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author:("Song, cheryl")
1.  Preoperative Factors Predictive of Posterolateral Extracapsular Extension After Radical Prostatectomy 
Korean Journal of Urology  2013;54(12):824-829.
Purpose
In radical prostatectomy (RP) procedures, sparing the neurovascular bundles adjacent to the posterolateral aspect of the prostatic fascia has often been suggested as a possible risk factor for positive surgical margins. Here we aimed to quantify the probability of extracapsular extension (ECE) at the posterolateral side of the prostate to aid in nerve-sparing decision making.
Materials and Methods
We evaluated 472 patients who underwent RP between July 2007 and January 2012. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient mapping. We analyzed 944 side-specific prostate lobes with preoperative variables. To quantify the risk of side-specific posterolateral ECE after RP, we developed a risk-stratification scoring system through logistic regression analysis.
Results
Overall, 20.6% of 944 prostate lobes had ECE. In the multivariate analysis, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), biopsy Gleason score ≥7, percentage of side-specific cores with tumor, and posterolateral ECE on MRI were independent predictive factors of posterolateral ECE. On internal and external validation to calculate the predicted risk, the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test showed good calibration (p=0.396).
Conclusions
PSA, biopsy Gleason score, percentage of side-specific cores with tumor, and posterolateral ECE on MRI are independent predictors of posterolateral ECE. The scoring system derived from this study will provide objective parameters for use when deciding if the neurovascular bundle can be safely spared.
doi:10.4111/kju.2013.54.12.824
PMCID: PMC3866284  PMID: 24363862
Magnetic resonance imaging; Prostatectomy; Prostatic neoplasms
2.  Recent Changes in the Clinicopathologic Features of Korean Men with Prostate Cancer: A Comparison with Western Populations 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(3):543-549.
Purpose
The aim of this study was to evaluate the recent changes in the clinicopathologic features of prostate cancer in Korea and to compare these features with those of Western populations.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the data of 1582 men undergoing radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer between 1995 and 2007 at 10 institutions in Korea for comparison with Western studies. The patients were divided into two groups in order to evaluate the recent clinicopathological changes in prostate cancer: Group 1 had surgery between 1995 and 2003 (n=280) and Group 2 had surgery between 2004 and 2007 (n=1302). The mean follow-up period was 24 months.
Results
Group 1 had a higher prostate-specific antigen level than Group 2 (10.0 ng/mL vs. 7.5 ng/mL, respectively; p<0.001) and a lower proportion of biopsy Gleason scores ≤6 (35.0% vs. 48.1%, respectively; p<0.001). The proportion of patients with clinical T1 stage was higher in Group 2 than in Group 1. Group 1 had a lower proportion of organ-confined disease (59.6% vs. 68.6%; p<0.001) and a lower proportion of Gleason scores ≤6 (21.3% vs. 33.0%; p<0.001), compared to Group 2. However, the relatively higher proportion of pathologic Gleason scores ≤6 in Group 2 was still lower than those of Western men, even though the proportion of organ-confined disease reached to that of Western series.
Conclusion
Korean men with prostate cancer currently present better clinicopathologic parameters. However, in comparison, Korean men still show relatively worse pathologic Gleason scores than Western men.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.3.543
PMCID: PMC3343449  PMID: 22476998
Prostate neoplasms; prostatectomy; treatment outcome; ethnic groups
3.  Efficacy and Safety of Docetaxel Plus Prednisolone Chemotherapy for Metastatic Hormone-Refractory Prostate Adenocarcinoma: Single Institutional Study in Korea 
Purpose
To assess the efficacy and safety of treating Korean patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) using docetaxel plus prednisolone chemotherapy.
Materials and Methods
This was a retrospective cohort study performed in 98 patients with metastatic HRPC between October 2003 and April 2008. After screening, 72 patients fit the eligibility criteria for inclusion in this study. Treatment consisted of 5 mg prednisolone twice daily and 75 mg/m2 docetaxel once every 3 weeks.
Results
Patient demographic characteristics included: median age 67 years (range, 51~86), median ECOG performance status 1 (0~2), Gleason score ≥8 in 61 patients (86%), and median serum PSA 45.5 ng/mL (range, 3.7~2,420.0). A total of 405 cycles of treatment were administered with a median 6 cycles (range, 1~20) per patient. The median docetaxel dose-intensity was 24.4 mg/m2/week (range, 17.5~25.6). A PSA response was seen in 51% of 63 evaluable patients at 12 weeks and maximal PSA decline ≥50% in 59% of 70 evaluable patients. Tumor response was evaluated in 13 patients, 4 patients achieved PR, and 5 patients had SD with a response rate of 31%. With a median follow-up duration of 23.1 months (95%CI, 16.7~29.5), the median time to PSA progression was 5.1 months (95%CI, 4.5~5.8) and median overall survival was 22.8 months (95%CI, 16.6~29.1). Nine (13%) patients experienced grade 3 or higher febrile neutropenia.
Conclusion
This chemotherapy regimen (docetaxel every 3 weeks plus prednisolone daily) demonstrated a strong response in Korean patients with metastatic HRPC, while the toxicity profile was manageable and similar to that observed in Western patients.
doi:10.4143/crt.2010.42.1.12
PMCID: PMC2848748  PMID: 20369046
Hormone-refractory prostate cancer; Chemotherapy; Docetaxel; Prednisolone; Febrile neutropenia
4.  Surgical Treatment of Inferior Vena Cava Tumor Thrombus in Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2009;25(1):104-109.
