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1.  Genome Sequence of the “Indian Bison Type” Biotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Strain S5 
Genome Announcements  2013;1(1):e00005-13.
We report the 4.79-Mb genome sequence of the “Indian Bison Type” biotype of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis strain S5, isolated from a terminally sick Jamunapari goat at the CIRG (Central Institute for Research on Goats) farm in India. This draft genome will help in studying novelties of this biotype, which is widely distributed in animals and human beings in India.
PMCID: PMC3587920  PMID: 23469332
2.  Sitagliptin, sitagliptin and metformin, or sitagliptin and amitriptyline attenuate streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic neuropathy in rats 
Journal of Biomedical Research  2012;26(3):200-210.
Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. Symptoms of the disease include nerve palsy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, diabetic amyotrophy, painful polyneuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. In this study, type 2 diabetes in rats was induced with nicotinamide-streptozotocin. Drug treatment was initiated on the d 15, with the combination regimen of metformin, pioglitazone and glimipiride or metformin and sitagliptin or sitagliptin, amitriptyline and sitagliptin and led to significantly improved glycemic control, increased grip strength and paw jumping response on d 21, 28 and 35 (P < 0.001). Significant increases in blood protein levels and decreases in urinary protein levels were observed in the animals treated with the different regimens on d 21, 28 and 35 (P < 0.001). Combined treatment of streptozotocin and nicotinamide caused marked degeneration of nerve cells, while administration of metformin and sitagliptin showed tissue regeneration and no body weight gain. In conclusion, treatment with sitagliptin and sitagliptin combined with metformin or amitriptyline results in no body weight gain, but causes an increase in grip strength and pain sensitivity, exhibits neural protection, and reverses the alteration of biochemical parameters in rats with streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetes.
PMCID: PMC3596070  PMID: 23554750
diabetic neuropathy; nicotinamide-streptozotocin; metformin; pioglitazone; glimipiride; sitagliptin; amitriptyline
3.  Art of publication and selection of journal 
Publication is both an art and a science. For the beginner, not knowing the intricacies of publication, choice of subject and the appropriate journal to get their work published are major obstacles. In this article, the authors share their experience on how to go about getting an article published and selecting the most suitable journal for publication. They hope this article stimulates medical writing.
PMCID: PMC3937485  PMID: 24616846
Art of publication; selection of journal; manuscript writing
4.  Molecular breeding for the development of multiple disease resistance in Basmati rice 
AoB Plants  2012;2012:pls029.
Marker assisted backcross breeding for combining three resistance genes (xa13 and Xa21 for Bacterial Blight, Pi54 for blast) and a major QTL (qSBR11-1 for resistance to Sheath blight) in Basmati rice.
Background and aims
Basmati rice grown in the Indian subcontinent is highly valued for its unique culinary qualities. Production is, however, often constrained by diseases such as bacterial blight (BB), blast and sheath blight (ShB). The present study developed Basmati rice with inbuilt resistance to BB, blast and ShB using molecular marker-assisted selection.
The rice cultivar ‘Improved Pusa Basmati 1’ (carrying the BB resistance genes xa13 and Xa21) was used as the recurrent parent and cultivar ‘Tetep’ (carrying the blast resistance gene Pi54 and ShB resistance quality trait loci (QTL), qSBR11-1) was the donor. Marker-assisted foreground selection was employed to identify plants possessing resistance alleles in the segregating generations along with stringent phenotypic selection for faster recovery of the recurrent parent genome (RPG) and phenome (RPP). Background analysis with molecular markers was used to estimate the recovery of RPG in improved lines.
Principal results
Foreground selection coupled with stringent phenotypic selection identified plants homozygous for xa13, Xa21 and Pi54, which were advanced to BC2F5 through pedigree selection. Marker-assisted selection for qSBR11-1 in BC2F5 using flanking markers identified seven homozygous families. Background analysis revealed that RPG recovery was up to 89.5%. Screening with highly virulent isolates of BB, blast and ShB showed that the improved lines were resistant to all three diseases and were on a par with ‘Improved Pusa Basmati 1’ for yield, duration and Basmati grain quality.
