Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belonging to genotype 1d, strain 10JJ-SKR, which was isolated from cattle. The complete genome is 12,267 nucleotides (nt) in length, with a single large open reading frame. This is the first report of a BVDV belonging to genotype 1d and will enable further study of the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of this virus.
The genomes of three South Korean Rinderpest virus vaccine strains (L72, LA77, and LA96) were analyzed in order to investigate their genetic variability. These three vaccine strains were all derived from the same virus strain origin (Fusan) through repeated passages in different culture systems. The full genome length of the three strains was 15,882 nucleotides, and the sequence similarity between the three South Korean RPV strains at the nucleotide level was 98.1 to 98.9%. The genetic distance between Nakamura III, L72, LA77, LA96, and LATC06 and the Kabete strain was greater than that between the Fusan and Kabete strains for the P, V, and C genes. The difference in pathogenicity among these strains might be due to the V gene, which has a positive (>1) selection ratio based on the analysis of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) substitution rates (dN/dS ratio [ω]).
The high genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been an obstacle to developing an effective vaccine for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). This study was performed to assess the degree of genetic diversity among PRRSVs from Korean pig farms where wasting and respiratory syndrome was observed from 2005 to 2009. Samples from 786 farms were tested for the presence of PRRSV using reverse transcription PCR protocol. A total of 117 farms were positive for type 1 PRRSV while 198 farms were positive for type 2. Nucleotide sequences encoding the open reading frame (ORF) 5 were analyzed and compared to those of various published PRRSV isolates obtained worldwide. Sequence identity of the ORF 5 in the isolates was 81.6~100% for type 1 viruses and 81.4~100% for type 2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the ORF 5 sequences showed that types 1 and 2 PRRSVs from Korea were mainly classified into three and four clusters, respectively. The analyzed isolates were distributed throughout the clusters independent of the isolation year or geographical origin. In conclusion, our results indicated that the genetic diversity of PRRSVs from Korean pig farms is high and has been increasing over time.
Korea; open reading frame 5; phylogenetic analysis; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
Classical swine fever is a disease that is devastating the pig industry worldwide. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two classical swine virus strains (YC11WB and PC11WB), isolated from Korean wild boars in 2011. Both strains belong to subgenotype 2.1b. The complete genome sequences of PC11WB and YC11WB are more similar to that of strain ZJ0801 (isolated in China) than to that of the SW03 strain isolated from domestic pigs in South Korea.
Brucella abortus is a major pathogen that infects livestock and humans. A new strain of B. abortus (A13334) was isolated from the fetal gastric fluid of a dairy cow, with the aim of using it to compare genetic properties, analyze virulence factor, and survey the epidemiological relationship to other Brucella species. Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of B. abortus A13334.
Brucella canis infection can be clinically inapparent in dogs, and when infection goes unnoticed, there is a chance for dog-to-human transmission. A new strain of B. canis was isolated from the blood of an infected dog in order to analyze the pathogenic mechanism, compare genetic properties, and develop new genetic tools for early diagnosis of canine brucellosis. Herein, we report the complete genome sequence of the strain B. canis HSK A52141. This is the second complete genome sequence and biological annotation available for a member of B. canis.
The canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) K37 strain of the family Coronaviridae, group 2, was isolated in South Korea. Its genome was analyzed by nucleotide sequencing and was determined to have 31,029 bp. The small open reading frames situated between the spike and envelope genes of most of the CRCoV strains (except the CRCoV 4180 strain) were found to encode three nonstructural proteins (4.9 kDa, 2.7 kDa, and 12.8 kDa), while those of bovine coronavirus (BCoV) encode another three nonstructural proteins (4.9 kDa, 4.8 kDa, and 12.7 kDa) and those of a recently isolated bovine respiratory coronavirus (BRCoV) were found to encode only two nonstructural proteins (4.9 kDa and 12.7 kDa). The differences in the genes encoding these small nonstructural proteins may be associated with the emergence of highly similar viruses in different hosts.
An effective strategy for preventing rabies consists of controlling rabies in the host reservoir with vaccination. Rabies vaccine has proven to be the most effective weapon for coping with this fatal viral zoonotic disease of warm-blooded animals, including human. Natural rabies infection of an individual is always associated with exposure to rabid animals, and the duration of clinical signs can vary from days to months. The incubation period for the disease depends on the site of the bite, severity of injury, and the amount of infecting virus at the time of exposure. The mortality of untreated cases in humans is 100%. Over the last 100 years, various rabies vaccines have been developed and used to prevent or control rabies in animals, such as modified live vaccine, inactivated rabies vaccine, and oral modified live vaccine. These have proved safe and efficacious worldwide. New-generation rabies vaccines, including recombinant rabies virus-based vaccines, vectored vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, and plant vaccines, have been explored to overcome the limitations of conventional rabies vaccines. This article discusses current and next-generation rabies vaccines in animals.
