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1.  Auditory Brainstem Responses and EMFs Generated by Mobile Phones 
Abstract
There has been a manifold increase in the number of mobile phone users throughout the world with the current number of users exceeding 2 billion. However this advancement in technology like many others is accompanied by a progressive increase in the frequency and intensity of electromagnetic waves without consideration of the health consequences. The aim of our study was to advance our understanding of the potential adverse effects of GSM mobile phones on auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). 60 subjects were selected for the study and divided into three groups of 20 each based on their usage of mobile phones. Their ABRs were recorded and analysed for latency of waves I–V as well as interpeak latencies I–III, I–V and III–V (in ms). Results revealed no significant difference in the ABR parameters between group A (control group) and group B (subjects using mobile phones for maximum 30 min/day for 5 years). However the latency of waves was significantly prolonged in group C (subjects using mobile phones for 10 years for a maximum of 30 min/day) as compared to the control group. Based on our findings we concluded that long term exposure to mobile phones may affect conduction in the peripheral portion of the auditory pathway. However more research needs to be done to study the long term effects of mobile phones particularly of newer technologies like smart phones and 3G.
doi:10.1007/s12070-013-0676-0
PMCID: PMC3889369  PMID: 24427730
Auditory brainstem responses; Cellular phones; Electromagnetic waves; GSM phones
2.  Guarding the Precious Smile: Incidence and Prevention of Injury in Sports: A Review 
The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or kickboxing, but also for seemingly less dangerous sports such as football. Amongst the different types of mouthguards, the most acceptable and safe ones are the custom-fabricated mouthguards, in particular the pressure-laminated ones. In general, mouthguard usage is less than the dental profession would recommend. As much of progress has been made in this area, need for the use of mouthguard needs to be emphasized and promoted by the dental profession.
PMCID: PMC4148563  PMID: 25214744
Contact sports; mouthguard; sports injury
3.  Role of Perfusion CT Differentiating Hemangiomas from Malignant Hepatic Lesions 
Objective:
The purpose of the study was to determine the role of computed tomography (CT) perfusion in differentiating hemangiomas from malignant hepatic lesions.
Materials and Methods:
This study was approved by the institutional review board. All the patients provided informed consent. CT perfusion was performed with 64 multidetector CT (MDCT) scanner on 45 patients including 27 cases of metastasis, 9 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and 9 cases of hemangiomas. A 14 cm span of the liver was covered during the perfusion study. Data was analyzed to calculate blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), permeability surface area product (PS), mean transit time (MTT), hepatic arterial fraction (HAF), and induced residue fraction time of onset (IRFTO). CT perfusion parameters at the periphery of lesions and background liver parenchyma were compared.
Results:
Significant changes were observed in the perfusion parameters at the periphery of different lesions. Of all the perfusion parameters BF, HAF, and IRFTO showed most significant changes. In our study we found: BF of more than 400 ml/100 g/min at the periphery of the hemangiomas showed sensitivity of 88.9%, specificity of 83.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 57.1%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 96.7% in differentiating hemangiomas from hepatic malignancy; HAF of more than 60% at the periphery of hemangiomas showed sensitivity of 77.8%, specificity of 86.1%, PPV of 58.3% and NPV of 93.9% in differentiating hemangiomas from hepatic malignancy; IRFTO of more than 3 s at the periphery of hemangiomas showed sensitivity of 77.8%, specificity of 86.1%, PPV of 58.3%, and NPV of 93.9% in differentiating hemangiomas from hepatic malignancy.
Conclusion:
Perfusion CT is a helpful tool in differentiating hemangiomas from hepatic malignancy by its ability to determine changes in perfusion parameters of the lesions.
doi:10.4103/2156-7514.127959
PMCID: PMC3988591  PMID: 24744967
Hemangioma; hepatocellular carcinoma; liver; metastasis; perfusion
4.  Low hygiene and exposure to infections may be associated with increased risk for ulcerative colitis in a North Indian population 
Background
Previous studies have attempted to link hygiene hypothesis with IBD. However most of these studies come from developed countries where the level of hygiene is high and universal. Very little data is available from developing countries. The present study explores the truth of hygiene hypotheses and other risk factors for ulcerative colitis (UC) in a North Indian population where the prevalence of UC has been increasing.