This is the first report of marker-assisted transfer of genes conferring resistance to three different diseases in rice wherein genes xa13 and Xa21 for BB resistance, Pi54 for blast resistance, and a major QTL qSBR11-1 have been combined through marker-assisted backcross breeding. In addition to offering the potential for release as cultivars, the pyramided lines will serve as useful donors of gene(s) for BB, blast and ShB in future Basmati rice breeding programmes.
PMCID: PMC3487461  PMID: 23125910
5.  Comparison of Ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in the Diagnosis of Malignant Breast Lesions 
Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women worldwide and usually presents as lump in the breast. Ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) are two investigational tools often used to differentiate malignant breast lump from benign one.
Aims and Objects: To find out and compare the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of ultrasonography and FNAC in diagnosing malignant breast lump.
Material and Methods: Patients who presented with clinically palpable breast lump at the department of Surgery, RIMS, India, from September, 2010 to August, 2012, were included. Recurrent lumps, breast abscess and cystic breast lumps were excluded. All the patients underwent Ultrasonographic evaluation using 7.5 MHz probe (©SIEMENS, Sonoline Versa Plus) at the department of Radiodiagnosis, RIMS and FNAC at the department of Pathology, RIMS. All the patients underwent excision of the lumps and tissues were sent for Histopathological examination. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of ultrasonography and FNAC were calculated taking Histopathological result as the gold standard. Values were compared.
Results: Sixty patients with 62 breast lumps (40 benign and 22 malignant) were included. FNAC reported 42 lumps as benign and 19 as malignant and was indeterminate in 1 case. Ultrasonography reported 36 cases as benign, 18 as malignant and 6 as indeterminate; it failed to detect breast lump in 2 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of ultrasonography and FNAC in diagnosing malignant breast lump were respectively 94.74%, 100%, 100%, 97.22% and 90.48%, 100%, 100%, 95.24%.
Conclusion: Ultrasonography and FNAC are 100% specific in diagnosing malignant breast lesion. Although Ultrasonography appears more sensitive than FNAC, the percentage of indeterminate report is higher with Ultrasonography.
PMCID: PMC3919308  PMID: 24551655
Breast lumps; Ultrasonography; FNAC
7.  IL-4 Haplotype -590T, -34T and Intron-3 VNTR R2 Is Associated with Reduced Malaria Risk among Ancestral Indian Tribal Populations 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(10):e48136.
Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which regulates balance between TH1 and TH2 immune response, immunoglobulin class switching and humoral immunity. Polymorphisms in this gene have been reported to affect the risk of infectious and autoimmune diseases.
We have analyzed three regulatory IL-4 polymorphisms; -590C>T, -34C>T and 70 bp intron-3 VNTR, in 4216 individuals; including: (1) 430 ethnically matched case-control groups (173 severe malaria, 101 mild malaria and 156 asymptomatic); (2) 3452 individuals from 76 linguistically and geographically distinct endogamous populations of India, and (3) 334 individuals with different ancestry from outside India (84 Brazilian, 104 Syrian, and 146 Vietnamese).
The -590T, -34T and intron-3 VNTR R2 alleles were found to be associated with reduced malaria risk (P<0.001 for -590C>T and -34C>T, and P = 0.003 for VNTR). These three alleles were in strong LD (r2>0.75) and the TTR2 (-590T, -34T and intron-3 VNTR R2) haplotype appeared to be a susceptibility factor for malaria (P = 0.009, OR = 0.552, 95% CI = 0.356 –0.854). Allele and genotype frequencies differ significantly between caste, nomadic, tribe and ancestral tribal populations (ATP). The distribution of protective haplotype TTR2 was found to be significant (χ23 = 182.95, p-value <0.001), which is highest in ATP (40.5%); intermediate in tribes (33%); and lowest in caste (17.8%) and nomadic (21.6%).
Our study suggests that the IL-4 polymorphisms regulate host susceptibility to malaria and disease progression. TTR2 haplotype, which gives protection against malaria, is high among ATPs. Since they inhabited in isolation and mainly practice hunter-gatherer lifestyles and exposed to various parasites, IL-4 TTR2 haplotype might be under positive selection.
