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1.  Prevalence and validity of self-reported smoking in Indigenous and non-Indigenous young adults in the Australian Northern Territory 
BMC Public Health  2014;14(1):861.
In this study, we used data from Australia’s Northern Territory to assess differences in self-reported smoking prevalence between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. We also used urinary cotinine data to assess the validity of using self-reported smoking data in these populations.
The Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) is a prospective study of 686 Aboriginal babies born in Darwin 1987–90. The Top End Cohort (TEC) is a study of non-Indigenous adolescents, all born in Darwin 1987–91. In both studies, participants aged between 16 and 21 years, were asked whether they smoked. Urinary cotinine measurements were made from samples taken at the same visits.
Self-reported smoking prevalence was 68% in the ABC and 14% in the TEC. Among the self-reported non-smokers, the median cotinine levels were higher in the ABC (33 ng/ml) than in the TEC (5 ng/ml), with greater percentages of reported non-smokers in the under 50 ng/ml group in the TEC than in the ABC
Prevalence of smoking was much higher in the ABC than in the TEC. The higher cotinine levels in ABC non-smokers may reflect an underestimated prevalence, but is also likely to reflect higher levels of passive smoking. A broader approach encompassing social, cultural and language factors with increased attention to smoking socialisation factors is required.
PMCID: PMC4153984  PMID: 25141772
Cigarette smoking; Validation; Cotinine; Aboriginal Australians; Passive smoking
3.  Comprehensive Evaluation of Drug De-addiction Centres (DDCs) in Punjab (Northern India) 
Background: Drug addiction is on the rise in Punjab,India. There are 15 DDCs which are supported by the Indian Red Cross Society. There is alleged mushrooming of private Drug De-addiction Centres (DDCs) in the smaller towns, villages and cities of Punjab.
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate DDCs in Punjab.
Materials and Methods: A total of 10 DDCs were included in the study and scheduled visits were made to collect data by using a pre-tested questionnaire.
Results: The duration of treatment was 1 month at the Red Cross DDCs and it was approximately 6 months at private DDCs. The staff at the private DDCs were inadequate. The major drugs which were abused by patients were Propoxyphene, Alcohol, Bhukki and Cannabis. Patients were usually referred to the DDCs either by family members (35.3%) or social workers (29.8%). About 72.5% of patients were married, 36.3% had passed 10th standard and 54.4% were employed. A majority dropped out of the DDCs due to personal reasons and lack of family support. On comparison, more patients were found to be treated at Red Cross centres (75.3%) than at private centres (65.8%). All DDCs had conducted regular sessions of individual, group and family counseling for patients. Red Cross DDCs ensured that ex-clients received follow-ups and home visits. More patients were satisfied with the services which were provided by the Red Cross DDCs. On the contrary, more patients at the private DDCs complained about harassment fromstaff personnel (p>0.05).
Conclusion: It is recommended that all DDCs should be checked regularly, and that the private centres should be provided with additional support from the government, to help run them more efficiently.
PMCID: PMC4003685  PMID: 24783080
Drug de-addiction centres (DDCs); Details of drug abuse; Recovery of addicts; Indoor stay of addicts; Staff details at DDCs
4.  Challenges and strategies for cohort retention and data collection in an indigenous population: Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort 
Longitudinal prospective birth cohort studies are pivotal to identifying fundamental causes and determinants of disease and health over the life course. There is limited information about the challenges, retention, and collection strategies in the study of Indigenous populations. The aim is to describe the follow-up rates of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study and how they were achieved.
Participants were 686 babies enrolled between January 1987 and March 1990, born to a mother recorded in the Delivery Suite Register of the Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) as a self-identified Aboriginal. The majority of the participants (70%) resided in Northern Territory within rural, remote and very remote Aboriginal communities that maintain traditional connections to their land and culture. The Aboriginal communities are within a sparsely populated (0.2 people/ km2) area of approximately 900,000 km2 (347sq miles), with poor communication and transport infrastructures. Follow-ups collecting biomedical and lifestyle data directly from participants in over 40 locations were conducted at 11.4 years (Wave-2) and 18.2 years (Wave-3), with Wave-4 follow-up currently underway.
