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1.  Suppression of Immunodominant Antitumor and Antiviral CD8+ T Cell Responses by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e90439.
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a tryptophan-degrading enzyme known to suppress antitumor CD8+ T cells (TCD8). The role of IDO in regulation of antiviral TCD8 responses is far less clear. In addition, whether IDO controls both immunodominant and subdominant TCD8 is not fully understood. This is an important question because the dominance status of tumor- and virus-specific TCD8 may determine their significance in protective immunity and in vaccine design. We evaluated the magnitude and breadth of cross-primed TCD8 responses to simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen as well as primary and recall TCD8 responses to influenza A virus (IAV) in the absence or presence of IDO. IDO−/− mice and wild-type mice treated with 1-methyl-D-tryptophan, a pharmacological inhibitor of IDO, exhibited augmented responses to immunodominant epitopes encoded by T antigen and IAV. IDO-mediated suppression of these responses was independent of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, which remained numerically and functionally intact in IDO−/− mice. Treatment with L-kynurenine failed to inhibit TCD8 responses, indicating that tryptophan metabolites are not responsible for the suppressive effect of IDO in our models. Immunodominant T antigen-specific TCD8 from IDO−/− mice showed increased Ki-67 expression, suggesting that they may have acquired a more vigorous proliferative capacity in vivo. In conclusion, IDO suppresses immunodominant TCD8 responses to tumor and viral antigens. Our work also demonstrates that systemic primary and recall TCD8 responses to IAV are controlled by IDO. Inhibition of IDO thus represents an attractive adjuvant strategy in boosting anticancer and antiviral TCD8 targeting highly immunogenic antigens.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090439
PMCID: PMC3938761  PMID: 24587363
2.  Modulation of autoimmune diseases by interleukin (IL)-17 producing regulatory T helper (Th17) cells 
Following the discovery of interleukin (IL)-17 producing T helper (Th17) cells as a distinct lineage of CD4+ T helper cells it became clear that these cells play an important role in the host defense against extracellular fungal and bacterial pathogens and participate in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Depending on the microenvironment, Th17 cells can alter their differentiation programme ultimately giving rise to either protective or pro-inflammatory pathogenic cells. We found that besides the conventional in vitro protocol for Th17 differentiation by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) plus IL-6 cytokines, a combination of IL-23 plus IL-6 can also induce Th17 cells. The Th17 cells induced by IL-23 plus IL-6 (termed as effector Th17, Teff17 cells) are pathogenic upon adoptive transfer into non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice contributing to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D) while cells induced by TGF-β plus IL-6 (termed as regulatory T cells, Treg17 cells) are non pathogenic and regulatory, and suppressed the pathogenic T cells in T1D. These cells differentially expressed a number of cytokines where Teff17 cells exhibited an increase in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-22 whereas Treg17 cells demonstrated increased expression of IL-21 and immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10. Differentiation of Th17 cells is controlled by a transcription factor, RORγT although these cells also express variable levels of T-bet and FoxP3 transcription factors. This points to a dual functional role of Th17 subsets in autoimmune diseases particularly T1D. We suggest that similar to conventional regulatory T cells (Treg), induction of regulatory Treg17 cells could play an important role in modulating and preventing certain autoimmune diseases.
PMCID: PMC3928692  PMID: 24434314
Autoimmunity; cytokines; immunoregulation; helper T cell plasticity; regulatory T cells; Th17 cells; Type 1 diabetes
3.  The involvement of interleukin-22 in the expression of pancreatic beta cell regenerative Reg genes 
Cell Regeneration  2013;2(1):2.
Background
In Type 1 diabetes, the insulin-producing β-cells within the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are destroyed. We showed previously that immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) or complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice can prevent disease process and pancreatic β-cell loss. This was associated with increased islet Regenerating (Reg) genes expression, and elevated IL-22-producing Th17 T-cells in the pancreas.
Results
We hypothesized that IL-22 was responsible for the increased Reg gene expression in the pancreas. We therefore quantified the Reg1, Reg2, and Reg3δ (INGAP) mRNA expression in isolated pre-diabetic NOD islets treated with IL-22. We measured IL-22, and IL-22 receptor(R)-α mRNA expression in the pancreas and spleen of pre-diabetic and diabetic NOD mice. Our results showed: 1) Reg1 and Reg2 mRNA abundance to be significantly increased in IL-22-treated islets in vitro; 2) IL-22 mRNA expression in the pre-diabetic mouse pancreas increased with time following CFA treatment; 3) a reduced expression of IL-22Rα following CFA treatment; 4) a down-regulation in Reg1 and Reg2 mRNA expression in the pancreas of pre-diabetic mice injected with an IL-22 neutralizing antibody; and 5) an increased islet β-cell DNA synthesis in vitro in the presence of IL-22.
Conclusions
We conclude that IL-22 may contribute to the regeneration of β-cells by up-regulating Regenerating Reg1 and Reg2 genes in the islets.
doi:10.1186/2045-9769-2-2
PMCID: PMC4230743  PMID: 25408874
Adjuvant immunotherapy; Interleukin-22; Regenerating (Reg) genes; Beta-cell regeneration; Type 1 diabetes
4.  Research preparedness paves the way to respond to pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza virus 
The international community has been preparing for an influenza pandemic because of the threat posed by H5N1 avian influenza. Over the past several years, Canada has dedicated funding to boost capacity for research, and public health and health care system readiness and response in the event of a pandemic. The current H1N1/09 influenza pandemic is now testing our readiness. From a research perspective, the present commentary discusses how have we prepared, along with the research gaps. We conclude that: sources of pandemics are not always predictable; investment in the past few years has paid off in a rapid response to pandemic H1N1/09 virus in Canada; and research to meet the challenges of infectious diseases has to be done on an ongoing long-term basis, and its funding has to be flexible, available and predictable to maintain capacity and expertise. In addition, new vaccine technologies are needed to develop and produce vaccines for public health emergencies in a timely fashion.