PMCID: PMC3480467  PMID: 23110190
9.  The first draft of the pigeonpea genome sequence 
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) is an important grain legume of the Indian subcontinent, South-East Asia and East Africa. More than eighty five percent of the world pigeonpea is produced and consumed in India where it is a key crop for food and nutritional security of the people. Here we present the first draft of the genome sequence of a popular pigeonpea variety ‘Asha’. The genome was assembled using long sequence reads of 454 GS-FLX sequencing chemistry with mean read lengths of >550 bp and >10-fold genome coverage, resulting in 510,809,477 bp of high quality sequence. Total 47,004 protein coding genes and 12,511 transposable elements related genes were predicted. We identified 1,213 disease resistance/defense response genes and 152 abiotic stress tolerance genes in the pigeonpea genome that make it a hardy crop. In comparison to soybean, pigeonpea has relatively fewer number of genes for lipid biosynthesis and larger number of genes for cellulose synthesis. The sequence contigs were arranged in to 59,681 scaffolds, which were anchored to eleven chromosomes of pigeonpea with 347 genic-SNP markers of an intra-species reference genetic map. Eleven pigeonpea chromosomes showed low but significant synteny with the twenty chromosomes of soybean. The genome sequence was used to identify large number of hypervariable ‘Arhar’ simple sequence repeat (HASSR) markers, 437 of which were experimentally validated for PCR amplification and high rate of polymorphism among pigeonpea varieties. These markers will be useful for fingerprinting and diversity analysis of pigeonpea germplasm and molecular breeding applications. This is the first plant genome sequence completed entirely through a network of Indian institutions led by the Indian Council of Agricultural Research and provides a valuable resource for the pigeonpea variety improvement.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13562-011-0088-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC3886394  PMID: 24431589
Pigeonpea; Genome sequence; Disease resistance; SSR markers; Legumes
10.  “Free Full Text Articles”: Where to Search for Them? 
References form the backbone of any medical literature. Presently, because of high inflation, it is very difficult for any library/organization/college to purchase all journals. The condition is even worse for an individual person, such as private practitioners. The solution lies in the free availability of full-text articles. Here, the authors share their experiences about the accessibility of free full-text articles.
PMCID: PMC3250025  PMID: 22223965
Free full-text article; research work; access
11.  In depth analysis of motivational factors at work in the health industry 
Industrial Psychiatry Journal  2010;19(1):20-29.
Motivation of health workers is necessary to generate the organizational commitment towards the patients and the hospital and therefore the knowledge about what motivates and satisfies them is very essential.The aim of the project was to investigate and analyze the various factors that help in motivation of the health workers while performing their clinical duties in the hospital.
Materials and Methods:
A simple random study was conducted among 100 employees of our institute, which included doctors, staff nurses and paramedical staff. One hundred employees from Gian Sagar Institute were chosen randomly for the purpose of our study. All the employees were enquired by the questionnaire method as well as by individual interviews regarding the various motivating and demotivating factors at the work place. Detailed enquiries were performed regarding the various aspects concerning the job factors and work satisfaction. All the answers and findings were observed and recorded.
Statistical Analysis Used: Simple non-parametric tests like mean, percentages and chi square tests were employed to analyze the data.The demographic profile of all the employees showed only minor differences which were statistically non-significant. Skills, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback, environment, job security and compensation were observed to be the important factors for the motivation of employees. The depth and the extent to which these factors were studied at work in the hospital showed remarkable differences.
All the factors studied in this project are essential basis for organizational commitment, but feedback represents the factor with the highest motivation potential especially among the younger population.
PMCID: PMC3105554  PMID: 21694787
Job satisfaction; motivation; organizational commitment
12.  Tobacco consumption in relation to causes of death in an urban population of north India 
Noncommunicable diseases have become a public heath problem in India concomitant with economic development, leading to increases in tobacco consumption, obesity, and changes in diet and lifestyle. Although observation suggests that tobacco consumption is a major risk factor for deaths due to circulatory, pulmonary, and malignant diseases, such studies are not available from most populations in developing countries.
