Background and Objective: We detected the expression of MIF and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) in meningiomas to determine whether they are valuable recurrence predictor for meningioma.
Methods: 67 cases of meningiomas, including 57 benign tumors (WHO grade I) and 10 non-benign tumors (WHO grade II and III), were collected, and expression of MIF and MMP9 in tissue microarray was evaluated immunohistochemically. The correlations between immunostainings and clinicopathological parameters, as well as the follow-up data of patients, were analyzed statistically.
Results: Increased expressions of both MIF (58.2%, 39/67) and MMP9 (55.2%, 37/67) were significantly associated with microvessel density (MVD) of tumor, but only dual high-expression of MIF and MMP9 was in relation to tumor invasion (P=0.016) and tumor recurrence (P=0.001). Based on univariate analysis, histological grade, tumor invasion and co-expression of MIF and MMP9 were significant predictors for recurrence. However, only histological grade and co-expression of MIF and MMP9 in tumor were independent recurrence factors with a hazard ratio of 49.033 (P=0.002) and 37.766 (P=0.002) in multivariate analysis.
Conclusions: Together with histological grade, increased co-expression of MIF and MMP9 in tumor might be a valuable predictor for recurrence, especially for benign meningiomas.
Meningioma; Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF); Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9); Recurrence.
The aim of the current study was to examine the prognostic value of copeptin for acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. A total of 120 patients were recruited. The plasma copeptin levels were measured using sandwich immunoassays. The hematoma volume, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and ICH score were evaluated. The 90-day functional outcomes were measured with the modified Rankin scale (mRS). Copeptin correlated positively with hematoma volume (r=0.61, P=0.000), Hemphill scores (r=0.78, P=0.000) and white blood cell counts (r=0.58, P=0.000), whereas copeptin correlated negatively with GCS scores (r=−0.79, P=0.000). Copeptin levels were also higher in patients with an unfavorable functional outcome at 90 days than in patients with a favorable outcome (4.14±0.87 vs. 3.09±0.30 ng/ml; t=8.001, P=0.00). Monovariate logistic regression analysis results suggest that copeptin is a predictor of the 90-day functional outcomes of ICH patients (OR=3.17, 95% CI 2.01–4.35, P=0.003. Multivariate logistic regression analysis results indicate that copeptin is an independent predictor of the 90-day functional outcomes of ICH patients.
copeptin; intracerebral hemorrhage; prognostic value
Whether the expression of Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) correlates with esophageal cancer tumorigenesis is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to examine GOLPH3 expression in patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) and explore its clinical significance.
Differences in the expression of GOLPH3 at the mRNA and protein level were examined via quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR and western blotting, respectively. GOLPH3 expression levels in ESCC tissue were determined through immunohistochemistry, and were compared in accordance with specific clinicopathological features of the patients and tissue specimens. Factors associated with patient survival were also analyzed.
A notably higher level of GOLPH3 expression was found in ESCC cell lines and tissues at both mRNA and protein levels. High expression of GOLPH3 in ESCC patients was positively associated with clinical stage, TNM classification, histological differentiation and vital status (all P<0.0001). Expression of GOLPH3 was found to be an independent prognostic factor in ESCC patients. ESCC patients expressing high levels of GOLPH3 exhibited a substantially lower 5-year overall survival than GOLPH3-negative patients. Furthermore, a significant correlation between high GOLPH3 expression and shorter overall survival time was found in different subgroups of ESCC patients stratified by the clinical stage, T classification, and lymph node metastasis.
Experiments demonstrated potential involvement of GOLPH3 in the development, differentiation, and tumorigenesis of ESCC, and concludes the possibility of its use as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with ESCC.
Overexpression of GOLPH3 (Golgi phosphoprotein 3, 34 kDa) is associated with the progression of many solid tumor types leading to an unfavorable clinical outcome. We aimed to investigate the clinical significance of GOLPH3 expression in the development and progression of clinically N0 (cN0) oral tongue cancer.
Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses were employed to examine GOLPH3 expression in four oral tongue cancer cell lines, primary cultured normal tongue epithelial cells (TEC), eight matched pairs of oral tongue cancer samples and adjacent noncancerous tissue samples from the same patient. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine GOLPH3 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 179 cN0 oral tongue cancer patients. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the diagnostic value and the associations of GOLPH3 expression with clinical parameters.
GOLPH3 mRNA and protein was up-regulated in oral tongue cancer cell lines and cancerous tissues compared with that in primary cultured normal tongue epithelial cells (TEC) and adjacent noncancerous tissue samples. GOLPH3 protein level was positively correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.001), T classification (P = 0.001), N classification (P = 0.043) and recurrence (P = 0.009). Patients with higher GOLPH3 expression had shorter overall survival time, whereas those with lower GOLPH3 expression had longer survival time.
Our results suggest GOLPH3 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis for cN0 oral tongue cancer patients and may represent a novel and useful prognostic indicator for cN0 oral tongue cancer.
GOLPH3; Prognosis; cN0 oral tongue cancer
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for cell therapies and tissue engineering. Neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) are multipotent and represent a valuable system to investigate iPSC differentiation and therapeutic potential. Here we derived NCSCs from human iPSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and investigated the potential of NCSCs for neural tissue engineering. The differentiation of iPSCs and the expansion of derived NCSCs varied in different cell lines, but all NCSC lines were capable of differentiating into mesodermal and ectodermal lineages, including neural cells. Tissue-engineered nerve conduits were fabricated by seeding NCSCs into nanofibrous tubular scaffolds, and used as a bridge for transected sciatic nerves in a rat model. Electrophysiological analysis showed that only NCSC-engrafted nerve conduits resulted in an accelerated regeneration of sciatic nerves at 1 month. Histological analysis demonstrated that NCSC transplantation promoted axonal myelination. Furthermore, NCSCs differentiated into Schwann cells and were integrated into the myelin sheath around axons. No teratoma formation was observed for up to 1 year after NCSC transplantation in vivo. This study demonstrates that iPSC-derived multipotent NCSCs can be directly used for tissue engineering and that the approach that combines stem cells and scaffolds has tremendous potential for regenerative medicine applications.
Stem cells; scaffold; nerve guide; nerve tissue engineering; nanofibers; neural crest stem cell
Non-human primates have emerged as an important resource for the study of human disease and evolution. The characterization of genomic variation between and within non-human primate species could advance the development of genetically defined non-human primate disease models. However, non-human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab-eating macaques and eight Japanese macaques. Over 91% of the target regions were captured in the non-human primate samples, although the specificity of the capture decreased as evolutionary divergence from humans increased. Both intra-specific and inter-specific DNA variants were identified; Sanger-based resequencing validated 85.4% of 41 randomly selected SNPs. Among the short indels identified, a majority (54.6%–77.3%) of the variants resulted in a change of 3 base pairs, consistent with expectations for a selection against frame shift mutations. Taken together, these findings indicate that use of a human design exon-capture array can provide efficient enrichment of non-human primate gene regions. Accordingly, use of the human exon-capture methods provides an attractive, cost-effective approach for the comparative analysis of non-human primate genomes, including gene-based DNA variant discovery.
Prior meta-analyses indicated that people with schizophrenia show impairment in trait hedonic capacity but retain their state hedonic experience (valence) in laboratory-based assessments. Little is known about what is the extent of differences for state positive emotional experience (especially arousal) between people with schizophrenia and healthy controls. It is also not clear whether negative symptoms and gender effect contribute to the variance of positive affect.
Methods and Findings
The current meta-analysis examined 21 studies assessing state arousal experience, 40 studies measuring state valence experience, and 47studies assessing trait hedonic capacity in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significant impairment in trait hedonic capacity (Cohen’s d = 0.81). However, patients and controls did not statistically differ in state hedonic (valence) as well as exciting (arousal) experience to positive stimuli (Cohen’s d = −0.24 to 0.06). They also reported experiencing relatively robust state aversion and calmness to positive stimuli compared with controls (Cohen’s d = 0.75, 0.56, respectively). Negative symptoms and gender contributed to the variance of findings in positive affect, especially trait hedonic capacity in schizophrenia.