Methods
A total of 518 patients diagnosed with UC and 188 age-matched controls were included in the study. A structured questionnaire concerning socio-demographics and level of hygiene was completed by all participants. Logistic regression analysis was used to study the association between hygiene-related factors and the risk for UC. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated.
Results
There was a higher proportion of females (P<0.001), and a higher educational status (P=0.01) in UC patients compared with controls. A family history of IBD was present in 7.2% of cases and non-existent in controls. On multivariate analysis, after accounting for potential confounders, having a private bed (P<0.001), and having better toilet facilities [(RCA versus none, P=0.01; Flush toilet versus none, P=0.01), (RCA LATRINE as a toilet technology used in rural areas where no flush facility exists. It was developed under RCA project)] were inversely associated with risk for UC whereas owning a pet (P=0.01) and stressful events like a death in the family (P=0.01) were associated with greater risks for UC.
Conclusion
Our study does not provide definitive evidence to support hygiene hypothesis and rather suggests that the rising incidence of UC in North India may be attributable to inadequate sanitary measures or other as yet unidentified factors.
PMCID: PMC4073017  PMID: 24976449
Hygiene hypothesis; ulcerative colitis; infections
5.  Bouveret's Syndrome: 64-Slice CT Diagnosis and Surgical Management—A Case Report 
Case Reports in Radiology  2012;2012:701216.
Gastric outlet obstruction caused by duodenal impaction of a large gallstone migrated through a cholecystoduodenal fistula has been referred to as Bouveret's syndrome. We present a case of gallstone-induced duodenal obstruction in an elderly female patient, diagnosed on a 64-slice MDCT scanner. One-stage surgery, that is, stone removal and cholecystectomy, was performed resulting in relief of obstruction and complete cure. Clinical features, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) findings, and surgical management are discussed.
doi:10.1155/2012/701216
PMCID: PMC3512245  PMID: 23346445
6.  A Case of Worsening Deep Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Managed by Intrasinus Thrombolysis 
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon condition with severe consequences. Although we do not know the exact incidence and prevalence of CVST, it is an important diagnosis. Over the past decade, it has been diagnosed more frequently due to greater awareness and availability of noninvasive diagnostic techniques. Furthermore, routine diagnostic neuroimaging has been used to monitor the clinical progress of these patients, especially in deteriorating cases. In order to decrease morbidity and mortality, an understanding of CVST treatment options is important. Treatment of extensive intracranial venous sinus thrombosis with intrasinus infusion of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is relatively controversial as there are no clear guidelines in regards to appropriate therapeutic management. We report a case of successful intrasinus thrombolysis of deep cerebral sinus thrombosis (DCST) resulting in rapid radiographic improvement associated with complete clinical recovery.
doi:10.1155/2011/272841
PMCID: PMC3420699  PMID: 22937334
7.  A Rare Case of Vanishing Lung Syndrome 
Case Reports in Pulmonology  2011;2011:957463.
We describe here a rare case of Idiopathic Bullous Emphysema/Vanishing Lung Syndrome (VLS) in a 33-year-old male patient with a history of marijuana abuse who presents to the hospital with pleuritic chest pain thought to be due to pneumothorax based on the chest radiograph. This case emphasizes the need to obtain chest computed tomography in a relatively stable patient suspected of VLS to reduce the potential risk of overseeing a bronchopleural fistula.
doi:10.1155/2011/957463
PMCID: PMC3420501  PMID: 22937434
8.  Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM) Causing Tension Hemothorax in a Pregnant Woman Requiring Emergent Cesarean Delivery 
Pulmonary Medicine  2011;2011:865195.
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs), although most commonly congenital, are usually detected later in life. We present a case of a 25-year-old woman with no previous history of AVM or telangiectasia, who presented with life-threatening hypoxia, hypotension, and pleuritic chest pain in 36th week of gestation. Chest tube placement revealed 4 liters of blood. Patient was subsequently found to have bleeding pulmonary AVM as the source of hemothorax. Successful embolisation of the bleeding vessel followed by thoracoscopic evacuation of the organized clot relieved the hypoxia. Further screening for AVM revealed large splenic AVM for which patient underwent splenectomy in the coming months.
doi:10.1155/2011/865195
PMCID: PMC3109763  PMID: 21660210
9.  Biological and Histological Parameters as Predictors of Relapse in Ulcerative Colitis: A Prospective Study 
Background/Aim:
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by periods of remission and relapses. This study has been carried out in a group of North Indian patients, where the disease has shown an increasing prevalence and frequent relapses. Hence, there is a need to predict relapse for better management and to reduce morbidity. To assess the importance of biological and histological parameters in predicting relapse when the disease is in quiescent phase.