Radical nephrectomy with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombectomy remains the most effective therapeutic option in patients with renal cell carcinoma and IVC tumor thrombus. Cephalic extension of the thrombus is closely related to perioperative morbidity. We purposed to design a safe and successful surgical strategy through a review of our surgical experience and treatment results in 35 patients (male:female=28:7, mean age=56 yr [32-77]) who underwent IVC thrombectomy with radical nephrectomy between January 1997 and December 2006. The limit of tumor extension was level I in 10 patients (28.6%), level II in 17 (48.6%), and level III and IV in 4 patients each (11.4%). Liver mobilization with hepatic vascular exclusion was performed in 12 patients and cardiopulmonary bypass in 7. Thirty-two primary closures, 2 patch closures, and 1 graft interposition were performed. One patient underwent simultaneous pulmonary embolectomy because of an operative pulmonary embolism. There was no operative mortality, and the overall survival at 5-yr was 50.8%. Complete thrombus removal without tumor fragmentation under long venotomy on fully exposed involved IVC is recommended for successful result in a bloodless operative field. The applicability of liver mobilization, hepatic vascular exclusion, and cardiopulmonary bypass, can be determined by the level of thrombus.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.1.104
PMCID: PMC2800013  PMID: 20052355
Vena Cava, Inferior; Thrombectomy; Kidney Neoplasms
5.  A Long-Term Study of the Effects of the Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Procedure for Female Stress Urinary Incontinence on Voiding, Storage, and Patient Satisfaction: A Post-Hoc Analysis 
Korean Journal of Urology  2010;51(1):40-44.
Purpose
We assessed the long-term effects of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) on voiding, storage, and patient satisfaction.
Materials and Methods
This retrospective study examined the records of 134 patients who had undergone the TVT procedure for SUI and were followed up for more than 5 years. Voiding function was evaluated by measuring maximum urinary flow rate (MFR), post-void residual urine volume (PVR), and storage function by using a voiding diary. Patients were asked to describe their satisfaction with the operation.
Results
MFR was lower at 1 month compared with the preoperative level, but had recovered to preoperative levels by 5 years postoperatively. However, some patients with >50%, 25-50%, and <25% decreases in the MFR at 1 month postoperatively showed a decrease in the MFR of >50% at 5 years. PVR increased over the 5 postoperative years. Of the patients with urgency and urgency incontinence, 43.8% and 48.1% showed improvement, respectively, whereas new patients developed postoperatively. Thus, the total number of patients with urgency or urgency incontinence remained similar over the 5 years. In those with a changed voiding pattern, patient satisfaction was negatively affected by de novo urgency and urgency incontinence and decreased MFR.
Conclusions
Any obstructive effect of the TVT procedure diminished over time in most patients, although a decrease in the MFR was sustained in some patients. With regard to overactive bladder symptoms, some patients were cured and some patients complained of de novo symptoms. The most major factor affecting patient satisfaction was de novo urgency.
doi:10.4111/kju.2010.51.1.40
PMCID: PMC2855463  PMID: 20414409
Patient satisfaction; Suburethral slings; Stress urinary incontinence
6.  Effects of Bladder Training and/or Tolterodine in Female Patients with Overactive Bladder Syndrome: A Prospective, Randomized Study 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2006;21(6):1060-1063.
We compared the effects of bladder training and/or tolterodine as first line treatment in female patients with overactive bladder (OAB). One hundred and thirty-nine female patients with OAB were randomized to treatment with bladder training (BT), tolterodine (To, 2 mg twice daily) or both (Co) for 12 weeks. Treatment efficacy was measured by micturition diary, urgency scores and patients' subjective assessment of their bladder condition. Mean frequency and nocturia significantly decreased in all treatment groups, declining 25.9% and 56.1%, respectively, in the BT group; 30.2% and 65.4%, respectively, in the To group; and 33.5% and 66.3%, respectively in the Co group (p<0.05 for each). The decrease in frequency was significantly greater in the Co group than in the BT group (p<0.05). Mean urgency score decreased by 44.8%, 62.2% and 60.2% in the BT, To, and Co groups, respectively, and the improvement was significantly greater in the To and Co groups than in the BT group (p<0.05 for each). Although BT, To and their combination were all effective in controlling OAB symptoms, combination therapy was more effective than either method alone. Tolterodine alone may be instituted as a first-line therapy, but may be more effective when combined with bladder training.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2006.21.6.1060
PMCID: PMC2721929  PMID: 17179687
Urinary Incontinence; Overactive Bladder; Bladder Training; tolterodine
7.  Nomograms for the Prediction of Pathologic Stage of Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer in Korean Men 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(2):262-266.
We analyzed the prostate cancer data of 317 Korean men with clinically localized prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy at Asan Medical Center between June 1990 and November 2003 to construct nomograms predicting the pathologic stage of these tumors, and compared the outcome with preexisting nomograms. Multinomial log-linear regression was performed for the simultaneous prediction of organ-confined disease (OCD), extracapsular extension (ECE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and lymph node metastasis (LNM) using serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score and clinical stage. Nomograms representing percent probabilities were constructed and compared with those presented by Partin et al. by calculating areas under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. Median serum PSA at surgery was 10.8 ng/mL, and median biopsy Gleason score was 7. Overall OCD, ECE, SVI and LNM rates were 59.6%, 20.5%, 11.7% and 8.2%, respectively, and areas under the curves were 0.724, 0.626, 0.662, and 0.794, respectively. Pathologic stage of localized prostate cancer in Korean men may be predicted using the Partin table, with acceptable accuracy for OCD and LNM, but less so for ECE and SVI.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.2.262
PMCID: PMC2808603  PMID: 15831998
Prostatic Neoplasms; Korean; Prediction; Comparison; Nomograms

Results 1-7 (7)