New rabies vaccine bait for both pets and raccoon dogs residing in Korea is needed to eradicate rabies infection among animals. In this study, we constructed a recombinant rabies virus (RABV), the ERAG3G strain, using a reverse genetics system. Then we investigated the efficacy of this strain in mice after oral administration and the safety of this strain in cats after intramuscular administration.
Materials and Methods
The ERAG3G strain was rescued in BHK/T7-9 cells using the full-length genome mutated at the amino acid position 333 of the glycoprotein gene of RABV and helper plasmids. Four-week-old mice underwent one or two oral administrations of the ERAG3G strain and were challenged with the highly virulent RABV strain CVSN2c 14 days after the second administration. Clinical symptoms were observed and body weights were measured every day after the challenge.
All mice showed complete protection against virulent RABV. In addition, cats intramuscularly inoculated with the ERAG3G strain showed high antibody titers ranging from 2.62 to 23.9 IU/mL at 28-day postinoculation.
The oral immunization of the ERAG3G strain plays an important role in conferring complete protection in mice, and intramuscular inoculation of the ERAG3G strain induces the formation of anti-rabies neutralizing antibody in cats.
Recombinant rabies virus; Reverse genetics; Mouse; Animals
The present study was conducted to develop an effective method for establishment of porcine parthenogenetic embryonic stem cells (ppESCs) from parthenogenetically activated oocyte-derived blastocysts. The addition of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) to the medium on the 3rd day of oocyte culturing improved the development of blastocysts, attachment of inner cell masses (ICMs) onto feeder cells, and formation of primitive ppESC colonies. ICM attachment was further enhanced by basic fibroblast growth factor, stem cell factor, and leukemia inhibitory factor. From these attached ICMs, seven ppESC lines were established. ppESC pluripotency was verified by strong enzymatic alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of pluripotent markers OCT3/4, Nanog, and SSEA4. Moreover, the ppESCs were induced to form an embryoid body and teratoma. Differentiation into three germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) was confirmed by the expression of specific markers for the layers and histological analysis. In conclusion, data from the present study suggested that our modified culture conditions using FBS and cytokines are highly useful for improving the generation of pluripotent ppESCs.
fetal bovine serum; inner cell mass; parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell; porcine; teratoma
Virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the truncated capsid protein of swine hepatitis E virus (HEV) were developed and immune responses of mice immunized with the VLPs were evaluated. IgG titers specific for the capsid protein of swine HEV were significantly higher for all groups of mice immunized with the VLPs than those of the negative control mice. Splenocytes from mice immunized with the VLPs also produced significantly greater quantities of interferon (IFN)-γ than interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10. These newly developed swine HEV VLPs have the capacity to induce antigen-specific antibody and IFN-γ production in immunized mice.
interferon-γ; swine hepatitis E virus; virus-like particle
Astroviruses and kobuviruses are frequently found in mammalian feces, including
that of humans. The present study examined fecal samples from 91 Korean dogs suffering
from diarrhea. Canine astroviruses (CAstVs) and canine kobuviruses (CKoVs) were identified
in 2 (2.1%) and 46 (50.6%) dogs, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis coupled with
phylogenetic analysis using the neighbor-joining method showed that CAstVs clustered into
four genetically diverse groups. Two Korean CAstVs belonged to group 2 alongside strains
isolated in Italy and France. Twelve of the Korean CKoVs belonged to a single clade, along
with strain UK003 identified in the UK and six CKoVs identified in the USA. Thus, the
results suggest that the Korean strain of CAstV is closely related to strains isolated in
Europe. Surely, CKoV in South Korea could identify the circulation among dogs
canine astrovirus; canine kobuvirus; phylogeny; South Korea
New alternative bait rabies vaccines applicable to pet dogs and wild animals are needed to eradicate rabies in Korea. In this study, recombinant rabies virus, ERAG3G strain was constructed using reverse genetic system and the safety, efficacy and immunogenicity of the ERAG3G strain was evaluated in mice and dogs.
Materials and Methods
Using the full-length genome mutated amino acid at position 333 of glycoprotein of rabies virus (RABV) and helper plasmids, the ERAG3G strain was rescued in BHK/T7-9 cells successfully. Mice were inoculated with the ERAG3G strain for safety and efficacy. Safety and immunogenicity of the dog inoculated with the ERAG3G strain (1 mL, 108.0 FAID50/mL) via intramuscular route was evaluated for 28 days after inoculation.
