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1.  Cerebrospinal fluid cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in human immunodeficiency seropositive and seronegative patients of tuberculous meningitis 
Background:
Some important clinical differences exist between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and HIV-seronegative patients. Alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines and matrix metalloproteinase have been noted in tuberculous meningitis. In HIV-infected patients, the immunopathogenesis is expected to be different.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, 64 patients of tuberculous meningitis (28 HIV seropositive and 36 seronegative) were included. The patients were followed up for six months. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of tuberculous meningitis patients and 20 controls were subjected to tissue necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-10, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 estimations. The levels were correlated with the patients’ baseline clinical characteristics, CSF parameters, neuroimaging findings, and the outcome. The outcome was assessed and modified with the Barthel index.
Results:
The CSF cytokines and MMP levels were significantly elevated in tuberculous meningitis when compared with the controls. There was no significant difference seen between HIV seropositive and seronegative tuberculous meningitis, except for the IL-1β level, which was significantly lower in the HIV-infected patients. The cytokine and MMP levels did not correlate with the baseline clinical characteristics, disease severity, cerebrospinal fluid characteristics, neuroimaging findings, and outcome.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, HIV infection did not affect a majority of the CSF cytokines and MMP levels in tuberculous meningitis except for IL-1β level. None of the estimated inflammatory parameters correlated with the outcome.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.132617
PMCID: PMC4090842  PMID: 25024567
Cytokines; human immunodeficiency virus; matrix metalloproteinases; tuberculous meningitis
2.  Acute confusional state/delirium: An etiological and prognostic evaluation 
Introduction:
Acute confusional state/delirium is a frequent cause of hospital admission, in the elderly. It is characterized by an acute fluctuating impairment of cognitive functions and inattention. Recognition and prompt treatment is crucial to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with it.
Materials and Methods:
In this retrospective study, we determined the etiology and prognostic factors of an acute confusional state. A total of 52 patients of acute confusional state were clinically evaluated. All patients were also subjected to a battery blood biochemical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis and neuroimaging. Disability was assessed by using modified Barthel index (MBI). Patients were followed-up for 3 months.
Results:
The mean age of our cohort was 65.04 ± 10.6 years. 32 (61.5%) patients were male. In 33 patients, we were able to identify possible precipitating cause of an acute confusional state. In the rest of the patients results of all the tests were normal. Leukocytosis and hyponatremia were frequent factors associated with delirium. The mean duration of the hospital stay was 10.73 ± 3.6 days (range 5-21 days). Patients with an abnormal work-up (possible precipitating cause) had significantly lower mortality, less duration of hospital stay and less severe disability after 3 months. Age, underlying illness, serum creatinine, abnormal neuroimaging and MBI were identified as a significant prognostic indicator. 18 (34.6%) of our patients died, of these in 10 patients we could not find a precipitating cause.
Conclusion:
Patients, in whom a cause was found out, had better prognosis in terms of lesser mortality and the duration of hospital stay.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.128541
PMCID: PMC3992766  PMID: 24753656
Acute confusional state; confusion assessment method; delirium index; modified Barthel index
3.  Focal neuromyotonia as a presenting feature of lumbosacral radiculopathy 
Neuromyotonia is characterized by motor, sensory, and autonomic features along with characteristic electrophysiologic findings, resulting from hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerves. We describe the case of a 36-year-old man, who presented with the disabling symptoms suggestive of focal neuromyotonia involving both the lower limbs. His neurological examination revealed continuous rippling of both the calf muscles with normal power, reflexes, and sensory examination. Electrophysiology revealed spontaneous activity in the form of doublets, triplets, and neuromyotonic discharges along with the neurogenic motor unit potentials in bilateral L5, S1 innervated muscles. Magnetic resonance imaging lumbosacral spine revealed lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion with severe foraminal and spinal canal stenosis. Patient had good response to steroids and carbamazepine. The disabling focal neuromyotonia, occurring as a result of chronic active radiculopathy, brought the patient to medical attention. Patient responded to medical management.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.120464
PMCID: PMC3841633  PMID: 24339612
Electrophysiology; magnetic resonance imaging; neuromyotonia; radiculopathy
4.  Etiological spectrum of hypokalemic paralysis: A retrospective analysis of 29 patients 
Background:
Hypokalemic paralysis is characterized by episodes of acute muscle weakness associated with hypokalemia. In this study, we evaluated the possible etiological factors in patients of hypokalemic paralysis.
Materials and Methods:
We reviewed the records of 29 patients who were admitted with a diagnosis of hypokalemic paralysis. Modified Guillain-Barre´ Syndrome disability scale was used to grade the disability.