Our findings suggest that schizophrenia patients have no deficit in state positive emotional experience but impairment in “noncurrent” hedonic capacity, which may be mediated by negative symptoms and gender effect.
The goal of the present study was to investigate the potential correlation between the expression level of upregulator of cell proliferation (URGCP/URG4) and the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to examine the biological function of URGCP/URG4 in the progression of HCC, to better understand its underlying molecular mechanism in hepatic tumorigenesis.
URGCP/URG4 expression was analyzed in 15 HCC cell lines, in 278 archived paraffin-embedded HCC sections, and in 10 pairs of fresh HCC tumor and para-tumor non-cancerous tissues using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting analysis (WB). The effect of URGCP/URG4 on cell proliferation and tumorigenesis was examined in vitro and in vivo. WB and luciferase reporter analyses were performed to identify the effects of URGCP/URG4-overexpression or -knockdown on expression of cell cycle regulators and transcriptional activity of FOXO3a.
IHC results revealed an upregulation of URGCP/URG4 in all HCC cell lines and fresh HCC samples as compared with normal liver cells and para-tumor tissues, respectively. URGCP/URG4 was also expressed at a high level in 122 of the 278 (43.8%) archived HCC specimens. The expression level of URGCP/URG4 was significantly correlated with clinical staging and poor patient survival of HCC in the study cohort, and in various clinical subgroups. Strikingly, ectopic expression of URGCP/URG4 induced proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of HCC cells, while silencing of URGCP/URG4 had the opposite effect. Furthermore, URGCP/URG4 overexpression in HCC cells increased cellular entry into the G1/S transitional phase, associated with downregulation of p27Kip1 and p21Cip1 and upregulation of cyclin D1. These effects were accompanied by enhanced Akt activity and reduced FOXO3a transcriptional activity.
URGCP/URG4 plays an important role in promoting proliferation and tumorigenesis of HCC and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for this disease.
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C44H32P2, conventionally abbreviated BINAP, is one half of the complete chiral BINAP molecule, which adopts a C2 crystallographic point-group symmetry with a twofold axis splitting the molecule in two identical halves; a center of symmetry between molecules further determines the racemic pairs. There are no obvious supramolecular interactions between adjacent BINAP molecules.
Opioids exert a profound influence on immunomodulation and enhance HIV infection and replication. However, the mechanism(s) of their action remains to be determined. We thus investigated the impact of morphine on the intracellular innate antiviral immunity.
Seven-day-cultured macrophages were infected with equal amounts of cell-free HIV Bal or SIV DeltaB670 for 2 h at 37°C after 24 h of treatment with or without morphine. Effect of morphine on HIV/SIV infection and replication was evaluated by HIV/SIV RT activity assay and indirect immunofluorescence for HIV p24 or SIV p28 antigen. The mRNA expression of cellular factors suppressed or induced by morphine treatment was analyzed by the real-time RT-PCR. We demonstrated that morphine treatment of human blood monocyte-derived macrophages significantly inhibited the expression of interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-λ) and IFN-inducible genes (APOBEC3C/3F/3G and 3H). The further experiments showed that morphine suppressed the expression of several key elements (RIG-I and IRF-7) in IFN signaling pathway. In addition, morphine treatment induced the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling protein-1, 2, 3 (SOCS-1, 2, 3) and protein inhibitors of activated STAT-1, 3, X, Y (PIAS-1, 3, X, Y), the key negative regulators of IFN signaling pathway.
These findings indicate that morphine impairs intracellular innate antiviral mechanism(s) in macrophages, contributing to cell susceptibility to AIDS virus infection.
