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1.  Relation of interlobar collaterals to radiological heterogeneity in severe emphysema 
Thorax  2006;61(5):409-413.
A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of interlobar collateral ventilation in patients with severe emphysema to identify factors that may help to predict patients with significant collateral ventilation.
Between April 2002 and August 2003, ex vivo assessment of the lungs 17 consecutive patients with smoking related severe emphysema was performed. To assess collateral flow, all lobes of explanted specimens were selectively intubated using a wedged cuffed microlaryngeal intubation tube and then manually ventilated using a bagging circuit. Interlobar collateral ventilation was defined as the ability to easily inflate a non‐intubated lobe at physiological pressures. Pre‐transplant demographic characteristics, physiological data, radiological results, and explant histology were assessed for retrospective relationships with the degree of interlobar collateral ventilation in the explanted lung.
A total of 23 lungs were evaluated, 15 of which (66%) had significant collateral interlobar airflow. There were no significant differences in any demographic, physiological, or pathological variables between patients with collateral ventilation and those with no collateral ventilation. However, there was a significant relationship between the presence of interlobar collateral ventilation and radiological scores (p<0.05).
Interlobar collateral ventilation occurs to a much greater extent in patients with radiologically homogeneous emphysema than in those with heterogeneous emphysema. Heterogeneity of emphysema may predict patients with a significantly reduced risk of interlobar collateral ventilation.
PMCID: PMC2111177  PMID: 16467071
emphysema; interlobar collateral ventilation; radiological heterogeneity; lung transplantation
2.  Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in lung transplant recipients: lack of correlation with airway inflammation 
Thorax  1997;52(6):551-556.
BACKGROUND: Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine has been reported to occur in most lung transplant recipients. BHR to physical stimuli such as exercise and non-isotonic aerosols has not been as extensively studied in this subject population. This report aims to assess the presence and degree of BHR to methacholine and hypertonic saline in stable lung transplant recipients and to relate it to the presence of airway inflammation. METHODS: Ten patients undergoing bilateral sequential lung transplantation and six heart-lung transplant recipients, all with stable lung function, were recruited 66- 1167 days following transplantation. Subjects underwent a methacholine challenge and bronchoscopy for sampling of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, transbronchial and endobronchial biopsy tissues. Hypertonic saline challenge was performed six days later. RESULTS: Nine of the 16 transplant recipients had positive methacholine challenges (geometric mean PD20 0.18 mg, interquartile range 0.058-0.509) and three of these subjects also had positive hypertonic saline challenges (PD15 = 2.3, 33.0, and 51.5 ml). No clear relationship was found between BHR to either methacholine or hypertonic saline and levels of mast cells, eosinophils or lymphocytes in samples of biopsy tissue or lavage fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the lung transplant recipients studied were responsive to methacholine and unresponsive to hypertonic saline. BHR was not clearly related to airway inflammation, suggesting an alternative mechanism for BHR following lung transplantation from that usually assumed in asthma. 

PMCID: PMC1758572  PMID: 9227723
3.  Immunopathological changes in the airways of stable lung transplant recipients 
Thorax  1997;52(4):322-328.
BACKGROUND: Pathological obliterative bronchiolitis, characterised by inflammation and occlusion of airways, is a serious complication of lung transplantation. Endobronchial biopsy (EBB) provides a means of examining transplanted airways. This study aimed to investigate the role of EBB samples in revealing early signals of airway injury. METHODS: In 18 stable lung transplant recipients with close to maximal lung function (median FEV1, best after transplantation 100%, interquartile range 98-100%) EBB samples were taken simultaneously with transbronchial biopsy samples and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (median 195 days after transplantation). OCT embedded specimens were snap frozen on an isopentane slurry made with liquid nitrogen and 7 microns sections were stained with monoclonal antibodies using a three stage immunoperoxidase method. RESULTS: Compared with nine non- transplanted control subjects, EBB specimens from the stable transplant group had significantly increased CD8 positivity (median 53 versus 27 cells/mm basement membrane, p = 0.04; 95% CI for the difference 1 to 46)) and increased HLA-DR positivity (median 84 versus 26 cells/mm basement membrane, 95% CI for the difference 6 to 115). There was an increase in CD68 positive cells in the EBB specimens from transplant recipients of borderline significance (median 92 versus 68, p = 0.08, 95% CI for the difference 1 to 84). CD3, CD4, and CD25 counts were similar in the two groups. EBB findings were not influenced by age, sex, indication for transplant, immunosuppression doses or levels, nor the presence of airway commensals in the BAL fluid. CONCLUSIONS: EBB is practicable in a transplant setting and provides information about bronchial inflammatory changes. It is likely that there is ongoing inflammation, possibly rejection mediated, even in healthy lung transplant recipients despite triple immunosuppression. 

PMCID: PMC1758532  PMID: 9196513

Results 1-3 (3)