PMCID: PMC2770297  PMID: 20808463
Influenza; Pandemic H1N1/09 influenza virus; Pandemic preparedness; Pandemic research
5.  Involvement of SOCS3 in Regulation of CD11c+ Dendritic Cell-Derived Osteoclastogenesis and Severe Alveolar Bone Loss ▿  
Infection and Immunity  2009;77(5):2000-2009.
To investigate the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) molecules in periodontal immunity and RANKL-mediated dendritic cell (DC)-associated osteoclastogenesis, we analyzed SOCS expression profiles in CD4+ T cells and the effect of SOCS3 expression in CD11c+ DCs during periodontal inflammation-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone loss in nonobese diabetic (NOD) versus humanized NOD/SCID mice. Our results of ex vivo and in vitro analyses showed that (i) there is significantly higher SOCS3 expression associated with RANKL+ T-cell-mediated bone loss in correlation with increased CD11c+ DC-mediated osteoclastogenesis; (ii) the transfection of CD11c+ DC using an adenoviral vector carrying a dominant negative SOCS3 gene significantly abrogates TRAP and bone-resorptive activity; and (iii) inflammation-induced TRAP expression, bone resorption, and SOCS3 activity are not associated with any detectable change in the expression levels of TRAF6 and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling adaptors (i.e., Erk, Jnk, p38, and Akt) in RANKL+ T cells. We conclude that SOCS3 plays a critical role in modulating cytokine signaling involved in RANKL-mediated DC-derived osteoclastogenesis during immune interactions with T cells and diabetes-associated severe inflammation-induced alveolar bone loss. Therefore, the development of SOCS3 inhibitors may have therapeutic potential as the target to halt inflammation-induced bone loss under pathological conditions in vivo.
doi:10.1128/IAI.01070-08
PMCID: PMC2681769  PMID: 19255186
6.  Gamma Interferon Positively Modulates Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-Specific RANKL+ CD4+ Th-Cell-Mediated Alveolar Bone Destruction In Vivo  
Infection and Immunity  2005;73(6):3453-3461.
Recent studies have shown the biological and clinical significance of signaling pathways of osteogenic cytokines RANKL-RANK/OPG in controlling osteoclastogenesis associated with bone pathologies, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and other osteolytic disorders. In contrast to the inhibitory effect of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) on RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis reported recently, alternative new evidence is demonstrated via studies of experimental periodontitis using humanized NOD/SCID and diabetic NOD mice and clinical human T-cell isolates from diseased periodontal tissues, where the presence of increasing IFN-γ is clearly associated with (i) enhanced Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans-specific RANKL-expressing CD4+ Th cell-mediated alveolar bone loss during the progression of periodontal disease and (ii) a concomitant and significantly increased coexpression of IFN-γ in RANKL(+) CD4+ Th cells. Therefore, there are more complex networks in regulating RANKL-RANK/OPG signaling pathways for osteoclastogenesis in vivo than have been suggested to date.
doi:10.1128/IAI.73.6.3453-3461.2005
PMCID: PMC1111859  PMID: 15908374
7.  Innovation and challenges in funding rapid research responses to emerging infectious diseases: Lessons learned from the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome 
Although the local public health response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Canada was critical to the diagnosis, management and treatment of patients, such a rapid research response required a national effort to engage the research and stakeholder communities. The Canadian research effort, coordinated through the Institute of Infection and Immunity of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research, has provided insight into the mechanisms required to ensure the rapid development of strategical initiatives in response to emerging infectious diseases. It has also provided a rational basis to set up a national network to be engaged if needed in the future.
PMCID: PMC2094971  PMID: 18159488
Emerging infectious diseases; Rapid research response, Research funding; SARS; Severe acute respiratory syndrome
8.  Functional human T-cell immunity and osteoprotegerin ligand control alveolar bone destruction in periodontal infection  
Periodontitis, a prime cause of tooth loss in humans, is implicated in the increased risk of systemic diseases such as heart failure, stroke, and bacterial pneumonia. The mechanisms by which periodontitis and antibacterial immunity lead to alveolar bone and tooth loss are poorly understood. To study the human immune response to specific periodontal infections, we transplanted human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HuPBLs) from periodontitis patients into NOD/SCID mice. Oral challenge of HuPBL-NOD/SCID mice with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a well-known Gram-negative anaerobic microorganism that causes human periodontitis, activates human CD4+ T cells in the periodontium and triggers local alveolar bone destruction. Human CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells or B cells, are identified as essential mediators of alveolar bone destruction. Stimulation of CD4+ T cells by A. actinomycetemcomitans induces production of osteoprotegerin ligand (OPG-L), a key modulator of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activation. In vivo inhibition of OPG-L function with the decoy receptor OPG diminishes alveolar bone destruction and reduces the number of periodontal osteoclasts after microbial challenge. These data imply that the molecular explanation for alveolar bone destruction observed in periodontal infections is mediated by microorganism-triggered induction of OPG-L expression on CD4+ T cells and the consequent activation of osteoclasts. Inhibition of OPG-L may thus have therapeutic value to prevent alveolar bone and/or tooth loss in human periodontitis.
This article may have been published online in advance of the print edition. The date of publication is available from the JCI website, http://www.jci.org. J. Clin. Invest. 106:R59–R67 (2000).
PMCID: PMC3102542  PMID: 10995794

Results 1-9 (9)