Follow-ups at 11 and 18 years of age successfully examined 86% and 72% of living participants respectively. Strategies addressing logistic, cultural and ethical challenges are documented.
Satisfactory follow-up rates of a prospective longitudinal Indigenous birth cohort with traditional characteristics are possible while maintaining scientific rigor in a challenging setting. Approaches included flexibility, respect, and transparent communication along with the adoption of culturally sensitive behaviours. This work should inform and assist researchers undertaking or planning similar studies in Indigenous and developing populations.
PMCID: PMC3942517  PMID: 24568142
Epidemiological method; Prospective longitudinal cohort; Ethnic minority; Health determinants; Australian; Aboriginal
5.  Multisite Direct Determination of the Potential for Environmental Contamination of Urine Samples Used for Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infections 
The detection of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) agent in a urine specimen from a young child is regarded as an indicator of sexual contact. False positives may conceivably arise from the transfer of environmental contaminants in clinic toilet or bathroom facilities into urine specimens.
The potential for contamination of urine specimens with environmental STI nucleic acid was tested empirically in the male and female toilets or bathrooms at 10 Northern Territory (Australia) clinics, on 7 separate occasions at each. At each of the 140 experiments, environmental contamination with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis nucleic acid contamination was determined by swabbing 10 locations, and urine collection was simulated 5 times, using a (1) synthetic urine surrogate and (2) a standardized finger contamination procedure.
The most contaminated toilets and bathrooms were in remote Indigenous communities. No contamination was found in the Northern Territory Government Sexual Assault Referral Centre clinics, and intermediate levels of contamination were found in sexual health clinics and in clinics in regional urban centres. The frequency of surrogate urine sample contamination was low but non-zero. For example, 4 of 558 of the urine surrogate specimens from remote clinics were STI positive.
This is by far the largest study addressing the potential environmental contamination of urine samples with STI agents. Positive STI tests arising from environmental contamination of urine specimens cannot be ruled out. The results emphasize that urine specimens from young children taken for STI testing should be obtained by trained staff in clean environments, and duplicate specimens should be obtained if possible.
PMCID: PMC4208730  PMID: 25349693
contamination; diagnosis; false positive; sexually transmitted infection; urine
6.  Effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth: a review of the literature focusing on contextual factors 
Food & Nutrition Research  2013;57:10.3402/fnr.v57i0.20499.
Maternal diet during pregnancy is one of the most important factors associated with adequate fetal growth. There are many complications associated with fetal growth restriction that lead to lifelong effects. The aim of this review was to describe the studies examining the effects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy on fetal growth focusing on the contextual differences.
Relevant articles published between 2007 and 2012 were identified through systematic electronic searches of the PubMed, Science Direct, and EBSCO database and the examination of the bibliographies of retrieved articles. The search aimed to identify studies examining pregnant women receiving protein and/or energy during pregnancy and to assess fetal growth measures. Data of effectiveness and practical aspects of protein energy supplementation during pregnancy were extracted and compiled.
Twenty studies (11 randomized controlled trials, 8 controlled before and after, and 1 prospective study) were included in this review. Positive outcomes in infants and women cannot be expected if the supplementation is not needed. Therefore, it is essential to correctly select women who will benefit from dietary intervention programs during pregnancy. However, there is currently no consensus on the most effective method of identifying these women. The content of protein in the supplements considering total diet is also an important determinant of fetal growth. Balanced protein energy supplementation (containing up to 20% of energy as protein) given to pregnant women with energy or protein deficit appears to improve fetal growth, increase birth weight (by 95–324 g) and height (by 4.6–6.1 mm), and decrease the percentage of low birth weight (by 6%). Supplements with excess protein (>20% of energy as protein) provided to women with a diet already containing adequate protein may conversely impair fetal growth. There is also no consensus on the best time to start supplementation.