Spatial models are widely used in epidemiology to investigate persistence and extinction of disease as well as their spatial patterns. One of the most important issues in studying epidemic models is the role of infection on the persistence and extinction of the disease. In this paper, we investigate a spatial susceptible–infected–recovered–infected model using cellular automata. We show that, in the regime where disease disappears in the susceptible–infected–recovered–susceptible model, spiral and target waves will emerge in the two-dimensional space due to the reinfection. The obtained results may point out that reinfection has great influence on the epidemic spreading, which enriches the findings of spatiotemporal dynamics in epidemic models.
Cellular automata; Reinfection; Epidemiology; Persistence
Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) is associated with tumorigenesis and progression in diverse human cancers. The present study was aimed to investigate the clinical and prognostic significance of AEG-1 in salivary gland carcinomas (SGC).
Real-time PCR and western blot analyses were employed to examine AEG-1 expression in two normal salivary gland tissues, eight SGC tissues of various clinical stages, and five pairs of primary SGC and adjacent salivary gland tissues from the same patient. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine AEG-1 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 141 SGC patients. Statistical analyses was applies to evaluate the diagnostic value and associations of AEG-1 expression with clinical parameters.
AEG-1 expression was evidently up-regulated in SGC tissues compared with that in the normal salivary gland tissues and in matched adjacent salivary gland tissues. AEG-1 protein level was positively correlated with clinical stage (P < 0.001), T classification (P = 0.008), N classification (P = 0.008) and M classifications (P = 0.006). Patients with higher AEG-1 expression had shorter overall survival time, whereas those with lower tumor AEG-1 expression had longer survival time.
Our results suggest that AEG-1 expression is associated with SGC progression and may represent a novel and valuable predictor for prognostic evaluation of SGC patients.
AEG-1; Biomarker; Prognosis; Salivary gland carcinomas
Schistosomiasis remains an important public health problem throughout tropical and subtropical countries. Humans are infected through contact with water contaminated with schistosome cercariae. Therefore, issuing early warnings on the risk of infection is an important preventive measure against schistosomiasis. Sentinel mice are used to monitor water body infestations, and identifying appropriate antibody responses to schistosome antigens for early detection of infection would help to improve the efficiency of this system. In this study we explored the potential of detecting antibodies to the hydrophilic domain (HD) of the 23-kDa membrane protein (Sj23HD) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) of Schistosome japonicum for early detection of schistosome infection in sentinel mice.
Development of IgM and IgG antibody levels against Sj23HD and SEA in S. japonicum infected mice was evaluated over the course of 42 days post-infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. The Sj23HD and SEA specific IgM and IgG levels in mice all increased gradually over the course of infection, but IgM and IgG antibodies against Sj23HD presented earlier than those against SEA. Furthermore, the rates of positive antibody responses against Sj23HD were higher than those against SEA in the early stage of schistosome infection, suggesting that the likelihood of detecting early infection using anti-Sj23HD responses would be higher than that with anti-SEA responses. The use of immunoblotting could further improve the early detection of schistosome infection due to its greater sensitivity and specificity compared to ELISA. Additionally, the levels of Sj23HD and SEA specific antibodies positively correlated with the load of cercariae challenge and the duration of schistosome infection.
This study demonstrated that antibody responses to the Sj23HD antigen could be monitored for early detection of schistosome infection in mice, especially by immunoblotting which demonstrated greater sensitivity and specificity than ELISA for detection Sj23HD antibodies.
In the title complex, [Co(C12H8N2)3][CoI(C12H8N2)2(H2O)][Bi3I12], conventionally abbreviated [Co(phen)3][CoI(phen)2(H2O)][Bi3I12], where phen is 1,10-phenanthroline, the CoII atom in one cation is coordinated by six N atoms from three phen ligands in an octahedral coordination while the CoII atom in the other cation is coordinated octahedrally by four N atoms from two phen ligands, one water O atom and one I atom. In the anion, three BiIII ions adopt an octahedral coordination constructed by six I− ligands. The three BiI6 octahedra are fused together through trans face-sharing.