The ERAG3G strain rescued by reverse genetic system was propagated well in the mouse neuroblastoma cells revealing titer of 108.5 FAID50/mL and was not pathogenic to 4- or 6-week-old mice that received by intramuscular or intracranical route. Immunization with the ERAG3G strain conferred complete protection from lethal RABV in mice. Dogs inoculated with the vaccine candidate via intramuscular route showed high neutralizing antibody titer ranging from 2.62 to 23.9 IU/mL at 28 days postinoculation.
Our findings suggest that the ERAG3G strain plays an important role in inducing protective efficacy in mice and causes to arise anti-rabies neutralizing antibody in dogs.
Rabies virus; Recombinant rabies virus; Vaccine; Animals
Japanese encephalitis is a reproductive disorder caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in swine. Recent genotype (G) shift phenomenon (G3 to G1) in the Asia-wide has posed a challenge for proper prevention by the current vaccine strain. Thus, new kinds of JEV G1 vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity have been required for pigs.
Materials and Methods
Recombinant porcine granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (reporGM-CSF) protein was expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells using baculovirus expression system. Two kinds of trials with inactivated JEV vaccines containing IMS1313 adjuvant (Seppic, France) were prepared with or without reporGM-CSF protein. Safety and immunogenicity of the pigs inoculated with the JEV vaccines via intramuscular route was evaluated for 28 days after inoculation.
Mice, guinea pigs, and fattening pigs inoculated with the inactivated vaccine showed no signs for 14 and 21 days. Both hemagglutination inhibition and plaque reduction neutralizing antibody titers were significantly higher in pigs immunized with the vaccine containing reporGM-CSF protein after boosting. However, on the side of vaccine efficacy, most mice (87%) immunized with the inactivated JEV vaccine survived after virulent JEV challenge. Whereas the group with the vaccine containing reporGM-CSF protein showed lower protective effects than the vaccine alone for the biological activity of the GM-CSF depending on species specific.
Our data indicate that animals inoculated with the JEV vaccines was safe and pigs inoculated with inactivated JEV vaccine containing reporGM-CSF protein showed higher humoral immune responses than that of inactivated JEV vaccine without reporGM-CSF protein.
Japanese encephalitis virus; Inactivated vaccine; GM-CSF; Swine
Salmonella resistant to third-generation cephalosporin has been isolated from an increasing number of animals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine ESBL (extended-spectrum β-lactamases)-producing and PABL (plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases)-producing Salmonella isolates from pigs in South Korea.
Salmonella Typhimurium KVCC-BA1300259 was resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, cefoxithin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and ceftiofur. The results of a double-disk synergy test and PCR confirmed that the isolate produced CMY-2 (PABL). Analysis of plasmid incompatibility (Inc) groups revealed the presence of IncA/C and IncFIB, indicating antimicrobial resistance. This study is the first to identify S. Typhimurium isolates harboring CMY-2 in pigs in South Korea.
The presence of CMY-2 in pigs poses a significant threat of possible horizontal spread between animals and humans.
Salmonella typhimurium; Pig; Plasmid; PABL; CMY-2
A novel variant strain of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) emerged on pig farms in South Korea during late 2013. Genomic DNA isolated from a K14JB01 strain identified in a diarrheal pig showed high sequence similarity to PEDV strains prevailing in the United States in 2013. This is the first study to identify the complete genome sequence of a novel variant PEDV in South Korea.
Kobuviruses, which belong to the family Picornaviridae, have been detected in fecal samples from infected animals with or without diarrhea. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a feline kobuvirus (FKoV) strain, FK-13, identified from the feces of a cat with diarrhea in South Korea in 2011.
Clostridium perfringens causes various digestive system
disease symptoms in pigs. In the present study, 11 C. perfringens
isolates were obtained from diarrheic piglets and 18 from healthy piglets. All of the
C. perfringens isolates were shown to be type A using a multiplex PCR
assay. The β2 toxin gene was detected in 27/29 C.
perfringens isolates, i.e., 81% (9/11) of diarrheic piglets and 100% (18/18) of
healthy piglets, and all of the genes had the same sequence. In conclusion, the
β2 toxin gene of C. perfringens was distributed widely
in Korean piglets regardless of the incidence of diarrhea, and there was no clear
relationship with enteric disease. A pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of DNA
digested using SmaI demonstrated the non-clonal spread of C.
perfringens isolates from piglets.