Strong quality studies examining adequate criteria to screen women who would benefit from supplementation, time to start supplementation, and type of supplements are warranted.
PMCID: PMC3827488  PMID: 24235913
maternal supplements; protein energy supplements; fetal growth; intrauterine growth; infants; birth weight
7.  Histological changes in testes of rats treated with testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol 
Background: Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is being used in medical treatments, but AAS also was identified to have the risks of adverse effects towards patients and consumers health.
Objective: Present study was conducted to observe the effects of testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol (forms of AAS) intake during onset of puberty on the rat testicular histology.
Materials and Methods: Juvenile male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (n=42) were divided into seven groups and were injected subcutaneously with medium dose of polyethylene glycol-200 (PEG-200) (control), testosterone, nandrolone, and stanozolol for six weeks (PND 41-87). The animals were weighed daily and sacrificed on PND 88. Testes were removed, weighed, and prepared for histological assessment and finally specimens were observed under microscope.
Results: The results showed an insignificant increase in mean daily body weight with highest and lowest body weight gained was of 177.6±1.69 gr and 140.0±12.26 gr respectively. There was significant decrease in the testes absolute weight (p≤0.01) in all experimental groups except in the nandrolone 2.5 mg/kg/week treated group. Testicular histology of rats treated with AAS also showed slight changes in the uniformity of arrangements of seminiferous tubules.
Conclusion: Data from present study suggests that AAS have been initiating the adverse effects on testicular normal functions in rats during onset of puberty.
PMCID: PMC3941368  PMID: 24639803
Testosterone; Nandrolone; Stanozolol; Testes; Substanceabuse
8.  Lipoidal Soft Hybrid Biocarriers of Supramolecular Construction for Drug Delivery 
ISRN Pharmaceutics  2012;2012:474830.
Lipid-based innovations have achieved new heights during the last few years as an essential component of drug development. The current challenge of drug delivery is liberation of drug agents at the right time in a safe and reproducible manner to a specific target site. A number of novel drug delivery systems has emerged encompassing various routes of administration, to achieve controlled and targeted drug delivery. Microparticulate lipoidal vesicular system represents a unique technology platform suitable for the oral and systemic administration of a wide variety of molecules with important therapeutic biological activities, including drugs, genes, and vaccine antigens. The success of liposomes as drug carriers has been reflected in a number of liposome-based formulations, which are commercially available or are currently undergoing clinical trials. Also, novel lipid carrier-mediated vesicular systems are originated. This paper has focused on the lipid-based supramolecular vesicular carriers that are used in various drug delivery and drug targeting systems.
PMCID: PMC3409530  PMID: 22888455
9.  A Fast Edge Preserving Bayesian Reconstruction Method for Parallel Imaging Applications in Cardiac MRI 
Among recent parallel MR imaging reconstruction advances, a Bayesian method called Edge-preserving Parallel Imaging with GRAph cut Minimization (EPIGRAM) has been demonstrated to significantly improve signal to noise ratio (SNR) compared to conventional regularized sensitivity encoding (SENSE) method. However, EPIGRAM requires a large number of iterations in proportion to the number of intensity labels in the image, making it computationally expensive for high dynamic range images. The objective of this study is to develop a Fast EPIGRAM reconstruction based on the efficient binary jump move algorithm that provides a logarithmic reduction in reconstruction time while maintaining image quality. Preliminary in vivo validation of the proposed algorithm is presented for 2D cardiac cine MR imaging and 3D coronary MR angiography at acceleration factors of 2-4. Fast EPIGRAM was found to provide similar image quality to EPIGRAM and maintain the previously reported SNR improvement over regularized SENSE, while reducing EPIGRAM reconstruction time by 25-50 times.