Subjects and methods:
For the period 1999–2001, we studied the randomly selected records of death of 2222 (1385 men and 837 women) decedents, aged 25–64 years, out of 3034 death records overall from the records at Municipal Corporation, Moradabad. All the families of these deceased could be contacted individually to find out the causes of death, by scientist/doctor administered, informed consented, verbal autopsy questionnaire, completed with the help of the spouse and local treating doctor practicing in the appropriate healthcare region. Social classes and tobacco intakes were assessed by a questionnaire.
The prevalence of tobacco consumption, including chewing + smoking, were 45% (n = 623) among men and 15% (n = 125) among women decedents. However, smoking was observed in 20% and tobacco chewing in 30% of male decedents, while only 6% of female decedents smoked and 10% chewed tobacco. Social class had no impact on tobacco consumption in men but did influence one subgroup >55 years among women, ie, among those who had the highest tobacco consumption. Tobacco intakes were significantly more common among decedents dying due to circulatory, malignant, and pulmonary diseases, compared with other causes (men 61.1%, 76.6%, pulmonary 77.3% vs 31%, P < 0.001; women 27.5%, 75.9%, pulmonary 24.6% vs 0.42%, P < 0.001) of mortality, respectively. Pulmonary causes included chronic bronchitis and asthma. Circulatory diseases (29.1%, n = 646) including heart attacks (10.0%), stroke (7.8%), valvular heart disease (7.2%, n = 160), sudden cardiac death and inflammatory cardiac disease, each (2.0%, n = 44) were the second most common causes of deaths, after infections (41.1%, n = 915). Malignant neoplasm (5.8%, n = 131), injury (14.0%, n = 313), and miscellaneous causes of deaths, including diabetes mellitus (2.2%, n = 49) were noted in 9.1%, (n = 202) of death records. Cancers of the lung (1.6%), oral cavity (1.5%), liver (1.1%), stomach (0.9%), breast (0.31%), uterus, cervix, and ovary (0.27%) were relatively common causes for deaths due to malignancy.
This study shows that tobacco consumption appears to be a major contributor to deaths due to circulatory diseases and malignant diseases in India. Social class status had little impact on tobacco consumption in male decedents. Rapid changes in diet and lifestyle, increases in tobacco consumption, and possibly aging of the population, appear to be strongly associated with mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and cancer in this middle-income country.
PMCID: PMC2695616  PMID: 18044690
tobacco chewing; mortality; cause of death; socioeconomic status; risk factors; urban deaths
13.  Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Rice Germplasm from North-Eastern Region of India and Development of a Core Germplasm Set 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(11):e113094.
The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a valuable resource for future genomic studies and crop improvement strategies.
PMCID: PMC4239046  PMID: 25412256
14.  Knowledge and awareness of the Consumer Protection Act among dental professionals in India: A systematic review 
Indian Journal of Dentistry  2014;5(3):146-151.
The medical profession has been included in the Consumer Protection Act (CPA), to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by the doctor. The present systematic review was conducted to assess the knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India.
Materials and Methods:
A systematic review of relevant cross-sectional observational studies was conducted regarding the level of knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in India. Five studies out of 44 were finally included in the present review, after conducting both an electronic and manual search of scientific databases. The potential biases were reported and appropriate data was extracted by the concerned investigators.
More than 90% of the study subjects in one of the studies were aware of the CPA, as compared to other studies. In two studies, when queried about the correct time period during which a patient can sue a doctor, very few subjects (18 and 23.2%) answered correctly. Almost 90% of the subjects were taking some form of consent in one of the studies. Private practitioners had more awareness as compared to academicians and combined practitioners.
The results of the present review showed that a majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA, but knowledge about the basic rules and regulations was lacking in a few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep themselves updated on the various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.
PMCID: PMC4213879  PMID: 25565744
Awareness; consumer protection act; dental professional; knowledge; litigation
15.  Canine Babesiosis in Northwestern India: Molecular Detection and Assessment of Risk Factors 
BioMed Research International  2014;2014:741785.
