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author:("karpas, Tone")
1.  Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from migratory birds in Southern Norway 
Background
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are the causative agent for Lyme borreliosis (LB), the most common tick-borne disease in the northern hemisphere. Birds are considered important in the global dispersal of ticks and tick-borne pathogens through their migration. The present study is the first description of B. burgdorferi prevalence and genotypes in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on birds during spring and autumn migration in Norway.
Methods
6538 migratory birds were captured and examined for ticks at Lista Bird Observatory during the spring and the autumn migration in 2008. 822 immature I. ricinus ticks were collected from 215 infested birds. Ticks were investigated for infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. by real-time PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, and B. burgdorferi s.l. were thereafter genotyped by melting curve analysis after real-time PCR amplification of the hbb gene, or by direct sequencing of the PCR amplicon generated from the rrs (16S)-rrl (23S) intergenetic spacer.
Results
B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 4.4% of the ticks. The most prevalent B. burgdorferi genospecies identified were B. garinii (77.8%), followed by B.valaisiana (11.1%), B. afzelii (8.3%) and B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (2.8%).
Conclusion
Infection rate in ticks and genospecies composition were similar in spring and autumn migration, however, the prevalence of ticks on birds was higher during spring migration. The study supports the notion that birds are important in the dispersal of ticks, and that they may be partly responsible for the heterogeneous distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. in Europe.
doi:10.1186/1751-0147-52-59
PMCID: PMC2988791  PMID: 21054890
2.  Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Norway and Denmark 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2006;12(7):1136-1138.
Serum from 2 Norwegians with tickborne encephalitis (TBE) (1 of whom was infected in Denmark) and 810 Norwegian ticks were tested for TBE virus (TBEV) RNA by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed. This is the first genome detection of TBEV in serum from Norwegian patients.
doi:10.3201/eid1207.051567
PMCID: PMC3291057  PMID: 16836835
tickborne encephalitis; tickborne encephalitis virus; Norway; Denmark, dispatch
3.  First Human Cases of Tickborne Encephalitis, Norway 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2004;10(12):2241-2243.
The first reported case of tickborne encephalitis (TBE) in Norway occurred in 1997. From 1997 to 2003, from zero to two cases of human TBE have been diagnosed per year in Norway, for a total of eight cases. Clinical TBE cases in dogs are not reported in Norway.
doi:10.3201/eid1012.040598
PMCID: PMC3323397  PMID: 15663873
tickborne encephalitis; Norway; human cases; seroprevalence; dogs; dispatch
4.  Evaluation of 12 Commercial Tests for Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus-Specific and Heterophile Antibodies 
Ten microbiological departments in Norway have participated in a multicenter evaluation of the following commercial tests for detection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific and heterophile antibodies: CAPTIA Select viral capsid antigen (VCA)-M/G/EBNA (Centocor Inc.), Enzygnost anti-EBV/immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG (Dade Behring), Vironostika EBV VCA IgM/IgG/EBNA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (Organon Teknika), SEROFLUOR immunofluorescence assay and EBV Combi-Test (Institute Virion Ltd.), anti-EBV recombinant IgM- and IgG-early antigen/EBNA IgG ELISA (Biotest Diagnostics), EBV IgM/IgG/EBNA ELISA (Gull Laboratories), Paul-Bunnell-Davidsohn test (Sanofi Diagnostics Pasteur), Monosticon Dri-Dot (Organon Teknika), Avitex-IM (Omega Diagnostics Ltd.), Alexon Serascan infectious mononucleosis test (Alexon Biomedical Inc.), Clearview IM (Unipath Ltd.), and Cards±OS Mono (Pacific Biotech, Inc.). The test panel included sera from patients with primary EBV infection, immunocompromised patients with recent cytomegalovirus infection, healthy persons (blood donors), and EBV-seronegative persons. Among the tests for EBV-specific antibodies the sensitivity was good, with only small differences between the different assays. However, there was a greater variation in specificity, which varied between 100% (Enzygnost) and 86% (Biotest). Tests for detection of heterophile antibodies based on purified or selected antigen (Avitex, Alexon, Clearview IM, and Cards±OS Mono) were more sensitive than the Paul-Bunnell-Davidsohn and Monosticon tests.
PMCID: PMC95893  PMID: 10799460

Results 1-4 (4)