PMCID: PMC3005027  PMID: 20939095
parallel imaging; edge preserving priors; Bayesian reconstruction; graph cuts; EPIGRAM
10.  Clinical Profile of Patients with Rare Inherited Coagulation Disorders: A Retrospective Analysis of 67 Patients from Northern India 
Inherited bleeding disorders are characterized by the absence or reduced level of clotting factors, and the clinical manifestations vary according to the type and magnitude of the deficient factor.
To study the clinical presentation of the rare inherited coagulation factor disorders in a tertiary care hospital and to compare the data from those reported in other populations.
Sixty-seven patients, who presented to the Department of Hematology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, were evaluated retrospectively from 2005 to 2011. The tests performed included platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), factors assay and clot solubility test in 5 M urea. Factor XI assays were aPTT based while factors V, VII and X assays were PT based.
Male to female ratio was 2:1. The median age of onset of the first episode of bleeding was at 6 months (range, from birth to 20 years) whereas the median age of presentation to our hospital was 9 years (range, 2 months to 54 years). The most common deficient factor was factor X (43%), followed by factor XIII (27%) and factor VII (10%).
There is a wide gap between the initial manifestation of the bleeding disorders and first presentation to the tertiary care hospital for assessment and treatment. Factor X deficiency is the most common among these rare coagulation disorders in our population, whereas factor VII deficiency is more common in Iranian and North American population.
PMCID: PMC3499996  PMID: 23170186
11.  A rare mitochondrial disorder: Leigh sydrome - a case report 
Leigh syndrome is a rare progressive neurodegenerative, mitochondrial disorder of childhood with only a few cases documented from India. The clinical presentation of Leigh syndrome is highly variable. However, in most cases it presents as a progressive neurological disease with motor and intellectual developmental delay and signs and symptoms of brain stem and/or basal ganglia involvement. Raised lactate levels in blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid is noted. It is the neuroimaging, mainly the Magnetic Resonance Imaging showing characteristic symmetrical necrotic lesions in the basal ganglia and/or brain stem that leads to the diagnosis. Here, we report a case of 7 months old female child presenting to us with status epilepticus, delayed developmental milestones and regression of the achieved milestones suspected to be a case of neurodegenerative disorder, which on MRI was diagnosed as Leigh syndrome.
PMCID: PMC2949674  PMID: 20843336
12.  Bacteriological and clinical profile of Community acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients 
The aim of our study was to obtain comprehensive insight into the bacteriological and clinical profile of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. The patient population consisted of 100 patients admitted with the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), as defined by British Thoracic society, from December 1998 to Dec 2000, at the Sher- i-Kashmir institute of Medical Sciences Soura, Srinagar, India. Gram negative organisms were the commonest cause (19/29), followed by gram positive (10/29). In 71 cases no etiological cause was obtained. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the commonest pathogen (10/29), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7/29), Escherichia coli (6/29), Klebsiella spp. (3/29), Streptococcus pyogenes (1/29), Streptococcus pneumoniae (1/29) and Acinetobacter spp. (1/29). Sputum was the most common etiological source of organism isolation (26) followed by blood (6), pleural fluid (3), and pus culture (1). Maximum number of patients presented with cough (99%), fever (95%), tachycardia (92%), pleuritic chest pain (75%), sputum production (65%) and leucocytosis (43%). The commonest predisposing factors were smoking (65%), COPD (57%), structural lung disease (21%), diabetes mellitus (13%), and decreased level of consciousness following seizure (eight per cent) and chronic alcoholism (one per cent). Fourteen patients, of whom, nine were males and five females, died. Staphylococcus aureus was the causative organism in four, Pseudomonas in two, Klebsiella in one, and no organism was isolated in seven cases. The factors predicting mortality at admission were - age over 62 years, history of COPD or smoking, hypotension, altered sensorium, respiratory failure, leucocytosis, and staphylococcus pneumonia and undetermined etiology. The overall rate of identification of microbial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia was 29%, which is very low, and if serological tests for legionella, mycoplasma and viruses are performed the diagnostic yield would definitely be better. This emphasizes the need for further studies (including the serological tests for Legionella, mycoplasma and viruses) to identify the microbial etiology of CAP.