Rabies vaccines; Bait vaccine; Vectored vaccine; Plant vaccine
No information is currently available on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Korea. In this study, the status of PRRS in wild boars was investigated. Blood samples were collected from 267 wild boars from eight provinces in Korea. Four of the samples tested (1.5%) were positive for PRRSV antibodies and eight (3.0%) were positive for antigens. Of the virus-positive samples, three and five samples were typed as containing European (EU, type 1) or North American (NA, type 2) viruses, respectively. Two amplicons (one from type 1 and one from type 2) were used to analyze the PRRSV open reading frame 7 (ORF7) sequence. The nucleotide sequences of type 1 PRRSV ORF7 had identities between 96.1% and 98.4% with PRRSVs from domestic pigs in Korea. The sequences of type 2 PRRSV ORF7 had identities of 100% with the PRRSV strain VR-2332, which was prototypic North American strain. These results show that PRRSVs are present in wild boars in Korea, and effective PRRSV surveillance of the wild boar population might therefore be useful for disease control.
ELISA; Korea; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome; RT-PCR; wild boar (Sus scrofa)
It is essential to rapidly and precisely diagnose rabies. In this study, we evaluated four diagnostic methods, indirect fluorescent antibody test (FAT), virus isolation (VI), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and rapid immunodiagnostic assay (RIDA), to detect rabies in animal brain homogenates. Out of the 110 animal brain samples tested, 20 (18.2%) were positive for rabies according to the FAT. Compared to the FAT, the sensitivities of VI, RT-PCR, and RIDA were 100, 100, and 95%, respectively. The specificities of VI, RT-PCR and RIDA were found to be 100, 100, and 98.9%, respectively. Rabies viruses circulating in Korea were isolated and propagated in murine neuroblastoma (NG108-15) cells with titers ranging from 101.5 to 104.5 TCID50/mL. Although the RIDA findings did not completely coincide with results obtained from FAT, VI, and RT-PCR, RIDA appears to be a fast and reliable assay that can be used to analyze brain samples. In summary, the results from our study showed that VI, RT-PCR, and RIDA can be used as supplementary diagnostic tools for detecting rabies viruses in both laboratory and field settings.
immunodiagnostic assay; rabies; RT-PCR; virus isolation
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly contagious disease among swine that has an important economic impact worldwide. CSFV strain LOM is an attenuated virus of low virulent strain of Miyagi isolated from Japan in 1956. Eight DNA fragments representing the genome of the CSFV strain LOM were obtained by RT-PCR. These were used to determine the complete nucleotide sequence and construct a full-length cDNA clone which was called Flc-LOM. Sequence analysis of the recombinant clone (Flc-LOM) revealed the presence of eight mutations, resulting in two amino acid substitutions, when compared to the parental sequence. RNA transcripts of both LOM and Flc-LOM were directly infectious in PK-15 cells. The rescued Flc-LOM virus grew more slowly than the parental virus, LOM, in the cells. Intramuscular immunization with Flc-LOM was safe and highly immunogenic in pigs; no clinical signs or virus transmission to sentinel animals were observed after 35 days. CSFV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected 14 days post-infection. After challenge with the virulent CSFV strain SW03, pigs immunized with Flc-LOM were shown to be fully protected. Thus, our newly established infectious clone of CSFV, Flc-LOM, could serve as a vaccine candidate.
classical swine fever virus; Flc-LOM; infectious c DNA clone; LOM
Climate change induced by recent global warming may have a significant impact on vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. For example, the distribution of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has expanded into new regions. We surveyed the levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies against JEV (Family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in wild birds captured in Korea. Blood samples were collected from 1,316 wild birds including the following migratory birds: Oceanodroma castro (n = 4), Anas formosa (n = 7), Anas penelope (n = 20), Fulica atra (n = 30), Anas acuta (n = 89), Anas crecca (n = 154), Anas platyrhynchos (n = 214), Aix galericulata (n = 310), and Anas poecilorhyncha (n = 488). All were captured in 16 locations in several Korea provinces between April 2007 and December 2009. Out of the 1,316 serum samples tested, 1,141 (86.7%) were positive for JEV. Wild birds captured in 2009 had a higher seroprevalence of ant-JEV antibodies than those captured in 2007. Wild birds with an HI antibody titer of 1 : 1,280 or higher accounted for 21.2% (280/1,316) of the animals tested. These findings indicated that wild birds from the region examined in our study have been exposed to JEV and may pose a high risk for introducing a new JEV genotype into Korea.