Results:
In this study, 15 (51.7%) patients had secondary causes of hypokalemic paralysis and 14 patients (42.3%) had idiopathic hypokalemic paralysis. Thyrotoxicosis was present in six patients (20.6%), dengue infection in four patients (13.7%), distal renal tubular acidosis in three patients (10.3%), Gitelman syndrome in one patient (3.4%), and Conn's syndrome in one patient (3.4%). Preceding history of fever and rapid recovery was seen in dengue infection-induced hypokalemic paralysis. Approximately 62% patients had elevated serum creatinine phosphokinase. All patients had recovered completely following potassium supplementation. Patients with secondary causes were older in age, had significantly more disability, lower serum potassium levels, and took longer time to recover.
Conclusion:
In conclusion, more than half of patients had secondary causes responsible for hypokalemic paralysis. Dengue virus infection was the second leading cause of hypokalemic paralysis, after thyrotoxicosis. Presence of severe disability, severe hypokalemia, and a late disease onset suggested secondary hypokalemic paralysis.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.116934
PMCID: PMC3788282  PMID: 24101818
Acute flaccid paralysis; dengue virus; hypokalemia; hypokalemic paralysis
5.  Neurological complications of dengue fever: Experience from a tertiary center of north India 
Introduction:
Dengue, an acute viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, is highly endemic in many tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Neurological complications of dengue infection have been observed more frequently in the recent past and some studies highlighted varied neurological complications arising in the course of dengue illness. In this retrospective study, we report various neurological complications observed during the last 2 years in patients of dengue fever.
Materials and Methods:
The patients presenting with neurological complications with positive serology (IgM antibody) for dengue infection were consecutively recruited from the Department of Neurology/Medicine from a tertiary center of Lucknow, India. These patients were subjected to a detailed clinical evaluation, laboratory assessment including blood count, hematocrit, coagulation parameters, biochemical assays, serology for dengue fever, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human immunodeficiency virus and other relevant investigations.
Results:
Twenty-six patients with neurological complications associated with confirmed dengue infection were observed during the last 2 years. Eighteen of these patients were male. Of the 26 patients, 10 patients were suffering from brachial neuritis, four patients had encephalopathy, three patients were consistent with the diagnosis of Guillain Barre syndrome, three patients had hypokalemic paralysis associated with dengue fever and two patients had acute viral myositis. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome was diagnosed in two patients, myelitis in one patient and acute disseminated encephalo-myelitis also in one patient.
Conclusion:
Dengue fever was associated with widespread neurological complications. Brachial neuritis and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome were observed for the first time in this study.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.91946
PMCID: PMC3271466  PMID: 22346016
Brachial neuritis; dengue fever; hypokalemic paralysis; myositis; neurological complications
6.  Reliability and validity of Hindi translation of the migraine disability assessment and headache impact test-6 questionnaires 
Objective:
The objective of the study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Hindi translation of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) and Headache Impact Test-6 (HIT-6) questionnaires.
Materials and Methods:
The study was conducted on the migraine patients. For test–retest reliability, the respondents filled the MIDAS and HIT-6 questionnaires twice, at an interval of three weeks. For validity, the same population of patients filled the headache diary for three months. After three months they filled the MIDAS and HIT-6 questionnaires again. The patients were subgrouped according to their occupation and level of education. The test–retest reliability and validity were calculated by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was calculated using the Cronbach alpha.
Results:
A total of 236 migraine patients were screened. Seventy-nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A total of 69 patients completed the study. The HIT-6 questionnaire was applicable to all the subgroups of patients and had better comprehensibility than the MIDAS. Housewives missed out on the first two questions of the MIDAS and had lower mean MIDAS scores than HIT-6. The test–retest correlation coefficients for the total MIDAS and HIT-6 scores were 0.94 and 0.81, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the total score in the headache diary equivalent and the MIDAS and HIT-6 total score were 0.91 and 0.77, respectively. Cronbach alpha, a measure of internal consistency for the MIDAS questionnaire was > 0.90 at all the compilations. For the HIT-6 questionnaire, it ranged from 0.67 to 0.79.
Conclusion:
The Hindi versions of MIDAS and HIT-6 questionnaires were reliable and valid, but could not be interchanged. HIT-6 had better comprehensibility.
doi:10.4103/0972-2327.74201
PMCID: PMC3021931  PMID: 21264136
Headache Disability; HIT-6; migraine disability assessment; migraine; reliability; validity

Results 1-6 (6)