Results. DSH is getting more common in the elderly group, and males are more affected than females. 60% of the patients had a previous history of DSH. A large number (80%) of patients had a previous history of mental illness. 60% of those DSH patients were living with family. Almost all patients (90%) were reviewed by the Psychiatry Liaison Team. The timing of patients being assessed was highly variable. Conclusions. Marriage is not a protective factor in the prevention of the DSH in the elderly group. A mental health team referral in the early phases of the management would be of huge benefit and a likely step to prevent possible future admissions. The Department would benefit from the creation of a protocol for the management of these patients. There should be a joint effort of the professionals in the management of DSH in the elderly, and GPs play a very important role in the prevention of DSH in the later life.
doi:10.1155/2012/740378
PMCID: PMC3388295  PMID: 22792453
11.  rac-Methyl 3-(2-meth­oxy­phen­yl)-1-phenyl-3,3a,4,9b-tetra­hydro-1H-chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-carboxyl­ate 
The title compound, C25H23NO5, comprising two stereogenic carbon atoms of the same configuration, crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group as a racemate. The six-membered pyran ring and the five-membered isoxazole ring adopt sofa and twisted conformations, respectively. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the mean plane through the near coplanar atoms of the pyran ring is 10.73 (7)°. The crystal structure features C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812021356
PMCID: PMC3393263  PMID: 22807820
12.  Methyl (E)-2-({2-[(E)-(hy­droxy­imino)­meth­yl]phen­oxy}meth­yl)-3-(4-methyl­phen­yl)acrylate 
In the title compound, C19H19NO4, the dihedral angle between the mean planes through the benzene rings is 82.18 (7)°. The C=N double bond is trans-configured. The mol­ecules are linked into centrosymmetric dimers via pairs of O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds with the motif R 2 2(6). The crystal packing also features C—H⋯O inter­actions. The methyl group attached to one of the aromatic rings is disordered over two almost equally occupied positions [occpancy ratio = 0.51 (4):0.49 (4)].
doi:10.1107/S1600536812019046
PMCID: PMC3379223  PMID: 22719421
13.  rac-6-Eth­oxy-3,3a,4,9b-tetra­hydro-1,3-diphenyl-1H-chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-carbonitrile 
The title compound, C25H22N2O3, with three stereogenic centres, crystallizes in a centrosymmetric space group as a racemate. The pyran ring adopts a sofa conformation and the five-membered isoxazole ring exhibits an envelope conformation. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the mean plane through the near coplanar atoms of the pyran ring is 10.54 (9)°. In the crystal, no significant intermolecular interactions are observed.
doi:10.1107/S160053681201906X
PMCID: PMC3379258  PMID: 22719456
14.  (E)-Methyl 2-({2-eth­oxy-6-[(E)-(hy­droxy­imino)­meth­yl]phen­oxy}meth­yl)-3-phenyl­acrylate 
In the title compound, C20H21NO5, the dihedral angle between the mean planes through the two rings is 47.1 (8)°. The enoate group assumes an extended conformation. The hy­droxy­ethanimine group is essentially coplanar with the benzene ring, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.061 (1) Å for the O atom. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric dimers with an R 2 2(6) motif via pairs of O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. Inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form a C(8) chain along the b axis. The crystal packing is further stabilized by C—H⋯π inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812014596
PMCID: PMC3344504  PMID: 22590266
15.  Pediatric sciatic neuropathies 
Neurology  2011;76(11):976-980.
Objective:
The incidence, cause, and prognosis of sciatic neuropathy in children is not well understood. We report our 30-year experience of 53 patients with pediatric sciatic neuropathies (SN).
Methods:
Prospective review of the history, physical examination, electrophysiologic findings, and clinical course of children with SN.
Results:
The etiology of SN injury was varied and included trauma (13), iatrogenic causes (13) (8 orthopedic surgeries and 5 miscellaneous surgeries), prolonged extrinsic compression and immobilization (6), tumors (7), vascular (5), idiopathic and progressive (4), infantile and nonprogressive (2), and unknown, presumed postviral (3). Electrophysiologic studies demonstrated abnormalities in motor conduction studies of the peroneal nerve in 44/53 (83%) or tibial nerve in 35/51 (67%). Sensory conduction studies were abnormal in sural nerve in 34 of 43 cases (79%), and superficial peroneal nerves in 15/25 (60%). Needle EMG was abnormal in peroneal innervated muscles in all subjects, in tibial nerve innervated muscles in 43/51 (84%), and in the hamstrings in 18/29 (62%). Prognosis for recovery was variable and depended on the etiology and the severity of the nerve injury.
Conclusions:
SN is an uncommon mononeuropathy in children. The causes of SN are varied in children compared to adults. Electrophysiologic studies in children may be limited by poor tolerance but play an important role in establishing the diagnosis.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182104394
PMCID: PMC3271574  PMID: 21403109
16.  Methyl (E)-2-({2-[(E)-(hy­droxy­imino)­meth­yl]phen­oxy}meth­yl)-3-phenyl­acrylate 
In the title compound, C18H17NO4, the hy­droxy­ethanimine group is essentially coplanar with the ring to which it is attached [C—C—N—O torsion angle = 179.94 (14)°]. The mol­ecules are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric R 2 2(6) dimers via O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds and the crystal packing is further stabilized by C—H⋯O inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812002711
PMCID: PMC3295410  PMID: 22412521
17.  (E)-2-({2-[(E)-(Hy­droxy­imino)­meth­yl]phen­oxy}meth­yl)-3-p-tolyl­acrylonitrile 
In the title compound, C18H16N2O2, the hy­droxy­ethanimine group is essentially coplanar with the ring to which it is attached (C—C—N—O torsion angle = −176.9°). Mol­ecules are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric R 2 2(6) dimers via O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S160053681200270X
PMCID: PMC3297297  PMID: 22412487
18.  (E)-2-({2-[(E)-(Hy­droxy­imino)­meth­yl]phen­oxy}meth­yl)-3-o-tolyl­acrylonitrile 
In the title compound, C18H16N2O2, the dihedral angle between the mean planes through the two benzene rings is 56.8 (6)°. The enoate group assumes an extended conformation. The hy­droxy­ethanimine group is essentially coplanar with the benzene ring, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.047 (1) Å for the hy­droxy­imino O atom. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric dimers with R 2 2(6) motifs via O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds.