In the title complex, [Cu(C4H5NO4)(C6H6N2O)(H2O)], conventionally abbreviated Cu(IDA)(4-OXPy)(H2O), where IDA is iminodiacetate and 4-OXPy is 4-(hydroxyiminomethyl)pyridine, the CuII atom exhibits a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry, which is constructed from two O atoms and one N atom from a IDA ligand, one N atom from 4-OXPy ligand and one O atom from water. This molecule looks like a space shuttle, the IDA ligand is its empennage (tail), and the 4-OXPy ligand is its airframe. The complexes are linked into two-dimensional supramolecular layers parallel to (100) by three pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. Two pairs of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds further connect these supramolecular layers, forming a three-dimensional supramolecular network.
In the title salt, [Fe(C12H8N2)3][Fe2Cl6O], the ionic components are linked into a two-dimensional supramolecular layer by two pairs of C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking interactions [centroid–centroid distances = 3.655 (4) and 3.498 (3) Å]. The salt is characterized as a mixed-valent FeII–FeIII compound, in which an FeII atom is coordinated by three phen ligands, forming a six-coordinated cationic entity and the anionic part is formed by two FeIII atoms in tetrahedral coordination environments constructed by three chloride ions and one bridging oxide ligand. Intramolecular C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds are observed.
Schistosomiasis remains a major public health concern that afflicts millions of people worldwide. Low levels of Schistosoma infection require more sensitive diagnostic methods. In this study, a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) was developed for detecting the signal transduction protein 14-3-3, a circulating antigen of Schistosoma japonicum.
The detection limit of 14-3-3-TRFIA was 0.78 ng/ml, with a linear measurement range from 0.78 to 800 ng/ml. The average intra-assay and inter-assay variability of this TRFIA was 8.9% and 12.2% respectively, and the mean recovery rate ranged from 92.1% to 115.5%. Within the first 21 days post-infection in rabbits, the positive rates of the 14-3-3-TRFIA were distinctly higher compared to ELISA. All these findings illustrate that 14-3-3-TRFIA has a higher detection efficacy and is a good early diagnostic method for active Schistosoma infection.
A sandwich TRFIA for detecting the circulating antigen 14-3-3 of S. japonicum has been developed, and has demonstrated to be a good potential diagnostic method for schistosomiasis.
Dendritic cells (DCs) must achieve a critical balance between activation and tolerance, a process influenced by cytokines and growth factors. IL-10, which transduces signals through Stat3, has emerged as one important negative regulator of DC activation. To directly examine the role Stat3 plays in regulating DC activity, the Stat3 gene was targeted for deletion with a CD11c-cre transgene. Stat3 CKO mice developed cervical lymphadenopathy as well as a mild ileocolitis that persisted throughout life and was associated with impaired weight gain. Consistent with this, Stat3-deficient DCs demonstrated enhanced immune activity, including increased cytokine production, Ag-dependent T-cell activation and resistance to IL-10–mediated suppression. These results reveal a cell-intrinsic negative regulatory role of Stat3 in DCs and link increased DC activation with perturbed immune homeostasis and chronic mucosal inflammation.
Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a malformation syndrome with neurocognitive deficits due to mutations of DHCR7 that impair the reduction of 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol. To investigate the pathological processes underlying the neurocognitive deficits, we compared protein expression in Dhcr7+/+ and Dhcr7Δ3-5/Δ3-5 brain tissue. One of the proteins identified was cofilin-1, an actin depolymerizing factor which regulates neuronal dendrite and axon formation. Differential expression of cofilin-1 was due to increased phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of cofilin-1 is regulated by Rho GTPases through Rho-Rock-Limk-Cofilin-1 and Rac/Cdc42-Pak-Limk-Cofilin-1 pathways. Pull-down assays were used to demonstrate increased activation of RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 in Dhcr7Δ3-5/Δ3-5 brains. Consistent with increased activation of these Rho GTPases, we observed increased phosphorylation of both Limk and Pak in mutant brain tissue. Altered Rho/Rac signaling impairs normal dendritic and axonal formation, and mutations in genes encoding regulators and effectors of the Rho GTPases underlie other human mental retardation syndromes. Thus, we hypothesized that aberrant activation of Rho/Rac could have functional consequences for dendrite and axonal growth. In vitro analysis of Dhcr7Δ3-5/Δ3-5 hippocampal neurons demonstrated both axonal and dendritic abnormalities. Developmental abnormalities of neuronal process formation may contribute to the neurocognitive deficits found in SLOS and may represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
To examine the validation and reliability of the distress thermometer (DT) recommended by National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) in Chinese cancer patients.
