Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-9 (9)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

more »
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Identification of a Salmonella ancillary copper detoxification mechanism by a comparative analysis of the genome-wide transcriptional response to copper and zinc excess 
Microbiology  2014;160(Pt 8):1659-1669.
Copper and zinc are essential metal ions, but toxic in excess. Bacteria have evolved different strategies to control their intracellular concentrations, ensuring proper supply while avoiding toxicity, including the induction of metal-specific as well as non-specific mechanisms. We compared the transcriptional profiles of Salmonella Typhimurium after exposure to either copper or zinc ions in both rich and minimal media. Besides metal-specific regulatory networks many global stress-response pathways react to an excess of either of these metal ions. Copper excess affects both zinc and iron homeostasis by inducing transcription of these metal-specific regulons. In addition to the control of zinc-specific regulons, zinc excess affects the Cpx regulon and the σE envelope-stress responses. Finally, novel metal-specific upregulated genes were detected including a new copper-detoxification pathway that involves the siderophore enterobactin and the outer-membrane protein TolC. This work sheds light onto the transcriptional landscape of Salmonella after copper or zinc overload, and discloses a new mechanism of copper detoxification.
PMCID: PMC4117220  PMID: 24858080
2.  Dissecting the Metal Selectivity of MerR Monovalent Metal Ion Sensors in Salmonella 
Journal of Bacteriology  2013;195(13):3084-3092.
Two homologous transcription factors, CueR and GolS, that belong to the MerR metalloregulatory family are responsible for Salmonella Cu and Au sensing and resistance, respectively. They share similarities not only in their sequences, but also in their target transcription binding sites. While CueR responds similarly to Au, Ag, or Cu to induce the expression of its target genes, GolS shows higher activation by Au than by Ag or Cu. We showed that the ability of GolS to distinguish Au from Cu resides in the metal-binding loop motif. Here, we identify the amino acids within the motif that determine in vivo metal selectivity. We show that residues at positions 113 and 118 within the metal-binding loop are the main contributors to metal selectivity. The presence of a Pro residue at position 113 favors the detection of Cu, while the presence of Pro at position 118 disfavors it. Our results highlight the molecular bases that allow these regulators to coordinate the correct metal ion directing the response to a particular metal injury.
PMCID: PMC3697532  PMID: 23645605
3.  Copper Stress Targets the Rcs System To Induce Multiaggregative Behavior in a Copper-Sensitive Salmonella Strain▿  
Journal of Bacteriology  2010;192(23):6287-6290.
Salmonella ΔcuiD strains form mucoid colonies on copper-containing solid media. We show here that this multiaggregative behavior is caused by the Rcs-dependent induction of colanic acid extracellular polysaccharide. Deletion of cps operon genes in a ΔcuiD strain increased the sensitivity to copper, indicating a role for colanic acid in copper resistance.
PMCID: PMC2981218  PMID: 20889758
4.  mgtA Expression Is Induced by Rob Overexpression and Mediates a Salmonella enterica Resistance Phenotype▿  
Journal of Bacteriology  2008;190(14):4951-4958.
Rob is a member of the Sox/Mar subfamily of AraC/XylS-type transcriptional regulators implicated in bacterial multidrug, heavy metal, superoxide, and organic solvent resistance phenotypes. We demonstrate that, in Salmonella enterica, Rob overexpression upregulates the transcription of mgtA, which codes for the MgtA Mg2+ transporter. mgtA was previously characterized as a member of the Mg2+-modulated PhoPQ regulon. Here we demonstrate that Rob (but not its paralog protein SoxS or MarA) is able to induce mgtA transcription in a PhoP-independent fashion by binding to a conserved Mar/Sox/Rob motif localized downstream of the PhoP-box and overlapping the PhoP-dependent transcriptional start site. We found that Rob-induced mgtA expression confers low-level cyclohexane resistance on Salmonella. Because mgtA intactness is required for Rob-induced cyclohexane resistance, provided the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump can be expressed, we postulate that MgtA is involved in the AcrAB-mediated cyclohexane detoxification mechanism promoted by Rob in Salmonella.
PMCID: PMC2447000  PMID: 18487336
5.  Induction of RpoS Degradation by the Two-Component System Regulator RstA in Salmonella enterica▿  
Journal of Bacteriology  2007;189(20):7335-7342.
Bacterial survival in diverse and changing environments relies on the accurate interplay between different regulatory pathways, which determine the design of an adequate adaptive response. The proper outcome depends on a precise gene expression profile generated from the finely tuned and concerted action of transcriptional factors of distinct regulatory hierarchies. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium harbors multiple regulatory systems that are crucial for the bacterium to cope with harsh extra- and intracellular environments. In this work, we found that the expression of Salmonella RstA, a response regulator from the two-component system family, was able to downregulate the expression of three RpoS-controlled genes (narZ, spvA, and bapA). Furthermore, this downregulation was achieved by a reduction in RpoS cellular levels. The alternative sigma factor RpoS is critical for bacterial endurance under the most-stressful conditions, including stationary-phase entrance and host adaptation. Accordingly, RpoS cellular levels are tightly controlled by complex transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational mechanisms. The analysis of each regulatory step revealed that in Salmonella, RstA expression was able to promote RpoS degradation independently of the MviA-ClpXP proteolytic pathway. Additionally, we show that RstA is involved in modulating Salmonella biofilm formation. The fact that the RpoS-modulated genes affected by RstA expression have previously been demonstrated to contribute to Salmonella pathogenic traits, which include biofilm-forming capacity, suggests that under yet unknown conditions, RstA may function as a control point of RpoS-dependent pathways that govern Salmonella virulence.
PMCID: PMC2168453  PMID: 17704217
6.  PhoP-Induced Genes within Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 
Journal of Bacteriology  2006;188(19):6889-6898.
The invasive pathogen Salmonella enterica has evolved a sophisticated device that allows it to enter nonphagocytic host cells. This process requires the expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1), which encodes a specialized type III protein secretion system (TTSS). This TTSS delivers a set of effectors that produce a marked rearrangement of the host cytoskeleton, generating a profuse membrane ruffling at the site of interaction, driving bacterial entry. It has been shown that the PhoP/PhoQ two-component system represses the expression of the SPI-1 machinery by down-regulating the transcription of its master regulator, HilA. In this work, we reveal the presence of a PhoP-activated operon within SPI-1. This operon is composed of the orgB and orgC genes, which encode a protein that interacts with the InvC ATPase and a putative effector protein of the TTSS, respectively. Under PhoP-inducing conditions, expression of this operon is directly activated by the phosphorylated form of the response regulator, which recognizes a PhoP box located at the −35 region relative to the transcription start site. Additionally, under invasion-inducing conditions, orgBC expression is driven both by the prgH promoter, induced by the SPI-1 master regulator HilA, and by the directly controlled PhoP/PhoQ promoter. Together, these results indicate that in contrast to the rest of the genes encompassed in the SPI-1 locus, orgBC is expressed during and after Salmonella entry into its host cell, and they suggest a role for the products of this operon after host cell internalization.
PMCID: PMC1595516  PMID: 16980492
7.  PhoP Can Activate Its Target Genes in a PhoQ-Independent Manner 
Journal of Bacteriology  2004;186(8):2476-2480.
The PhoP/PhoQ two-component system controls the extracellular magnesium depletion response in Salmonella enterica. Previous studies have shown that PhoP is unable to up-regulate its target genes in the absence of PhoQ function. In this work, we demonstrate that PhoP overexpression can substitute for PhoQ- and phosphorylation-dependent activation. Either a high concentration of PhoP or activation via phosphorylation stimulates PhoP self-association.
PMCID: PMC412160  PMID: 15060051
8.  Molecular Characterization of the Mg2+-Responsive PhoP-PhoQ Regulon in Salmonella enterica 
Journal of Bacteriology  2003;185(21):6287-6294.
The PhoP/PhoQ two-component system controls the extracellular magnesium deprivation response in Salmonella enterica. In addition, several virulence-associated genes that are mainly required for intramacrophage survival during the infection process are under the control of its transcriptional regulation. Despite shared Mg2+ modulation of the expression of the PhoP-activated genes, no consensus sequence common to all of them could be detected in their promoter regions. We have investigated the transcriptional regulation and the interaction of the response regulator PhoP with the promoter regions of the PhoP-activated loci phoPQ, mgtA, slyB, pmrD, pcgL, phoN, pagC, and mgtCB. A direct repeat of the heptanucleotide sequence (G/T)GTTTA(A/T) was identified as the conserved motif recognized by PhoP to directly control the gene expression of the first five loci, among which the first four are ancestral to enterobacteria. On the other hand, no direct interaction of the response regulator with the promoter of phoN, pagC, or mgtCB was apparent by either in vitro or in vivo assays. These loci are Salmonella specific and were probably acquired by horizontal DNA transfer. Besides, sequence analysis of pag promoters revealed the presence of a conserved PhoP box in 6 out of the 12 genes analyzed. Our results strongly suggest that the expression of a set of Mg2+-controlled genes is driven by PhoP via unknown intermediate regulatory mechanisms that could also involve ancillary factors.
PMCID: PMC219391  PMID: 14563863
9.  Phosphorylated PmrA Interacts with the Promoter Region of ugd in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium 
Journal of Bacteriology  2000;182(13):3874-3876.
The Salmonella PmrA-PmrB system controls the expression of genes necessary for polymyxin B resistance. Four loci were previously identified as part of the regulon, and interaction of PmrA with the promoter region of three of them was observed. Here we characterized the interaction of PmrA with the promoter region of ugd, previously suggested to be regulated indirectly by PmrA. Our results indicate that PmrA controls the expression of ugd by interacting with a specific sequence in the promoter region of this gene.
PMCID: PMC94567  PMID: 10851011

Results 1-9 (9)