PMCID: PMC2893425  PMID: 20616935
Blood culture; pneumonia; sputum culture
13.  Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years 
In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth.
Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants.
Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations.
The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.
PMCID: PMC2761846  PMID: 19775475
14.  Bayesian Parallel Imaging With Edge-Preserving Priors 
Existing parallel MRI methods are limited by a fundamental trade-off in that suppressing noise introduces aliasing artifacts. Bayesian methods with an appropriately chosen image prior offer a promising alternative; however, previous methods with spatial priors assume that intensities vary smoothly over the entire image, resulting in blurred edges. Here we introduce an edge-preserving prior (EPP) that instead assumes that intensities are piecewise smooth, and propose a new approach to efficiently compute its Bayesian estimate. The estimation task is formulated as an optimization problem that requires a non-convex objective function to be minimized in a space with thousands of dimensions. As a result, traditional continuous minimization methods cannot be applied. This optimization task is closely related to some problems in the field of computer vision for which discrete optimization methods have been developed in the last few years. We adapt these algorithms, which are based on graph cuts, to address our optimization problem. The results of several parallel imaging experiments on brain and torso regions performed under challenging conditions with high acceleration factors are shown and compared with the results of conventional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) methods. An empirical analysis indicates that the proposed method visually improves overall quality compared to conventional methods.
PMCID: PMC2291515  PMID: 17195165
parallel imaging; edge-preserving priors; Bayesian reconstruction; SENSE; graph cuts; regularization
15.  An Australian Aboriginal birth cohort: a unique resource for a life course study of an Indigenous population. A study protocol 
The global rise of Type 2 diabetes and its complications has drawn attention to the burden of non-communicable diseases on populations undergoing epidemiological transition. The life course approach of a birth cohort has the potential to increase our understanding of the development of these chronic diseases. In 1987 we sought to establish an Australian Indigenous birth cohort to be used as a resource for descriptive and analytical studies with particular attention on non-communicable diseases. The focus of this report is the methodology of recruiting and following-up an Aboriginal birth cohort of mobile subjects belonging to diverse cultural and language groups living in a large sparsely populated area in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia.
A prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal singletons born at the Royal Darwin Hospital 1987–1990, with second wave cross-sectional follow-up examination of subjects 1998–2001 in over 70 different locations. A multiphase protocol was used to locate and collect data on 686 subjects with different approaches for urban and rural children. Manual chart audits, faxes to remote communities, death registries and a full time subject locator with past experience of Aboriginal communities were all used.
The successful recruitment of 686 Indigenous subjects followed up 14 years later with vital status determined for 95% of subjects and examination of 86% shows an Indigenous birth cohort can be established in an environment with geographic, cultural and climatic challenges. The high rates of recruitment and follow up indicate there were effective strategies of follow-up in a supportive population.
PMCID: PMC152651  PMID: 12659639
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1992;34(3):260-263.
Efficacy of centpropazine, a new antidepressant, has been evaluated in forty two patients of endogenous depression. The 4 week open trial was carried out in a dose-range of 40 to 120mg per day. A significant lowering of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score was observed in 34 patient. The antidepressant effect could be detected in 9 patients within one week, in 28 cases in two weeks and in all the 34 patients by third week. Giddiness, headache, dryness of mouth and weakness were reported by 11 patients.
PMCID: PMC2982079  PMID: 21776129
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1990;32(2):152-158.