Clostridium perfringens; multiplex PCR; piglet; pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; toxin
We recently reported that the efficiency of adenoviral gene delivery and virus stability are significantly enhanced when a proteoliposome (PL) containing apolipoprotein (apo) A-I is used in an animal model. In the current study, we tested tumor removal activity of oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) using PL-containing wildtype (WT) or V156K. Oncolytic Ad with or without PL was injected into tumors of zebrafish and nude mice as a Hep3B tumor xenograft model. The V156K-PL-Ad-injected zebrafish, group showed the lowest tumor tissue volume and nucleic acids in the tumor area, whereas injection of Ad alone did not result in adequate removal of tumor activity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents increased two-fold in tumor-bearing zebrafish; however, the V156K-PL-Ad injected group showed a 40% decrease in ROS levels compared to that in normal zebrafish. After reducing the tumor volume with the V156K-PL-Ad injection, the swimming pattern of the zebrafish changed to be more active and energetic. The oncolytic effect of PL-Ad containing either V156K or WT was about two-fold more enhanced in mice than that of Ad alone 34 days after the injection. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the PL-Ad-injected groups showed enhanced efficiency of viral delivery with elevated Ad-E1A staining and a diminished number of proliferating tumor cells. Thus, the anti-tumor effect of oncolytic Ad was strongly enhanced by a PL-containing apoA-I and its mutant (V156K) without causing side effects in mice and zebrafish models.
apolipoprotein A-I; oncolytic adenovirus; proteoliposome; reconstituted high-density lipoproteins; zebrafish
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) belonging to genotype 1d, strain 10JJ-SKR, which was isolated from cattle. The complete genome is 12,267 nucleotides (nt) in length, with a single large open reading frame. This is the first report of a BVDV belonging to genotype 1d and will enable further study of the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of this virus.
The genomes of three South Korean Rinderpest virus vaccine strains (L72, LA77, and LA96) were analyzed in order to investigate their genetic variability. These three vaccine strains were all derived from the same virus strain origin (Fusan) through repeated passages in different culture systems. The full genome length of the three strains was 15,882 nucleotides, and the sequence similarity between the three South Korean RPV strains at the nucleotide level was 98.1 to 98.9%. The genetic distance between Nakamura III, L72, LA77, LA96, and LATC06 and the Kabete strain was greater than that between the Fusan and Kabete strains for the P, V, and C genes. The difference in pathogenicity among these strains might be due to the V gene, which has a positive (>1) selection ratio based on the analysis of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonymous (dN) substitution rates (dN/dS ratio [ω]).
The high genetic diversity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has been an obstacle to developing an effective vaccine for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). This study was performed to assess the degree of genetic diversity among PRRSVs from Korean pig farms where wasting and respiratory syndrome was observed from 2005 to 2009. Samples from 786 farms were tested for the presence of PRRSV using reverse transcription PCR protocol. A total of 117 farms were positive for type 1 PRRSV while 198 farms were positive for type 2. Nucleotide sequences encoding the open reading frame (ORF) 5 were analyzed and compared to those of various published PRRSV isolates obtained worldwide. Sequence identity of the ORF 5 in the isolates was 81.6~100% for type 1 viruses and 81.4~100% for type 2 viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the ORF 5 sequences showed that types 1 and 2 PRRSVs from Korea were mainly classified into three and four clusters, respectively. The analyzed isolates were distributed throughout the clusters independent of the isolation year or geographical origin. In conclusion, our results indicated that the genetic diversity of PRRSVs from Korean pig farms is high and has been increasing over time.
Korea; open reading frame 5; phylogenetic analysis; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
Classical swine fever is a disease that is devastating the pig industry worldwide. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two classical swine virus strains (YC11WB and PC11WB), isolated from Korean wild boars in 2011. Both strains belong to subgenotype 2.1b. The complete genome sequences of PC11WB and YC11WB are more similar to that of strain ZJ0801 (isolated in China) than to that of the SW03 strain isolated from domestic pigs in South Korea.
Brucella abortus is a major pathogen that infects livestock and humans. A new strain of B. abortus (A13334) was isolated from the fetal gastric fluid of a dairy cow, with the aim of using it to compare genetic properties, analyze virulence factor, and survey the epidemiological relationship to other Brucella species. Here, we report the complete and annotated genome sequence of B. abortus A13334.
