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author:("Song, junying")
1.  Reliability and Applicability of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II for Children With Cerebral Palsy 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2013;37(2):167-174.
Objective
To obtain reliability and applicability of the Korean version Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) in evaluating the developmental status of children with cerebral palsy (CP).
Methods
The inter-rater reliability of BSID-II scores from 68 children with CP (46 boys and 22 girls; mean age, 32.54±16.76 months; age range, 4 to 78 months) was evaluated by 10 pediatric occupational therapists. Patients were classified in several ways according to age group, typology, and the severity of motor impairment by the level of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The measures were performed by video analysis, and the results of intraclass correlation (ICC) were obtained for each of the above classifications. To evaluate the clinical applicability of BSID-II for CP, its correlation with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), which has been known as the standard motor assessment for CP, was investigated.
Results
ICC was 0.99 for the Mental scale and 0.98 for the Motor scale in all subjects. The values of ICC ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 for each age group, 0.93 to 0.99 for each typology, and 0.99 to 1.00 for each GMFCS level. A strong positive correlation was found between the BSID-II Motor raw score and the GMFM total score (r=0.84, p<0.001), and a moderate correlation was observed between the BSID-II Mental raw score and the GMFM total score (r=0.65, p<0.001).
Conclusion
The Korean version of BSID-II is a reliable tool to measure the functional status of children with CP. The raw scores of BSID-II showed a great correlation with GMFM, indicating validity of this measure for children with CP on clinical basis.
doi:10.5535/arm.2013.37.2.167
PMCID: PMC3660476  PMID: 23705110
Cerebral palsy; Child development; Reliability; Gross motor function
2.  The Effect of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Therapy in Patients with Completed Stroke: A Pilot Trial 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2012;36(4):447-457.
Objective
To evaluate the safety and potential efficacy of "recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH)" on the functional recovery of completed stroke patients.
Method
Completed stroke patients were recruited. All participants were randomly assigned to the GH group (rhGH injection and rehabilitative therapy) or the control group (only rehabilitative therapy). Above all, they were closely monitored for safety. Further, for the efficacy measurement, Korean Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI), Manual Muscle strength Test (MMT), and Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) were assessed to determine the changes of functional recovery during 6-months of the study period. Along with it, diffusion tensor image was taken as the baseline, and a followed-up study to observe the changes in diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), during the period, and one patient in the GH group was also examined with functional MRI (fMRI). Index of fatigue on 5 point scale for the study period was also assessed.
Results
Twenty-two patients were enrolled, and 15 completed the study and were included in the analysis. No harmful adverse events were observed in the GH group. By comparison between the groups, the GH group showed more improvement in K-MBI than the control group (p<0.05). DTT showed less decrement of fibers in the GH group than in the control group, without statistical significance. fMRI showed an increment in the activated area. Patients in the GH group expressed no fatigue at all, during the study period (p=0.00).
Conclusion
The administration of rhGH in long term resulted in the improvement in K-MBI, and subjectively less tiredness during the injection period.
doi:10.5535/arm.2012.36.4.447
PMCID: PMC3438410  PMID: 22977769
Stroke; Growth hormone; IGF-1; Recovery
3.  Association between Cross-sectional Areas of Lumbar Muscles on Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Chronicity of Low Back Pain 
Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine  2011;35(6):852-859.
Objective
To investigate the prognostic value of cross-sectional areas (CSA) of paraspinal (multifidus and erector spinae) and psoas muscles on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in chronicity of low back pain.
Method
Thirty-eight subjects who visited our hospital for acute low back pain were enrolled. Review of their medical records and telephone interviews were done. Subjects were divided into two groups; chronic back pain group (CBP) and a group showing improvement within 6 months after onset of pain (IBP). The CSA of paraspinal and psoas muscles were obtained at the level of the lower margin of L3 and L5 vertebrae using MRI.
Results
CSA of erector spinae muscle and the proportion of the area to lumbar muscles (paraspinal and psoas muscles) at L5 level in the CBP group were significantly smaller than that of the IBP group (p<0.05). The mean value of CSA of multifidus muscle at L5 level in the CBP group was smaller than that of the IBP group, but was not statistically significant (p>0.05). CSA of psoas muscle at L5 level and all values measured at L3 level were not significantly different between the groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion
CSA of erector spinae muscle at the lower lumbar level and the proportion of the area to the lumbar muscles at the L5 level can be considered to be prognostic factors of chronicity of low back pain.
doi:10.5535/arm.2011.35.6.852
PMCID: PMC3309393  PMID: 22506214
Low back pain; Magnetic resonance imaging; Cross-sectional area; Muscles
4.  Umbilical Cord Blood Therapy Potentiated with Erythropoietin for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial 
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)  2012;31(3):581-591.
Allogeneic umbilical cord blood (UCB) has therapeutic potential for cerebral palsy (CP). Concomitant administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) may boost the efficacy of UCB, as it has neurotrophic effects. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety and efficacy of allogeneic UCB potentiated with rhEPO in children with CP. Children with CP were randomly assigned to one of three parallel groups: the pUCB group, which received allogeneic UCB potentiated with rhEPO; the EPO group, which received rhEPO and placebo UCB; and the Control group, which received placebo UCB and placebo rhEPO. All participants received rehabilitation therapy. The main outcomes were changes in scores on the following measures during the 6 months treatment period: the gross motor performance measure (GMPM), gross motor function measure, and Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II) Mental and Motor scales (18). F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) were acquired at baseline and followed up to detect changes in the brain. In total, 96 subjects completed the study. Compared with the EPO (n = 33) and Control (n = 32) groups, the pUCB (n = 31) group had significantly higher scores on the GMPM and BSID-II Mental and Motor scales at 6 months. DTI revealed significant correlations between the GMPM increment and changes in fractional anisotropy in the pUCB group. 18F-FDG-PET/CT showed differential activation and deactivation patterns between the three groups. The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ between groups. In conclusion, UCB treatment ameliorated motor and cognitive dysfunction in children with CP undergoing active rehabilitation, accompanied by structural and metabolic changes in the brain. Stem Cells2013;31:581–591
doi:10.1002/stem.1304
PMCID: PMC3744768  PMID: 23281216
Umbilical cord blood; Erythropoietin; Cerebral palsy; Clinical trial; Function

Results 1-4 (4)