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author:("sissons, John")
1.  Etiology of Acute, Non-Malaria, Febrile Illnesses in Jayapura, Northeastern Papua, Indonesia 
We conducted a prospective, inpatient fever study in malaria-endemic Papua, Indonesia to determine non-malaria fever etiologies. Investigations included malaria blood films, blood culture, paired serologic samples analysis for dengue, Japanese encephalitis, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, murine typhus, and spotted fever group rickettsia. During 1997–2000, 226 patients (127 males and 99 females) 1–80 years of age (median age = 25 years) were enrolled. Positive blood cultures (n = 34, 15%) were obtained for Salmonella Typhi (n = 13), Escherichia coli (n = 8), Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 6), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 5), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 1), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 1). Twenty (8.8%) patients were positive for leptospirosis by polymerase chain reaction. Eighty (35.4%) of 226 patients had ≥ 1 positive serology, diagnostic for 15 rickettsial and 9 dengue cases. Acid-fast bacilli–positive sputum was obtained from three patients. Most common confirmed (81 of 226, 35.8%)/suspected diagnoses were typhoid fever (n = 41), pneumonia (n = 29), leptospirosis (n = 28), urinary tract infections (n = 20), rickettsioses (n = 19), dengue (n = 17), and meningitis/encephalitis (n = 15). There were 17 deaths, 7 (46.7%) were caused by meningitis/encephalitis. Multiple positive serologic results and few confirmed diagnoses indicate the need for improved diagnostics.
PMCID: PMC3247108  PMID: 22232450
2.  Proteomic analysis reveals CCT is a target of Fragile X mental retardation protein regulation in Drosophila 
Developmental biology  2010;340(2):408-418.
Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that is required for the translational regulation of specific target mRNAs. Loss of FMRP causes Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), the most common form of inherited mental retardation in humans. Understanding the basis for FXS has been limited because few in vivo targets of FMRP have been identified and mechanisms for how FMRP regulates physiological targets is unclear. We have previously demonstrated that Drosophila FMRP (dFMRP) is required in early embryos for cleavage furrow formation. In an effort to identify new targets of dFMRP-dependent regulation and new effectors of cleavage furrow formation, we used two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins that are misexpressed in dfmr1 mutant embryos. Of the 28 proteins identified, we have identified three subunits of the Chaperonin containing TCP-1 (CCT) complex as new direct targets of dFMRP-dependent regulation. Furthermore, we found that the septin Peanut, a known effector of cleavage, is a likely conserved substrate of fly CCT and is mislocalized in both cct and in dfmr1 mutant embryos. Based on these results we propose that dFMRP-dependent regulation of CCT subunits is required for cleavage furrow formation and that at least one of its substrates is affected in dfmr1- embryos suggesting dFMRP-dependent regulation of CCT contributes to the cleavage furrow formation phenotype.
PMCID: PMC2857770  PMID: 20122915
Fragile X Syndrome; FMRP; Drosophila; midblastula transition; cleavage; cellularization
3.  Essential function of Drosophila Sec6 in apical exocytosis of epithelial photoreceptor cells 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2005;169(4):635-646.
Polarized exocytosis plays a major role in development and cell differentiation but the mechanisms that target exocytosis to specific membrane domains in animal cells are still poorly understood. We characterized Drosophila Sec6, a component of the exocyst complex that is believed to tether secretory vesicles to specific plasma membrane sites. sec6 mutations cause cell lethality and disrupt plasma membrane growth. In developing photoreceptor cells (PRCs), Sec6 but not Sec5 or Sec8 shows accumulation at adherens junctions. In late PRCs, Sec6, Sec5, and Sec8 colocalize at the rhabdomere, the light sensing subdomain of the apical membrane. PRCs with reduced Sec6 function accumulate secretory vesicles and fail to transport proteins to the rhabdomere, but show normal localization of proteins to the apical stalk membrane and the basolateral membrane. Furthermore, we show that Rab11 forms a complex with Sec5 and that Sec5 interacts with Sec6 suggesting that the exocyst is a Rab11 effector that facilitates protein transport to the apical rhabdomere in Drosophila PRCs.
PMCID: PMC2171699  PMID: 15897260
4.  Reassessing the Role and Dynamics of Nonmuscle Myosin II during Furrow Formation in Early Drosophila EmbryosD⃞V⃞ 
Molecular Biology of the Cell  2004;15(2):838-850.
The early Drosophila embryo undergoes two distinct membrane invagination events believed to be mechanistically related to cytokinesis: metaphase furrow formation and cellularization. Both involve actin cytoskeleton rearrangements, and both have myosin II at or near the forming furrow. Actin and myosin are thought to provide the force driving membrane invagination; however, membrane addition is also important. We have examined the role of myosin during these events in living embryos, with a fully functional myosin regulatory light-chain-GFP chimera. We find that furrow invagination during metaphase and cellularization occurs even when myosin activity has been experimentally perturbed. In contrast, the basal closure of the cellularization furrows and the first cytokinesis after cellularization are highly dependent on myosin. Strikingly, when ingression of the cellularization furrow is experimentally inhibited by colchicine treatment, basal closure still occurs at the appropriate time, suggesting that it is regulated independently of earlier cellularization events. We have also identified a previously unrecognized reservoir of particulate myosin that is recruited basally into the invaginating furrow in a microfilament-independent and microtubule-dependent manner. We suggest that cellularization can be divided into two distinct processes: furrow ingression, driven by microtubule mediated vesicle delivery, and basal closure, which is mediated by actin/myosin based constriction.
PMCID: PMC329397  PMID: 14657248
5.  Lava Lamp, a Novel Peripheral Golgi Protein, Is Required for Drosophila melanogaster Cellularization 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2000;151(4):905-918.
Drosophila cellularization and animal cell cytokinesis rely on the coordinated functions of the microfilament and microtubule cytoskeletal systems. To identify new proteins involved in cellularization and cytokinesis, we have conducted a biochemical screen for microfilament/microtubule-associated proteins (MMAPs). 17 MMAPs were identified; seven have been previously implicated in cellularization and/or cytokinesis, including KLP3A, Anillin, Septins, and Dynamin. We now show that a novel MMAP, Lava Lamp (Lva), is also required for cellularization. Lva is a coiled-coil protein and, unlike other proteins previously implicated in cellularization or cytokinesis, it is Golgi associated. Our functional analysis shows that cellularization is dramatically inhibited upon injecting anti–Lva antibodies (IgG and Fab) into embryos. In addition, we show that brefeldin A, a potent inhibitor of membrane trafficking, also inhibits cellularization. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that Lva physically interacts with the MMAPs Spectrin and CLIP190. We suggest that Lva and Spectrin may form a Golgi-based scaffold that mediates the interaction of Golgi bodies with microtubules and facilitates Golgi-derived membrane secretion required for the formation of furrows during cellularization. Our results are consistent with the idea that animal cell cytokinesis depends on both actomyosin-based contraction and Golgi-derived membrane secretion.
PMCID: PMC2169433  PMID: 11076973
cytokinesis; cytoskeleton; Spectrin; KLP3A; and brefeldin A

Results 1-5 (5)