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1.  Doctors who become chief executives in the NHS: from keen amateurs to skilled professionals 
To investigate the experiences of doctors who become chief executives of NHS organizations, with the aim of understanding their career paths and the facilitators and barriers encountered along the way.
Twenty-two medical chief executives were identified and of these 20 were interviewed. In addition two former medical chief executives were interviewed. Information was collected about the age at which they became chief executives, the number of chief executive posts held, the training they received, and the opportunities, challenges and risks they experienced.
All NHS organizations in the United Kingdom in 2009.
The age of medical chief executives on first appointment ranged from 36 to 64 years, the average being 48 years. The majority of those interviewed were either in their first chief executive post or had stepped down having held only one such post. The training and development accessed en route to becoming chief executives was highly variable. Interviewees were positive about the opportunity to bring about organizational and service improvement on a bigger scale than is possible in clinical work. At the same time, they emphasized the insecurities associated with being a chief executive. Doctors who become chief executives experience a change in their professional identity and the role of leaders occupying hybrid positions is not well recognized.
Doctors who become chief executives are self-styled ‘keen amateurs’ and there is a need to provide more structured support to enable them to become skilled professionals. The new faculty of medical leadership and management could have an important role in this process.
PMCID: PMC3046192  PMID: 21357980
2.  Admissions processes for five year medical courses at English schools: review 
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2006;332(7548):1005-1009.
Objective To describe the current methods used by English medical schools to identify prospective medical students for admission to the five year degree course.
Design Review study including documentary analysis and interviews with admissions tutors.
Setting All schools (n = 22) participating in the national expansion of medical schools programme in England.
Results Though there is some commonality across schools with regard to the criteria used to select future students (academic ability coupled with a “well rounded” personality demonstrated by motivation for medicine, extracurricular interests, and experience of team working and leadership skills) the processes used vary substantially. Some schools do not interview; some shortlist for interview only on predicted academic performance while those that shortlist on a wider range of non-academic criteria use various techniques and tools to do so. Some schools use information presented in the candidate's personal statement and referee's report while others ignore this because of concerns over bias. A few schools seek additional information from supplementary questionnaires filled in by the candidates. Once students are shortlisted, interviews vary in terms of length, panel composition, structure, content, and scoring methods.
Conclusion The stated criteria for admission to medical school show commonality. Universities differ greatly, however, in how they apply these criteria and in the methods used to select students. Different approaches to admissions should be developed and tested.
PMCID: PMC1450044  PMID: 16543300

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