Materials and Methods:
A prospective study of twenty-six patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis was carried out in Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Punjab. Only patients with clinical and endoscopic remission at the time of screening visit were included. Hemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C- reactive protein (CRP) and serum Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured. The baseline colonoscopic mucosal biopsies were retrieved and studied. Follow-up was conducted for one year at monthly interval or earlier if relapse occurred.
Results:
Fifteen out of twenty-six patients (57.69%) had evidence of clinical relapse during the follow-up. Hemoglobin, ESR, CRP and IL-6 levels were not found to be significant predictors of relapse. Increased number of eosinophils and neutrophils in the lamina propria were observed to be associated with significantly higher relapse rate.
Conclusion:
A higher risk of relapse in patients with quiescent colitis can be predicted by the presence of increased number of eosinophils and neutrophils in the lamina propria.
doi:10.4103/1319-3767.80383
PMCID: PMC3122090  PMID: 21546723
Predictors; remission; relapse; quiescent phase; ulcerative colitis
10.  Gabapentin for smoking cessation 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2010;12(3):300-304.
Introduction:
We conducted a preliminary proof-of-concept study evaluating gabapentin for the treatment of tobacco dependence.
Methods:
Subjects (N = 80) were randomized to gabapentin (600 mg three times per day or 900 mg three times per day) or placebo. After a 2-week dose titration, the target dose was maintained for 9 weeks and then tapered over 1 week. Follow-up was for 12 weeks after the medication phase.
Results:
The study had high dropout rates with more than one half of participants in each arm discontinuing study. Gabapentin-treated participants exhibited lower abstinence rates than placebo-treated participants; however, this difference was not significant. Smoking reduction was observed across all treatment arms compared with baseline (p < .01) but did not differ across treatment groups.
Discussion:
Although not definitive, our findings suggest that gabapentin administered at these doses with this dosing regimen holds little promise for the treatment of tobacco dependence in a population of smokers seeking treatment.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntp195
PMCID: PMC2825098  PMID: 20081039
11.  Adverse outcomes among Aboriginal patients receiving peritoneal dialysis 
Background
The Aboriginal population in Canada experiences high rates of end-stage renal disease and need for dialytic therapies. Our objective was to examine rates of mortality, technique failure and peritonitis among adult aboriginal patients receiving peritoneal dialysis in the province of Manitoba. We also aimed to explore whether differences in these rates may be accounted for by location of residence (i.e., urban versus rural).
Methods
We included all adult patients residing in the province of Manitoba who received peritoneal dialysis during the period from 1997–2007 (n = 727). We extracted data from a local administrative database and from the Canadian Organ Replacement Registry and the Peritonitis Organism Exit-sites/Tunnel infections (POET) database. We used Cox and logistic regression models to determine the relationship between outcomes and Aboriginal ethnicity. We performed Kaplan–Meier analyses to examine the relationship between outcomes and urban (i.e., 50 km or less from the primary dialysis centre in Winnipeg) versus rural (i.e., more than 50 km from the centre) residency among patients who were aboriginal.
Results
One hundred sixty-one Aboriginal and 566 non-Aboriginal patients were included in the analyses. Adjusted hazard ratios for mortality (HR 1.476, CI 1.073–2.030) and adjusted time to peritonitis (HR 1.785, CI 1.352–2.357) were significantly higher among Aboriginal patients than among non-Aboriginal patients. We found no significant differences in mortality, technique failure or peritonitis between urban- or rural-residing Aboriginal patients.
Interpretation
Compared with non-Aboriginal patients receiving peritoneal dialysis, Aboriginal patients receiving peritoneal dialysis had higher mortality and faster time to peritonitis independent of comorbidities and demographic characteristics. This effect was not influenced by place of residence, whether rural or urban.
doi:10.1503/cmaj.100105
PMCID: PMC2942916  PMID: 20660579
12.  Long term results of use of azathioprine in patients with ulcerative colitis in India 
AIM: To evaluate the role of azathioprine (AZA) in Indian patients with ulcerative colitis over longer duration of time.