Brucella canis infection can be clinically inapparent in dogs, and when infection goes unnoticed, there is a chance for dog-to-human transmission. A new strain of B. canis was isolated from the blood of an infected dog in order to analyze the pathogenic mechanism, compare genetic properties, and develop new genetic tools for early diagnosis of canine brucellosis. Herein, we report the complete genome sequence of the strain B. canis HSK A52141. This is the second complete genome sequence and biological annotation available for a member of B. canis.
The canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV) K37 strain of the family Coronaviridae, group 2, was isolated in South Korea. Its genome was analyzed by nucleotide sequencing and was determined to have 31,029 bp. The small open reading frames situated between the spike and envelope genes of most of the CRCoV strains (except the CRCoV 4180 strain) were found to encode three nonstructural proteins (4.9 kDa, 2.7 kDa, and 12.8 kDa), while those of bovine coronavirus (BCoV) encode another three nonstructural proteins (4.9 kDa, 4.8 kDa, and 12.7 kDa) and those of a recently isolated bovine respiratory coronavirus (BRCoV) were found to encode only two nonstructural proteins (4.9 kDa and 12.7 kDa). The differences in the genes encoding these small nonstructural proteins may be associated with the emergence of highly similar viruses in different hosts.
An effective strategy for preventing rabies consists of controlling rabies in the host reservoir with vaccination. Rabies vaccine has proven to be the most effective weapon for coping with this fatal viral zoonotic disease of warm-blooded animals, including human. Natural rabies infection of an individual is always associated with exposure to rabid animals, and the duration of clinical signs can vary from days to months. The incubation period for the disease depends on the site of the bite, severity of injury, and the amount of infecting virus at the time of exposure. The mortality of untreated cases in humans is 100%. Over the last 100 years, various rabies vaccines have been developed and used to prevent or control rabies in animals, such as modified live vaccine, inactivated rabies vaccine, and oral modified live vaccine. These have proved safe and efficacious worldwide. New-generation rabies vaccines, including recombinant rabies virus-based vaccines, vectored vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, and plant vaccines, have been explored to overcome the limitations of conventional rabies vaccines. This article discusses current and next-generation rabies vaccines in animals.
Rabies vaccines; Bait vaccine; Vectored vaccine; Plant vaccine
No information is currently available on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection in wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Korea. In this study, the status of PRRS in wild boars was investigated. Blood samples were collected from 267 wild boars from eight provinces in Korea. Four of the samples tested (1.5%) were positive for PRRSV antibodies and eight (3.0%) were positive for antigens. Of the virus-positive samples, three and five samples were typed as containing European (EU, type 1) or North American (NA, type 2) viruses, respectively. Two amplicons (one from type 1 and one from type 2) were used to analyze the PRRSV open reading frame 7 (ORF7) sequence. The nucleotide sequences of type 1 PRRSV ORF7 had identities between 96.1% and 98.4% with PRRSVs from domestic pigs in Korea. The sequences of type 2 PRRSV ORF7 had identities of 100% with the PRRSV strain VR-2332, which was prototypic North American strain. These results show that PRRSVs are present in wild boars in Korea, and effective PRRSV surveillance of the wild boar population might therefore be useful for disease control.
ELISA; Korea; porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome; RT-PCR; wild boar (Sus scrofa)
It is essential to rapidly and precisely diagnose rabies. In this study, we evaluated four diagnostic methods, indirect fluorescent antibody test (FAT), virus isolation (VI), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and rapid immunodiagnostic assay (RIDA), to detect rabies in animal brain homogenates. Out of the 110 animal brain samples tested, 20 (18.2%) were positive for rabies according to the FAT. Compared to the FAT, the sensitivities of VI, RT-PCR, and RIDA were 100, 100, and 95%, respectively. The specificities of VI, RT-PCR and RIDA were found to be 100, 100, and 98.9%, respectively. Rabies viruses circulating in Korea were isolated and propagated in murine neuroblastoma (NG108-15) cells with titers ranging from 101.5 to 104.5 TCID50/mL. Although the RIDA findings did not completely coincide with results obtained from FAT, VI, and RT-PCR, RIDA appears to be a fast and reliable assay that can be used to analyze brain samples. In summary, the results from our study showed that VI, RT-PCR, and RIDA can be used as supplementary diagnostic tools for detecting rabies viruses in both laboratory and field settings.
