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1.  Science of Safety Topic Coverage in Experiential Education in US and Taiwan Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy 
Objective. To compare the science of safety (SoS) topic coverage and associated student competencies in the experiential education curricula of colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Taiwan.
Methods. The experiential education director, assistant director, or coordinator at a random sample of 34 US colleges and schools of pharmacy and all 7 Taiwan schools of pharmacy were interviewed and then asked to complete an Internet-based survey instrument.
Results. Faculty members in both countries perceived that experiential curricula were focused on the postmarketing phase of the SoS, and that there is a need for the pharmacy experiential curricula to be standardized in order to fill SoS coverage gaps. Inter-country differences in experiential SoS coverage were noted in topics included for safety biomarkers that signal potential for drug-induced problems and pharmacogenomics.
Conclusions. Experiential SoS topic coverage and student ability gaps were perceived within and between US and Taiwan colleges and schools of pharmacy.
doi:10.5688/ajpe7510202
PMCID: PMC3279028  PMID: 22345721
science of safety; experiential education; survey research; international
2.  Student Evaluations of the Portfolio Process 
Objective. To evaluate pharmacy students’ perceived benefits of the portfolio process and to gather suggestions for improving the process.
Methods. A questionnaire was designed and administered to 250 first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy.
Results. Although the objectives of the portfolio process were for students to understand the expected outcomes, understand the impact of extracurricular activities on attaining competencies, identify what should be learned, identify their strengths and weaknesses, and modify their approach to learning, overall students perceived the portfolio process as having less than moderate benefit. First-year students wanted more examples of portfolios while second- and third-year students suggested that more time with their advisor would be beneficial.
Conclusions. The portfolio process will continue to be refined and efforts made to improve students’ perceptions of the process as it is intended to develop the self-assessments skills they will need to improve their knowledge and professional skills throughout their pharmacy careers.
doi:10.5688/ajpe757132
PMCID: PMC3175659  PMID: 21969718
survey; portfolio; questionnaire; expected outcomes; assessment
3.  Research-related Coursework and Research Experiences in Doctor of Pharmacy Programs 
Objectives
To evaluate the research-related coursework and research experiences in doctor of pharmacy programs and compare the findings to those of 2 previous studies.
Methods
A questionnaire was mailed to 88 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United States and Puerto Rico. The survey instrument sought information on formal research-related coursework; required and elective research experiences; and perceptions of student-conducted research.
Results
Seventy-nine colleges and schools completed the questionnaire for a response rate of 88%. Most colleges (>90%) required students to study/complete courses in biostatistics and drug information/literature evaluation; approximately half required research methods coursework. Twenty-five percent required some form of project and requirements were not influenced by class size. Students could often work in teams to complete projects. Respondents generally thought participation in research had some value for motivated students.
Conclusions
This study demonstrates the variability in extent of research-related coursework and research experiences in PharmD programs across the country.
PMCID: PMC2690916  PMID: 19503697
research education; education; pharmacy research
4.  Use of Reflective Portfolios in Health Sciences Education 
Reflective portfolios are a collection of evidence that through critical reflection on its contents demonstrate achievement as well as personal and professional development. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the literature on the use of reflective portfolios and to develop a set of factors to guide schools and colleges of pharmacy as they implement reflective portfolios into their respective curricula as stated in Standards 2007.
PMCID: PMC1858617  PMID: 17533443
reflective portfolios; assessment; Standards 2007
5.  Curriculum Mapping in Program Assessment and Evaluation 
Objectives
To demonstrate a curriculum mapping technique and its use in program evaluation and assessment, as well as to provide specific recommendations for potential uses in pharmacy education.
Methods
This study employed a descriptive cross-sectional study design based on a learning outcomes document and several existing student and curricular data sets.
Results
The population consisted of 209 PharmD students at the University of Arizona College of Pharmacy (UACOP) during the 2004-2005 academic year and mapped 31 of the 34 required didactic courses in the curriculum. There was concordance between student and faculty member ranking of domain coverage in their respective curricular maps.
Conclusions
The agreement between the student and faculty graphical curriculum maps on the order of the ranking of the relative emphasis of each domain suggests concordance between the intended/delivered and received curriculums. This study demonstrated a curriculum mapping methodology that can be used to both make sense and use of existing data in curricular evaluation.
PMCID: PMC1858603  PMID: 17533429
curriculum evaluation; curriculum mapping; assessment; curriculum

Results 1-5 (5)