METHODS: One hundred fifty six patients with ulcerative colitis who were treated with AZA from January 1995 to December 2003 were reviewed. The indications for its use were as follows: (1) steroid dependent and steroid refractory disease; (2) Azathioprine monotherapy for naïve patients with severe disease; and (3) combination therapy (AZA + sulfasalazine or 5-aminosalicylates) for naïve patients with severe disease. The data included patient and disease demographics, efficacy and toxicity profile of AZA. Patients with a minimum duration of 6 mo use of AZA were included in this report.
RESULTS: Of a total of 156 patients treated with AZA, 45 were excluded from analysis for the following reasons- (follow up less than 6 mo, n = 9; poor follow up, n = 18; adverse affects, n = 18). In steroid refractory/dependent group the mean number of relapses prior to and post initiation of AZA therapy were 3.28 (± 0.81) and 0.94 (± 0.29) respectively. Discontinuation of steroids could be accomplished in 12 of the 15 steroid dependent patients. The proportion of patients with sustained remission of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years duration were calculated. Eighteen patients experienced adverse effects necessitating withdrawal of AZA (pancreatitis, n = 7; hepatitis, n = 3; gastrointestinal intolerance, n = 2; alopecia, n = 2; and hematological, n = 4) while 13 patients needed dose reduction or temporary withdrawal of the drug.
CONCLUSION: Azathioprine is well tolerated and has therapeutic benefits lasting as long as 4 years. Adverse effects such as pancreatitis, hepatitis, cytopenias and gastrointestinal symptoms do occur but are controlled by drug withdrawal only.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i45.7332
PMCID: PMC4087493  PMID: 17143951
Ulcerative colitis; Azathioprine; Immuno-suppressive
13.  Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Punjab, North India 
Gut  2003;52(11):1587-1590.
Introduction: Ulcerative colitis occurs worldwide. It is considered common in most of Europe and North America and uncommon in most of the developing Asian countries. The incidence/prevalence of ulcerative colitis varies not only according to geographical region but also with race and ethnicity. There are no reported data from India on the incidence of the disease and its prevalence.
Material and methods: A house to house survey was conducted by questionnaire, formulated to enquire about symptoms that are suggestive of ulcerative colitis. Those with prolonged diarrhoea with or without rectal bleeding were considered as suspected cases. These suspected cases were subjected to video sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy and rectal biopsy. In addition, patients already diagnosed and receiving treatment for ulcerative colitis, encountered during the survey, were reviewed. Resurvey of the same areas was conducted after a one year interval to detect new cases. Using direct methods, standardised rates were calculated using world standard population weights 22, 18, 16, 12, 12, 9, 7, 3, and 1 for each 10 year age group. Standardised rates were also obtained separately for males, females, and combined populations, using the Punjab state 1991 population census data. Rates were also estimated according to UK 2000 population data. Ninety five per cent confidence intervals (95% CI) of prevalence and incidence rates of ulcerative colitis were estimated under the assumption that the distribution of cases followed a Poisson probability model.
Results: A total population of 51 910 were screened from January to March 1999. We identified 147 suspected cases and of these 23 were finally established as ulcerative colitis cases, giving a crude prevalence rate of 44.3 per 100 000 inhabitants (95% CI 29.4–66.6). A second visit to the same areas after one year identified 10 suspected cases in a population of 49 834. Of these, three were confirmed as “definite” ulcerative colitis giving a crude incidence rate of 6.02 cases per 100 000 inhabitants (95% CI 1.2–17.6).
Conclusions: This is the first population based study from India reporting on the incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis. The disease frequency is not much less than that reported from Europe and North America.
PMCID: PMC1773859  PMID: 14570727
ulcerative colitis; ; epidemiology; India
14.  Aberrant Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma1 
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)  2006;8(4):279-289.