Japanese encephalitis virus; serosurveillance; wild bird
As the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus continues to infect human populations globally, reports on epidemiologically linked animal infections are also on the rise. Since December 2009, pandemic (H1N1) 2009-like viruses have been isolated in pigs from different swine farms of South Korea. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of viral segments demonstrated several events of human-to-swine transmission with no apparent signs of reassortment. These events were also supported by serological surveillance in pig sera collected from April to December, suggesting that reverse transmission probably started between June and July with a drastic increase in prevalence the following months. Although molecular characterization indicates that the swine isolates are generally stable, some viruses are genetically evolving, most notably in their surface proteins. Animal studies (ferrets and mice) reveal that swine pandemic isolates epitomize biological properties attributed to the currently circulating human pandemic viruses, including replication kinetics and efficient transmission, indicating their potential to return to circulation among humans. Overall, these results indicate widespread human-to-animal transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza viruses in South Korea. With the significant role of pigs in the ecology of influenza viruses, these transmission events should be closely monitored and minimized to prevent the risk of generating viruses with greater human health concerns.
The nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) of 11 Korean rabies virus (RABV) isolates collected from animals diagnosed with rabies between 2008 and 2009 were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Six isolates originated from domestic animals (cattle and dogs) and five were obtained from wild free-ranging raccoon dogs. The similarities in the nucleotide sequences of the N gene among all Korean isolates ranged from 98.1 to 99.8%, while those of the G gene ranged from 97.9 to 99.3%. Based on the nucleotide analysis of the N and G genes, the Korean RABV isolates were confirmed as genotype I of Lyssavirus and classified into four distinct subgroups with high similarity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean isolates were most closely related to the non-Korean NeiMeng1025B and 857r strains, which were isolated from rabid raccoon dogs in Eastern China and Russia, respectively. These findings suggest that the Korean RABV isolates originated from a rabid raccoon dog in Northeastern Asia. Genetic analysis of the Korean RABV isolates revealed no substitutions at several antigenic sites, indicating that the isolates circulating in Korea may be pathogenic in several hosts.
characterization; genotype I; molecular epidemiology; rabies virus
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a small single-stranded RNA virus which belongs to the family Picornaviridae, genus Apthovirus. It is a principal cause of FMD which is highly contagious in livestock. In a wild type virus infection, infected animals usually elicit antibodies against structural and non-structural protein of FMDV. A structural protein, VP1, is involved in neutralization of virus particle, and has both B and T cell epitopes. A RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, 3D, is highly conserved among other serotypes and strongly immunogenic, therefore, we selected VP1 and 3D as vaccine targets.
VP1 and 3D genes were codon-optimized to enhance protein expression level and cloned into mammalian expression vector. To produce recombinant protein, VP1 and 3D genes were also cloned into pET vector. The VP1 and 3D DNA or proteins were co-immunized into 5 weeks old BALB/C mice.
Antigen-specific serum antibody (Ab) responses were detected by Ab ELISA. Cellular immune response against VP1 and 3D was confirmed by ELISpot assay.
The results showed that all DNA- and protein-immunized groups induced cellular immune responses, suggesting that both DNA and recombinant protein vaccine administration efficiently induced Ag-specific humoral and cellular immune responses.
FMDV; DNA vaccine; Recombinant protein vaccine; B cell epitope peptide
Helicobacter pylori causes gastroduodenal disease, which is mediated in part by its outer membrane proteins (OMPs). To identify OMPs of H. pylori strain 26695, we performed a proteomic analysis. A sarcosine-insoluble outer membrane fraction was resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis with immobilized pH gradient strips. Most of the protein spots, with molecular masses of 10 to 100 kDa, were visible on the gel in the alkaline pI regions (6.0 to 10.0). The proteome of the OMPs was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Of the 80 protein spots processed, 62 spots were identified; they represented 35 genes, including 16 kinds of OMP. Moreover, we identified 9 immunoreactive proteins by immunoblot analysis. This study contributes to the characterization of the H. pylori strain 26695 proteome and may help to further elucidate the biological function of H. pylori OMPs and the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection.