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1.  Endocytic Mechanism of Internalization of Dietary Peptide Lunasin into Macrophages in Inflammatory Condition Associated with Cardiovascular Disease 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(9):e72115.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Diet influences risk factors associated with CVD and atherosclerosis, a major vascular disease that arises from inflammation. Lunasin, a peptide derived from plant foods such as soybeans, contains a unique Arg-Gly-Asp cell-adhesion motif and inhibits the pathways involved in the inflammatory cascade. The objective was to determine the mechanism by which lunasin is internalized into human THP-1 macrophages, investigate the expression of endocytic membrane proteins in inflammatory conditions and to identify the pathways involved. While lipopolysaccharide (10 nM), vitronectin (130 nM) and a combination of these two molecules enhanced lunasin uptake and increased basal αVβ3 integrin expression, lunasin reduced αVβ3 expression by 25.5, 26.8 and 49.2%, respectively. The pretreatment of cells with brefeldin A (71 µM), an inhibitor of protein trafficking, inhibited lunasin internalization by up to 99.8%. Lunasin increased caveolin-1 expression by up to 204.8%, but did not modulate clathrin. The pretreatment of macrophages with nystatin (54 µM), an inhibitor of caveolae-dependent endocytosis, reduced lunasin internalization. The presence of amantadine (1 mM) and amiloride (1 mM), inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis, abolished lunasin cell entry. Lunasin elicited a transient reduction in intracellular levels of Ca2+ in LPS-induced macrophages. The results suggest that internalization of lunasin into macrophages is amplified in inflammatory conditions and is primarily mediated by endocytic mechanisms that involve integrin signaling, clathrin-coated structures and macropinosomes. Lunasin may be responsible for attenuation of CVD risk factors by interacting with pathways involved in endocytosis and inflammation.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072115
PMCID: PMC3764169  PMID: 24039740
2.  Novel Application of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy and 3D Volume Rendering toward Improving the Resolution of the Fossil Record of Charcoal 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72265.
Variations in the abundance of fossil charcoals between rocks and sediments are assumed to reflect changes in fire activity in Earth’s past. These variations in fire activity are often considered to be in response to environmental, ecological or climatic changes. The role that fire plays in feedbacks to such changes is becoming increasingly important to understand and highlights the need to create robust estimates of variations in fossil charcoal abundance. The majority of charcoal based fire reconstructions quantify the abundance of charcoal particles and do not consider the changes in the morphology of the individual particles that may have occurred due to fragmentation as part of their transport history. We have developed a novel application of confocal laser scanning microscopy coupled to image processing that enables the 3-dimensional reconstruction of individual charcoal particles. This method is able to measure the volume of both microfossil and mesofossil charcoal particles and allows the abundance of charcoal in a sample to be expressed as total volume of charcoal. The method further measures particle surface area and shape allowing both relationships between different size and shape metrics to be analysed and full consideration of variations in particle size and size sorting between different samples to be studied. We believe application of this new imaging approach could allow significant improvement in our ability to estimate variations in past fire activity using fossil charcoals.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072265
PMCID: PMC3744490  PMID: 23977267
3.  Monoclonal antibodies for copper-64 PET dosimetry and radioimmunotherapy 
Cancer Biology & Therapy  2011;11(12):1001-1007.
Background
We previously described a two-antibody model of 64Cu radioimmunotherapy to evaluate low-dose, solid-tumor response. This model was designed to test the hypothesis that cellular internalization is critical in causing tumor cell death by mechanisms in addition to radiation damage. The purpose of the present study was to estimate radiation dosimetry for both antibodies (mAbs) using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and evaluate the effect of internalization on tumor growth.
Results
Dosimetry was similar between therapy groups. Median time to tumor progression to 1 g ranged from 7–12 days for control groups and was 32 days for both treatment groups (p < 0.0001). No statistically significant difference existed between any control group or between the treatment groups.
Material and Methods
In female nude mice bearing LS174T colon carcinoma xenografts, tumor dosimetry was calculated using serial PET images of three mice in each group of either internalizing 64Cu-labeled DOTA-cBR96 (DOTA = 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) or non-internalizing 64Cu-labeled DOTA-cT84.66 from 3 to 48 h. For the therapy study, controls (n = 10) received saline, DOTA-cBR96 or DOTA-cT84.66. Treatment animals (n = 9) received 0.890 mCi of 64Cu-labeled DOTA-cBR96 or 0.710 mCi of 64Cu-labeled DOTA-cT84.66. Tumors were measured daily.
Conclusions
PET imaging allows the use of 64Cu for pre-therapy calculation of tumor dosimetry. In spite of highly similar tumor dosimetry, an internalizing antibody did not improve the outcome of 64Cu radioimmunotherapy. Radio-resistance of this tumor cell line and copper efflux may have confounded the study. Further investigations of the therapeutic efficacy of 64Cu-labeled mAbs will focus on interaction between 64Cu and tumor suppressor genes and copper chaperones.
doi:10.4161/cbt.11.12.15528
PMCID: PMC3142363  PMID: 21464612
monoclonal antibodies; copper-64; positron emission tomography; tumor dosimetry; radioimmunotherapy; colon cancer; nude mice
4.  Capturing the Surface Texture and Shape of Pollen: A Comparison of Microscopy Techniques 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e39129.
Research on the comparative morphology of pollen grains depends crucially on the application of appropriate microscopy techniques. Information on the performance of microscopy techniques can be used to inform that choice. We compared the ability of several microscopy techniques to provide information on the shape and surface texture of three pollen types with differing morphologies. These techniques are: widefield, apotome, confocal and two-photon microscopy (reflected light techniques), and brightfield and differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) (transmitted light techniques). We also provide a first view of pollen using super-resolution microscopy. The three pollen types used to contrast the performance of each technique are: Croton hirtus (Euphorbiaceae), Mabea occidentalis (Euphorbiaceae) and Agropyron repens (Poaceae). No single microscopy technique provided an adequate picture of both the shape and surface texture of any of the three pollen types investigated here. The wavelength of incident light, photon-collection ability of the optical technique, signal-to-noise ratio, and the thickness and light absorption characteristics of the exine profoundly affect the recovery of morphological information by a given optical microscopy technique. Reflected light techniques, particularly confocal and two-photon microscopy, best capture pollen shape but provide limited information on very fine surface texture. In contrast, transmitted light techniques, particularly differential interference contrast microscopy, can resolve very fine surface texture but provide limited information on shape. Texture comprising sculptural elements that are spaced near the diffraction limit of light (∼250 nm; NDL) presents an acute challenge to optical microscopy. Super-resolution structured illumination microscopy provides data on the NDL texture of A. repens that is more comparable to textural data from scanning electron microscopy than any other optical microscopy technique investigated here. Maximizing the recovery of morphological information from pollen grains should lead to more robust classifications, and an increase in the taxonomic precision with which ancient vegetation can be reconstructed.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039129
PMCID: PMC3373610  PMID: 22720050
5.  Ability of a nurse specialist to diagnose simple headache disorders compared with consultant neurologists 
Methods: An experienced neurology ward sister was trained in the differential diagnosis of headache disorders. Over six months, patients with non-acute headache disorders and role players trained to present with benign or sinister headaches were seen by both the nurse and a consultant neurologist. Both reached independent diagnoses of various headache disorders.
Results: Consultants diagnosed 239 patients with tension-type headache (47%), migraine (39%), or other headache disorders (14%). The nurse agreed with the consultant in 92% of cases of tension-type headache, 91% of migraine, and 61% of other diagnoses. Where the nurse did not agree with the diagnosis, most would have been referred for a consultant opinion. Both the nurse and the doctors misdiagnosed the same three of 13 role players. The investigation rate of the consultants varied between 18% and 59%. Only one clinically relevant abnormality was found on head scans and this was strongly suspected clinically.
Conclusions: A headache nurse specialist can be trained to diagnose tension-type headache and migraine. A nationwide nurse led diagnostic headache service could lead to substantial reduction in neurology waiting times.
doi:10.1136/jnnp.2004.057968
PMCID: PMC1739753  PMID: 16024902

Results 1-5 (5)