Abstract
Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role in normal development. However, its aberrant activation is associated with several cancers. The aim of this study is to examine the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n = 31). Paraffin sections from tumors (n = 16) and normal pancreata (n = 3) were used to determine the localization of β-catenin. An additional 15 frozen tumors, adjacent normal pancreata (n = 5), or normal pancreata (n = 4) were utilized for protein isolation. Tumors were also examined for mutations in exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene. More than 65% of the tumors showed an increase in total β-catenin, consistent with its enhanced membranous, cytoplasmic, and nuclear localization, but only two showed mutations in CTNNB1. The majority of the remaining tumors demonstrated concurrent increases in Wnt-1 and frizzled-2 (positive regulators) and a decrease in Ser45/Thr41-phospho-β-catenin. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated β-catenin-T-cell factor binding in tumors only. Adenomatous polyposis coli and axin, which are both negative regulators, remained unchanged. Unexpectedly, total glycogen synthase kinase-3β protein was elevated in these tumors. Elevated levels of E-cadherin were also observed, although E-cadherin-β-catenin association in tumors remained unaffected. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin activation was observed in 65% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, independently of β-catenin gene mutations in most tumors.
PMCID: PMC1600679  PMID: 16756720
Pancreas; tumors; mutation; patient; cancer
15.  Depression in Pregnancy and Postpartum Period 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  2003;45(1):48-51.
This prospective study was carried out in a service hospital, with the aim to study the prevalence and incidence of depression in pregnancy and postpartum period. Eighty Four consecutive patients attending the antenatal outpatient in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology department in their last trimester of pregnancy were recruited for the study. They were assessed on Beck Depression Inventory thrice viz. during third trimester of pregnancy, within 3 days of delivery (early postpartum period) & within 4-8 weeks of delivery (late postpartum period).The prevalence of depression was 8.3%, 20% and 12.8% respectively at three ratings. The incidence was 16% and 10% in the early & late postpartum period respectively. Further analysis revealed that depression in pregnancy correlated significantly with depression in early postpartum period, but not with late postpartum period. Depression in early postpartum period correlated with depression in late postpartum period.These findings have implications for early detection and care of women at risk for developing depression.
PMCID: PMC2951541  PMID: 21206814
Depression; Pregnancy; Postpartum
16.  A new suturing needle. 
PMCID: PMC1042665  PMID: 1106762
18.  Rb Loss is Characteristic of Prostatic Small Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma 
Purpose
Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate is likely to become increasingly common with recent advances in pharmacologic androgen suppression. Thus, developing molecular markers of small cell differentiation in prostate cancer will be important to guide diagnosis and therapy of this aggressive tumor.
Experimental Design
We examined the status of RB1, TP53 and PTEN in prostatic small cell and acinar carcinomas via immunohistochemistry (IHC), copy number alteration analysis and sequencing of formalin fixed paraffin-embedded specimens.
Results
We found Rb protein loss in 90% (26/29) of small cell carcinoma cases with RB1 allelic loss in 85% (11/13) of cases. Of acinar tumors occurring concurrently with prostatic small cell carcinoma, 43% (3/7) showed Rb protein loss. In contrast, only 7% (10/150) of primary high grade acinar carcinomas, 11% (4/35) of primary acinar carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation, and 15% (2/13) of metastatic castrate resistant acinar carcinomas showed Rb protein loss. Loss of PTEN protein was seen in 63% (17/27) of small cell carcinomas, with 38% (5/13) showing allelic loss. By IHC, accumulation of p53 was observed in 56% (14/25) of small cell carcinomas, with 60% (6/10) of cases showing TP53 mutation.
Conclusions
Loss of RB1 by deletion is a common event in prostatic small cell carcinoma and can be detected by validated IHC assay. As Rb protein loss rarely occurs in high grade acinar tumors, these data suggest that Rb loss is a critical event in the development of small cell carcinomas and may be a useful diagnostic and potential therapeutic target.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-1982
PMCID: PMC3931005  PMID: 24323898
Prostatic adenocarcinoma; small cell carcinoma; tumor suppressor; RB1; TP53; PTEN
19.  Wound Dressings and Comparative Effectiveness Data 
Advances in Wound Care  2014;3(8):511-529.
Significance: Injury to the skin provides a unique challenge, as wound healing is a complex and intricate process. Acute wounds have the potential to move from the acute wound to chronic wounds, requiring the physician to have a thorough understanding of outside interventions to bring these wounds back into the healing cascade.