During the study period of three months, out of 425 patients attending the psychiatric clinic of a general hospital, for the first time, 165 (38.8%) did not complete the treatment as prescribed by the doctors and were considered as dropouts. They were contacted at their homes to find out the reasons of the dropping out, were compared with patients, who completed the treatment fully on socio-demographic variables and attitude towards treatment. Dropouts significantly differed from treatment acceptors regarding their income, place of domicile and occupation. Maximum number of patients (59.9%) dropped out after the first visit. Dropouts were the maximum among epileptics, and minimum among the mentally retarded patients. Dropouts were dissatisfied with their experience at the clinic as treatment advised was not of their choice, and they feared bad side effects from ECT and drugs. Long distance of residence from clinic was an important reason for dropping out, besides social and economic reasons.
PMCID: PMC2990083  PMID: 21927444
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1990;32(1):13-24.
PMCID: PMC2989563  PMID: 21927421
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1987;29(1):49-56.
A total of 90 patients including 30 patients of generalized anxiety disorder and 30 of dysthymic disorder according to DSM III criteria plus 30 patients of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder were given a detailed psychiatric evaluation and four rating scales were made for measuring the level of anxiety and depression at intake and to record their improvement with treatment. Half the subjects in each group were randomly selected for treatment with imipramine and the other half with diazepam. Imipramine and diazepam were found to be equally effective (62.8% vs 62.2%) in reducing anxiety in all subjects. Imipramine was significantly better than diazepam in reducing the level of depression in the depressed group but as effective as diazepam in the other two groups. Imipramine was significantly better for the symptoms of ‘depressed mood’ and ‘retardation’, while diazepam was better in the symptom of ‘fears’. None of the other symptoms was discriminatory.
PMCID: PMC3172427  PMID: 21927208
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1986;28(3):205-210.
Ninety subjects consisting of 30 patients of generalized anxiety disorder, 30 of dysthymic disorder (depressive neurosis) according to D. S. M. III criteria and 30 patients of mixed anxiety-depressive disorder were given a detailed psychiatric examination, in addition, they were administered the Humilton rating scales for anxiety and depression, and also the Taylor manifest anxiety scale and Amritsar depressive inventory. All the symptoms elicited were then subjected to factor analysis, five factors were isolated-two of them co-relating with the depressive rating scales and three with the anxiety rating scales. However there was considerable overlap with anxious mood having highest loading on the depressive factor. Thus anxiety and depression could not be isolated as distinct entities factorially.
PMCID: PMC3172531  PMID: 21927176
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1985;27(2):119-122.
Fifty consequetive patients of male potency disorders were examined and classified as Dhat Syndrome, Impotence or Premature ejaculation depending on definition laid down for these. Dhat syndrome has been found predominantly in young adults. Thirty one patients (62%) complained of Dhat as a major symptom. Associated diagnosis was depression (48%) and anxiety neurosis (16%). No psychiatric disorder was noticed in 16 (32%) cases. The socio-demographic relationships are given and difficulty in handling such patients has been discussed.
PMCID: PMC3011142  PMID: 21927085
23.  Reply 
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1985;27(1):103-104.
PMCID: PMC3011161  PMID: 21927078
Indian Journal of Psychiatry  1984;26(2):107-114.
Using an open ended question along with Holme's and Rahe's Social Readjustment Rating Schedule on a sample of two hundred adult subjects, a suitable scale of stressful life events experienced by the Indian population was constructed and standardized for two time spaces, that is, last one year and life time. Analysis of various demographic variables for this population revealed no differences on this scale for age, marital state, education and occupation. However, marked sex differences in the perceived stressfulness were observed for three of the items. The scale items were further divided into desirable, undesirable and ambiguous and also into personal and impersonal Categories. Statistically significant difference were observed between the desirable and undesirable items, the latter being perceived as more stressful. Norms for total number of life events experienced as well as the presumptive stress score were established for each event for this population. The frequency of occurrence of each event in our population was also obtained. It was Calculated that individuals in our society are likely to experience an average of two stressful life events in the past one year and ten events in a life time without suffering any adverse physical or psychological disturbance. The scale is simple to administer to literate and illiterate subjects.
PMCID: PMC3012215  PMID: 21965968

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