immunodiagnostic assay; rabies; RT-PCR; virus isolation
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) causes a highly contagious disease among swine that has an important economic impact worldwide. CSFV strain LOM is an attenuated virus of low virulent strain of Miyagi isolated from Japan in 1956. Eight DNA fragments representing the genome of the CSFV strain LOM were obtained by RT-PCR. These were used to determine the complete nucleotide sequence and construct a full-length cDNA clone which was called Flc-LOM. Sequence analysis of the recombinant clone (Flc-LOM) revealed the presence of eight mutations, resulting in two amino acid substitutions, when compared to the parental sequence. RNA transcripts of both LOM and Flc-LOM were directly infectious in PK-15 cells. The rescued Flc-LOM virus grew more slowly than the parental virus, LOM, in the cells. Intramuscular immunization with Flc-LOM was safe and highly immunogenic in pigs; no clinical signs or virus transmission to sentinel animals were observed after 35 days. CSFV-specific neutralizing antibodies were detected 14 days post-infection. After challenge with the virulent CSFV strain SW03, pigs immunized with Flc-LOM were shown to be fully protected. Thus, our newly established infectious clone of CSFV, Flc-LOM, could serve as a vaccine candidate.
classical swine fever virus; Flc-LOM; infectious c DNA clone; LOM
Climate change induced by recent global warming may have a significant impact on vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. For example, the distribution of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) has expanded into new regions. We surveyed the levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies against JEV (Family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus) in wild birds captured in Korea. Blood samples were collected from 1,316 wild birds including the following migratory birds: Oceanodroma castro (n = 4), Anas formosa (n = 7), Anas penelope (n = 20), Fulica atra (n = 30), Anas acuta (n = 89), Anas crecca (n = 154), Anas platyrhynchos (n = 214), Aix galericulata (n = 310), and Anas poecilorhyncha (n = 488). All were captured in 16 locations in several Korea provinces between April 2007 and December 2009. Out of the 1,316 serum samples tested, 1,141 (86.7%) were positive for JEV. Wild birds captured in 2009 had a higher seroprevalence of ant-JEV antibodies than those captured in 2007. Wild birds with an HI antibody titer of 1 : 1,280 or higher accounted for 21.2% (280/1,316) of the animals tested. These findings indicated that wild birds from the region examined in our study have been exposed to JEV and may pose a high risk for introducing a new JEV genotype into Korea.
Japanese encephalitis virus; serosurveillance; wild bird
As the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza virus continues to infect human populations globally, reports on epidemiologically linked animal infections are also on the rise. Since December 2009, pandemic (H1N1) 2009-like viruses have been isolated in pigs from different swine farms of South Korea. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of viral segments demonstrated several events of human-to-swine transmission with no apparent signs of reassortment. These events were also supported by serological surveillance in pig sera collected from April to December, suggesting that reverse transmission probably started between June and July with a drastic increase in prevalence the following months. Although molecular characterization indicates that the swine isolates are generally stable, some viruses are genetically evolving, most notably in their surface proteins. Animal studies (ferrets and mice) reveal that swine pandemic isolates epitomize biological properties attributed to the currently circulating human pandemic viruses, including replication kinetics and efficient transmission, indicating their potential to return to circulation among humans. Overall, these results indicate widespread human-to-animal transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza viruses in South Korea. With the significant role of pigs in the ecology of influenza viruses, these transmission events should be closely monitored and minimized to prevent the risk of generating viruses with greater human health concerns.
The nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) of 11 Korean rabies virus (RABV) isolates collected from animals diagnosed with rabies between 2008 and 2009 were subjected to molecular and phylogenetic analyses. Six isolates originated from domestic animals (cattle and dogs) and five were obtained from wild free-ranging raccoon dogs. The similarities in the nucleotide sequences of the N gene among all Korean isolates ranged from 98.1 to 99.8%, while those of the G gene ranged from 97.9 to 99.3%. Based on the nucleotide analysis of the N and G genes, the Korean RABV isolates were confirmed as genotype I of Lyssavirus and classified into four distinct subgroups with high similarity. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Korean isolates were most closely related to the non-Korean NeiMeng1025B and 857r strains, which were isolated from rabid raccoon dogs in Eastern China and Russia, respectively. These findings suggest that the Korean RABV isolates originated from a rabid raccoon dog in Northeastern Asia. Genetic analysis of the Korean RABV isolates revealed no substitutions at several antigenic sites, indicating that the isolates circulating in Korea may be pathogenic in several hosts.
characterization; genotype I; molecular epidemiology; rabies virus