Recent Advances: The development of new and effective interventions in wound care remains an area of intense research. Negative pressure wound therapy has undoubtedly changed wound care from this point forward and has proven beneficial for a variety of wounds. Hydroconductive dressings are another category that is emerging with studies underway. Other modalities such as hyperbaric oxygen, growth factors, biologic dressings, skin substitutes, and regenerative materials have also proven efficacious in advancing the wound-healing process through a variety of mechanisms.
Critical Issues: There is an overwhelming amount of wound dressings available in the market. This implies the lack of full understanding of wound care and management. The point of using advanced dressings is to improve upon specific wound characteristics to bring it as close to “ideal” as possible. It is only after properly assessing the wound characteristics and obtaining knowledge about available products that the “ideal” dressing may be chosen.
Future Directions: The future of wound healing at this point remains unknown. Few high-quality, randomized controlled trials evaluating wound dressings exist and do not clearly demonstrate superiority of many materials or categories. Comparative effectiveness research can be used as a tool to evaluate topical therapy for wound care moving into the future. Until further data emerge, education on the available products and logical clinical thought must prevail.
doi:10.1089/wound.2012.0401
PMCID: PMC4121107  PMID: 25126472
20.  Septicaemic Melioidosis: Case Report from a Non-Endemic Area 
Melioidosis is a clinically diverse disease caused by the facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. In recent times melioidosis has been increasingly reported in India especially from the southern and coastal states. We report a fatal case of septicaemic melioidosis from the state of Rajasthan with a view to increase awareness about the existence of this disease in an area yet unrecognized.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/9684.5257
PMCID: PMC4316256  PMID: 25653950
B. pseudomallei; Melioidosis; Rajasthan; Septicaemia
21.  Comparison of Mast Cells and Inflammatory Cells within Periapical Lesions and Comparison of Degranulated Mast Cells Between Fibrous and Inflamed Area in Radicular Cysts: An Immunohistochemical Study 
Objective: The role of mast cells as the key effector of allergic inflammation, anaphylactic inflammatory reactions and in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation, is well-known. The present study is adopted to compare mast cells and inflammatory cells within periapical granuloma and cysts and localize the mast cells and quantify their number in the periapical cysts so as to propose a role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of this lesion.
Materials and Methods: Biopsy specimens of 30 periapical lesions were stained with hematoxylin–eosin, and immunohistochemical Mast Cell Tryptase from Bio SB (IHC detection system kit) antibody. The tryptase positive mast cells and mononuclear inflammatory cells were counted in 10 consecutive high power fields (100X) using the binocular microscope from Motic attached to a computer with Motic Advanced Images 3.2 software.
Results: Comparative microscopic analysis indicated that periapical cyst shows more percentage of mast cells and less percentage of inflammatory cell than periapical granuloma (comparison of mean and standard deviation of total number of mast cells and inflammatory cells, mast cells 3.15±1.39 in the granuloma group and 4.43±1.91in the cyst group, inflammatory cells, 67.11±1.2 in the granuloma group and 52.66±0.8 in the cyst group). Numerous degranulated mast cells were observed in the fibrous wall than the inflammatory infiltrate of the periapical cysts. The mean and standard deviation of degranulated mast cells between the inflammatory and fibrous zone within the cyst group, being 0.95±1.10 and1.68±1.34 respectively. The values varied significantly between the two zones.
Conclusion: The number of inflammatory cells in the cyst group is less than periapical granuloma and total number of mast cells in the cyst group is more as compared to periapical granuloma. The degranulated cells were quantified and they were higher in the fibrous area of the cysts than the inflammatory zone. This study could support the fact that the various mediators released on degranulation play a role in the connective tissue remodeling, chronicity and expansion of the periapical lesion.
doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/11623.5340
PMCID: PMC4316340  PMID: 25654034
Cancer; Gender gap; Proportion-tobacco related cancers; Tobacco
22.  Susceptibility of the wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mouse to infection by orthopoxviruses analyzed by live bioluminescence imaging 
Virology  2013;449:120-132.