doi:10.1107/S1600536812001481
PMCID: PMC3275232  PMID: 22347088
19.  (2S,5S,6R)-5-(4-Methyl­phen­yl)-3-phenyl-4,8-dioxa-3-aza­tricyclo­[7.4.0.02,6]trideca-1(13),9,11-triene-6-carbonitrile 
In the title compound, C24H20N2O2, the six-membered pyran ring adopts a half-chair conformation with one C atom deviating from the mean plane of the remaining ring atoms by 0.654 (6) Å. The five-membered isoxazole ring adopts an N-envelope conformation with the N atom displaced by 0.742 (5) Å from the mean plane formed by the remaining ring atoms. The carbonitrile side chain is almost linear, with a C—C—N angle of 178.6 (5)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by inter­molecular C—H⋯N inter­actions, through bifurcated acceptor hydrogen bonds formed between the carbonitrile N atom and two alternate C atoms in the unsubstituted benzene ring. The mol­ecular structure and crystal packing are further stabilized by intra­molecular and inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811055413
PMCID: PMC3274980  PMID: 22346925
20.  (E)-Methyl 3-(4-ethyl­phen­yl)-2-{2-[(E)-(hy­droxy­imino)­meth­yl]phen­oxy­meth­yl}acrylate 
In the title compound, C20H21NO4, the two benzene rings are almost perpendicular to each other, making a dihedral angle of 86.1 (7)°. The hy­droxy­ethanimine group is essentially coplanar with the benzene ring, the largest deviation from the mean plane of the hy­droxy­ethanimine [C=N—OH] group being 0.011 (1) Å for the O atom. An intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond occurs. The mol­ecules are linked into cyclic centrosymmetric R 2 2(6) dimers via O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. Inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules, forming a C(8) chain along the a axis. The crystal packing is further stabilized by C—H⋯π inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811038359
PMCID: PMC3201344  PMID: 22058811
21.  (E)-Methyl 3-(4-chloro­phen­yl)-2-{2-[(E)-(hy­droxy­imino)­meth­yl]phen­oxy­meth­yl}acrylate 
In the title compound, C18H16ClNO4, the dihedral angle between the mean planes through the aromatic rings is 83.8 (8)°. The hy­droxy­ethanimine group is essentially coplanar with the ring to which it is attached [O—N—C—C torsion angle = −177.96 (13)°]. The mol­ecules are linked into centrosymmetric R 2 2(6) dimers via O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. The crystal packing is further stabilized by C—H⋯O inter­actions.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811038372
PMCID: PMC3201559  PMID: 22064839
22.  Methyl 3-(4-isopropyl­phen­yl)-1-phenyl-3,3a,4,9b-tetra­hydro-1H-chromeno[4,3-c]isoxazole-3a-carboxyl­ate 
In the title compound, C27H27NO4, the five-membered isoxazole ring adopts an envelope conformation and the six-membered pyran ring adopts a half-chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the isoxazole ring and the chromene ring system is 54.95 (4)°.
doi:10.1107/S1600536811026365
PMCID: PMC3213445  PMID: 22091024
23.  IgA nephropathy in hereditary angioedema. 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  1993;69(808):95-99.
Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal dominant disorder of the complement system in which there is a deficiency of the inhibitor of the activated first component of complement. We have previously reported on three generations of a family with classic hereditary angioedema. Three members of this family have now developed IgA nephropathy. The association of hereditary angioedema with various immunoregulatory disorders has been previously reported but this is the first report of IgA nephropathy in association with this condition.
PMCID: PMC2399629  PMID: 8506211
24.  Targeting vaccinia virus-expressed secretory beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin to the cell surface induces antibodies. 
Infection and Immunity  1995;63(12):4907-4911.
We carried out experiments designed to study the effect of a protein's localization on its immunogenicity. A novel cell-surface protein was generated from a small, glycosylated secretory protein. The DNA sequence encoding the entire precursor of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta (beta hCG) subunit was fused in the correct reading frame to the DNA sequence encoding the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. This chimeric gene was introduced into the vaccinia virus genome to generate a recombinant virus. The recombinant virus, when used to infect animal cells, expressed a 135-amino-acid beta hCG subunit anchored in cellular membranes by the 48 carboxy-terminal amino acids of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The immunogenicity of this recombinant virus with respect to its ability to generate anti-hCG antibodies was compared with that of a second recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG. All animals immunized with the vaccinia virus expressing beta hCG on the cell surface elicited high titers of anti-hCG antibodies. Even after a single immunization with the recombinant vaccinia virus, the anti-hCG antibody titers persisted for a long period of time (more than 6 months). None of the animals immunized with vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG showed any hCG-specific antibody response.
PMCID: PMC173703  PMID: 7591154

Results 1-25 (25)