A total of 574 Chinese cancer patients from Beijing Cancer Hospital completed the detection of DT, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve and Area Under the Curve (AUC) were used to analyze the validation relative to HADS and SCL-90. The patients with DT≥4 and whose distress caused by emotional problems were interviewed with the MiNi International Neuro-psychiatric Interview (MINI) (Chinese Version 5.0). This version was used to analyze cancer patients’ psychological and Psychiatric symptoms during the cancer process; 3. Another 106 cancer patients in rehabilitation stage and stable condition were asked to fill in DT two times, at the base time and after 7-10 days.
Data of ROC indicates that a DT cutoff score of 4 yielded AUC of 0.80 with a optimal sensitivity (0.80) and specificity (0.70) relative to HADS, and AUC of 0.83 with the greatest sensitivity (0.87) and specificity (0.72) against SCL-90. The DT also has acceptable test-retest reliability (r=0.800, P=0.000); According to the interview results, the most common psychiatric problems cancer patients have adjustment disorder, depression, and anxiety.
The data suggest that DT has acceptable overall accuracy and reliability as a screening tool for testing distress severity and specific problems causing distress in Chinese cancer patients. It is worth being used in oncology clinic, the rapid screening and interview could help caregivers to identify psychological and psychiatric problems of cancer patients and provide useful information for further treatment.
Validation; Reliability; Cancer patients; Distress thermometer
In April 2009, a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus, referred to as pandemic influenza A (H1N1) was first detected in humans in the United States, followed by an outbreak in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Soon afterwards, this new virus kept spreading worldwide resulting in a global outbreak. In China, the second Circular of the Ministry of Health pointed out that as of December 31, 2009, the country’s 31 provinces had reported 120,000 confirmed cases of H1N1.
We formulate an epidemic model of influenza A based on networks. We calculate the basic reproduction number and study the effects of various immunization schemes. The final size relation is derived for the network epidemic model. The model parameters are estimated via least-squares fitting of the model solution to the observed data in China.
For the network model, we prove that the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when the basic reproduction is less than one. The final size will depend on the vaccination starting time, T, the number of infective cases at time T and immunization schemes to follow. Our theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. Using the parameter estimates based on the observation data of the cumulative number of hospital notifications, we estimate the basic reproduction number R0 to be 1.6809 in China.
Network modelling supplies a useful tool for studying the transmission of H1N1 in China, capturing the main features of the spread of H1N1. While a uniform, mass-immunization strategy helps control the prevalence, a targeted immunization strategy focusing on specific groups with given connectivity may better control the endemic.
B-lymphoma Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region-1 (Bmi-1) acts as an oncogene in various tumors, and its overexpression correlates with a poor outcome in several human cancers. Ectopic expression of Bmi-1 can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhance the motility and invasiveness of human nasopharyngeal epithelial cells (NPECs), whereas silencing endogenous Bmi-1 expression can reverse EMT and reduce the metastatic potential of nasopharyngeal cancer cells (NPCs). Mouse xenograft studies indicate that coexpression of Bmi-1 and H-Ras in breast cancer cells can induce an aggressive and metastatic phenotype with an unusual occurrence of brain metastasis; although, Bmi-1 overexpression did not result in oncogenic transformation of MCF-10A cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of Bmi-1-mediated progression and the metastasis of breast cancer are not fully elucidated at this time.