Classical inbred mice are extensively used for virus research. However, we recently found that some wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more susceptible than classical strains to monkeypox virus. Experiments described here indicated that the 50% lethal dose of vaccinia virus (VACV) and cowpox virus (CPXV) were two logs lower in wild-derived inbred CAST/Ei mice than classical inbred BALB/c mice, whereas there was little difference in the susceptibility of the mouse strains to herpes simplex virus. Live bioluminescence imaging was used to follow spread of pathogenic and attenuated VACV strains and CPXV virus from nasal passages to organs in the chest and abdomen of CAST/Ei mice. Luminescence increased first in the head and then simultaneously in the chest and abdomen in a dose-dependent manner. The spreading kinetics was more rapid with VACV than CPXV although the peak photon flux was similar. These data suggest advantages of CAST/Ei mice for orthopoxvirus studies.
doi:10.1016/j.virol.2013.11.017
PMCID: PMC3902144  PMID: 24418545
Poxvirus pathogenesis; Vaccinia virus pathogenesis; Cowpox virus pathogenesis; Wild-derived inbred mice
23.  Randomized Double Blind Comparative Study Comparing Efficacy of Granisetron and Ondansetron for the Prophylactic Control of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Undergoing Middle Ear Surgery 
The objective is to evaluate the prophylactic profile, efficacy of granisetron and ondansetron to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after middle ear surgery. In a randomized, double blind trial, one hundred patients undergoing middle ear surgery received either granisetron 1 mg or ondansetron 8 mg in equal volume (n = 50 for each) intravenously towards the end of surgery and before reversal of anaesthesia. A standard general anaesthetic technique was employed. Postoperatively, during the first 24 h after anaesthesia, the incidence of PONV, recovery score, time to first feeding, willingness to have the same prophylactic antiemetic drug in future and adverse events were recorded. The incidence of vomiting once (PONV score 2) was significantly less, 4% with granisetron and 22% with ondansetron (P = 0.002) respectively and the incidence of vomiting twice or more times in 30 min interval (PONV score 3) was significantly less, 8% with granisetron as compared to 34% with ondansetron (P = 0.001). The requirement of rescue antiemetic drug was significantly higher in ondansetron group, i.e. 34 vs. 8% in granisetron group (P = 0.001). The incidence of adverse events, recovery score and time to first feeding were comparable among the groups. Willingness to have the same prophylactic antiemetic drug in future was significantly high in patients receiving granisetron. Granisetron is more efficacious and desirable drug than ondansetron for reducing the incidence of PONV in patients undergoing middle ear surgery.
doi:10.1007/s12070-011-0464-7
PMCID: PMC3918338  PMID: 24533393
PONV; Ondansetron; Granisetron; Middle ear surgery
24.  Genome-wide association analysis identifies six new loci associated with forced vital capacity 
Loth, Daan W. | Artigas, María Soler | Gharib, Sina A. | Wain, Louise V. | Franceschini, Nora | Koch, Beate | Pottinger, Tess | Smith, Albert Vernon | Duan, Qing | Oldmeadow, Chris | Lee, Mi Kyeong | Strachan, David P. | James, Alan L. | Huffman, Jennifer E. | Vitart, Veronique | Ramasamy, Adaikalavan | Wareham, Nicholas J. | Kaprio, Jaakko | Wang, Xin-Qun | Trochet, Holly | Kähönen, Mika | Flexeder, Claudia | Albrecht, Eva | Lopez, Lorna M. | de Jong, Kim | Thyagarajan, Bharat | Alves, Alexessander Couto | Enroth, Stefan | Omenaas, Ernst | Joshi, Peter K. | Fall, Tove | Viňuela, Ana | Launer, Lenore J. | Loehr, Laura R. | Fornage, Myriam | Li, Guo | Wilk, Jemma B. | Tang, Wenbo | Manichaikul, Ani | Lahousse, Lies | Harris, Tamara B. | North, Kari E. | Rudnicka, Alicja R. | Hui, Jennie | Gu, Xiangjun | Lumley, Thomas | Wright, Alan F. | Hastie, Nicholas D. | Campbell, Susan | Kumar, Rajesh | Pin, Isabelle | Scott, Robert A. | Pietiläinen, Kirsi H. | Surakka, Ida | Liu, Yongmei | Holliday, Elizabeth G. | Schulz, Holger | Heinrich, Joachim | Davies, Gail | Vonk, Judith M. | Wojczynski, Mary | Pouta, Anneli | Johansson, Åsa | Wild, Sarah H. | Ingelsson, Erik | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Völzke, Henry | Hysi, Pirro G. | Eiriksdottir, Gudny | Morrison, Alanna C. | Rotter, Jerome I. | Gao, Wei | Postma, Dirkje S. | White, Wendy B. | Rich, Stephen S. | Hofman, Albert | Aspelund, Thor | Couper, David | Smith, Lewis J. | Psaty, Bruce M. | Lohman, Kurt | Burchard, Esteban G. | Uitterlinden, André G. | Garcia, Melissa | Joubert, Bonnie R. | McArdle, Wendy L. | Musk, A. Bill | Hansel, Nadia | Heckbert, Susan R. | Zgaga, Lina | van Meurs, Joyce B.J. | Navarro, Pau | Rudan, Igor | Oh, Yeon-Mok | Redline, Susan | Jarvis, Deborah | Zhao, Jing Hua | Rantanen, Taina | O’Connor, George T. | Ripatti, Samuli | Scott, Rodney J. | Karrasch, Stefan | Grallert, Harald | Gaddis, Nathan C. | Starr, John M. | Wijmenga, Cisca | Minster, Ryan L. | Lederer, David J. | Pekkanen, Juha | Gyllensten, Ulf | Campbell, Harry | Morris, Andrew P. | Gläser, Sven | Hammond, Christopher J. | Burkart, Kristin M. | Beilby, John | Kritchevsky, Stephen B. | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Hancock, Dana B. | Williams, O. Dale | Polasek, Ozren | Zemunik, Tatijana | Kolcic, Ivana | Petrini, Marcy F. | Wjst, Matthias | Kim, Woo Jin | Porteous, David J. | Scotland, Generation | Smith, Blair H. | Viljanen, Anne | Heliövaara, Markku | Attia, John R. | Sayers, Ian | Hampel, Regina | Gieger, Christian | Deary, Ian J. | Boezen, H. Marike | Newman, Anne | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Wilson, James F. | Lind, Lars | Stricker, Bruno H. | Teumer, Alexander | Spector, Timothy D. | Melén, Erik | Peters, Marjolein J. | Lange, Leslie A. | Barr, R. Graham | Bracke, Ken R. | Verhamme, Fien M. | Sung, Joohon | Hiemstra, Pieter S. | Cassano, Patricia A. | Sood, Akshay | Hayward, Caroline | Dupuis, Josée | Hall, Ian P. | Brusselle, Guy G. | Tobin, Martin D. | London, Stephanie J.
Nature genetics  2014;46(7):669-677.
Forced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in 32,917 additional individuals of European ancestry. We found six new regions associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8) with FVC in or near EFEMP1, BMP6, MIR-129-2/HSD17B12, PRDM11, WWOX, and KCNJ2. Two (GSTCD and PTCH1) loci previously associated with spirometric measures were related to FVC. Newly implicated regions were followed-up in samples of African American, Korean, Chinese, and Hispanic individuals. We detected transcripts for all six newly implicated genes in human lung tissue. The new loci may inform mechanisms involved in lung development and pathogenesis of restrictive lung disease.
doi:10.1038/ng.3011
PMCID: PMC4140093  PMID: 24929828
25.  In-vitro evaluation of bioactive compounds, anti-oxidant, lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase inhibitory potential of Citrus karna L. peel extract 
Many medicinal plants have been studied for their antioxidant and their pharmacological activity. Citrus species were well documented as potential antioxidant based therapy for cancer, inflammation, heart disease. Citrus seeds and peels have been shown to possess high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study to explore the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action of Citrus karna peel extracts were undertaken. Extraction was performed with different solvents of increasing polarity and yield was calculated. Peel extracts were also analyzed for the presence of phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, and carotenoids. Then the Citrus karna peel extracts were evaluated for the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action In-Vitro. In further, the quantification of hesperidin and naringin was carried out by HPLC-DAD method. The results indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, vitamin C, carotenoids, hesperidin and naringin in Citrus karna peel extracts with maximum yield of (3.91% w/w). Citrus karna peel extracts were also found to have potential antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action. Therefore, Citrus karna peel extracts could be used for the future therapeutic medicine due to presence of potential bioactive compounds.
doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0479-9
PMCID: PMC3857418  PMID: 24426049
Citrus karna; Naringin; Hesperidin; Free radical; Lipoxygenase

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