Bmi-1 expression is more pronouncedly increased in primary cancer tissues compared to matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. High Bmi-1 expression is correlated with advanced clinicopathologic classifications (T, N, and M) and clinical stages. Furthermore, a high level of Bmi-1 indicates an unfavorable overall survival and serves as a high risk marker for breast cancer. In addition, inverse transcriptional expression levels of Bmi-1 and E-cadherin are detected between the primary cancer tissues and the matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Higher Bmi-1 levels are found in the cancer tissue, whereas the paired adjacent non-cancer tissue shows higher E-cadherin levels. Overexpression of Bmi-1 increases the motility and invasive properties of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells, which is concurrent with the increased expression of mesenchymal markers, the decreased expression of epithelial markers, the stabilization of Snail and the dysregulation of the Akt/GSK3β pathway. Consistent with these observations, the repression of Bmi-1 in highly metastatic breast cancer cells remarkably reduces cellular motility, invasion and transformation, as well as tumorigenesis and lung metastases in nude mice. In addition, the repression of Bmi-1 reverses the expression of EMT markers and inhibits the Akt/GSK3β/Snail pathway.
This study demonstrates that Bmi-1 promotes the invasion and metastasis of human breast cancer and predicts poor survival.
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) plays a vitally important role in the blood coagulation pathway. Recent studies indicated that TFPI induces apoptosis in vascular smooth-muscle cells (VSMCs) in animals. The present study investigated whether the TFPI gene could also induce apoptosis in human vascular smooth-muscle cells (hVSMCs). Such cells were isolated from human umbilical arteries and subsequently transfected with pIRES-TFPI plasmid (2 μg/mL). MTT assaying and cell counting were applied to measure cell viability and proliferation, RT-PCR was utilized to analyze TFPI gene expression in the cells. Apoptosis was analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Several key proteins involved in apoptosis were examined through Western blotting. It was shown that TFPI gene transfer led to its increased cellular expression, with a subsequent reduction in hVSMC proliferation. Further investigation demonstrated that TFPI gene expression resulted in lesser amounts of procaspase-3, procaspase-8 and procascase-9, and an increased release of mitochondrial cytochrome c (cyt-c) into cytoplasm, thereby implying the involvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in TFPI gene-induced apoptosis in hVSMCs.
tissue factor pathway inhibitor; vascular smooth muscle cells; apoptosis
We studied prospectively whether atherosclerotic progression in apolipoprotein-E knockout mice could be noninvasively and accurately measured by use of high-resolution ultrasonographic biomicroscopy. We examined the correlation between the ultrasonographic characterization of ascending aortic atherosclerotic plaque and plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 levels in these mice.
In 4 age groups (8, 16, 24, and 32 wk) of 8 male knockout mice each (atherosclerotic groups) and age-matched male C57BL/6 mice (control groups), we used ultrasonographic biomicroscopy to measure maximal plaque thickness or intima-media thickness in the ascending aorta. We compared the findings with corresponding histologic measurements, and we measured plasma C-reactive protein, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6 levels in each group.
Mean atherosclerotic thicknesses and C-reactive protein and interleukin levels were significantly higher in each atherosclerotic group than in the control groups (all P < 0.05). Ultrasonographically measured atherosclerotic thickness correlated well with histologic measurements of the same vascular regions (r = 0.81, P < 0.001). C-reactive protein levels increased concomitantly with age in the knockout mice, and ultrasonographically measured atherosclerotic thickness correlated with those levels (r = 0.626, P < 0.001). However, there was no correlation between plasma interleukin levels and atherosclerotic severity as measured by ultrasonographic biomicroscopy.
In the apolipoprotein-E knockout mice, we found that measurements of intima-media or maximal plaque thickness by ultrasonographic biomicroscopy noninvasively and accurately detected atherosclerotic progression, that plasma C-reactive protein levels correlated with atherosclerosis, and that elevated plasma C-reactive protein levels correlated with atherosclerotic severity.
Apolipoproteins E/deficiency; arteriosclerosis/diagnosis/physiopathology/ultrasonography; C-reactive protein/physiology; diagnostic imaging/methods; disease models, animal; inflammation/etiology/physiopathology; interleukins/physiology; mice, inbred C57BL; mice, knockout; microscopy; ultrasonography/instrumentation/methods