In the current study, a total of 214 blood samples from dogs in and around Ludhiana, Punjab (India), suspected for canine babesiosis were examined with conventional and molecular assays. Examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral thin blood smears revealed an overall prevalence of 7.47% (16/214) for canine babesiosis encompassing 0.93% (2/214) of large Babesia and 6.54% (14/214) of Babesia gibsoni. However, molecular diagnosis revealed 15.42% (33/214) samples positive for B. gibsoni infection as evident by the presence of 671 bp amplicon. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the prevalence of B. gibsoni was associated with various risk factors, namely, age (P < 0.001; OR: 0.398; CI 95%: 0.080–1.799), sex (P = 0.022; OR: 0.849; CI 95%: 0.403–1.791), breed of host (P = 0.371; OR: 3.345; CI 95%: 1.045–10.710), and season (P = 0.230; OR: 2.143; CI 95%: 0.788–5.830). The prevalence of B. gibsoni was higher in summer as compared to winter season and in younger dogs, while breed and sex of the host were not significantly associated with the occurrence of the disease.
PMCID: PMC4075080  PMID: 25013798
16.  Study of Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in HIV-1 Male Patients 
Background. HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) containing protease inhibitors (PIs) had been often associated with lipodystrophy. However, there are only few studies on association of nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and NNRTI) with lipodystrophy. Study Design. One hundred and one HIV male patients were categorised into ART naïve (n = 22), zidovudine (n = 22), stavudine (n = 18), tenofovir (n = 15), and PIs (n = 24) based HAART. Their clinicoepidemiological data had been entered in preformed pro forma. The body composition, using TANITA machine and metabolic parameters like lipid profile, blood sugars was analysed. Results. Clinically, lipoatrophy of face was most prevalent in HIV patients on stavudine (15 patients, 83.3%) and PIs (20 patients, 83.3%) based HAART. The mean BMI among study population was in normal range. Excess visceral fat was most prevalent among patients on PIs, 4 patients (16.7%). The waist-hip ratio was significantly higher in PIs (P = 0.01) based HAART. There was no significant difference among different study populations in terms of BMI (P = 0.917), body water (P = 0.318), body fat (P = 0.172), bone mass (P = 0.200), and muscle mass (P = 0.070). Hypertriglyceridiemia was found in stavudine, tenofovir, and protease inhibitors regimens. Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) was found zidovudine, stavudine, and PIs regimens. Fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia was found PIs and impaired glucose tolerance in stavudine regimen. Conclusion. Patients on PIs were associated with truncal obesity and lipoatrophy of face, along with dyslipidemia and hyperglycaemia. Stavudine based regimen is associated with hypertriglyceridiemia and low HDL along with lipoatrophy of face.
PMCID: PMC4070330  PMID: 25013726
18.  Current Overview of Allergens of Plant Pathogenesis Related Protein Families 
The Scientific World Journal  2014;2014:543195.
Pathogenesis related (PR) proteins are one of the major sources of plant derived allergens. These proteins are induced by the plants as a defense response system in stress conditions like microbial and insect infections, wounding, exposure to harsh chemicals, and atmospheric conditions. However, some plant tissues that are more exposed to environmental conditions like UV irradiation and insect or fungal attacks express these proteins constitutively. These proteins are mostly resistant to proteases and most of them show considerable stability at low pH. Many of these plant pathogenesis related proteins are found to act as food allergens, latex allergens, and pollen allergens. Proteins having similar amino acid sequences among the members of PR proteins may be responsible for cross-reactivity among allergens from diverse plants. This review analyzes the different pathogenesis related protein families that have been reported as allergens. Proteins of these families have been characterized in regard to their biological functions, amino acid sequence, and cross-reactivity. The three-dimensional structures of some of these allergens have also been evaluated to elucidate the antigenic determinants of these molecules and to explain the cross-reactivity among the various allergens.
PMCID: PMC3947804  PMID: 24696647
19.  Efficacy of crude extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) in arsenic-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in splenocytes of mice 
Toxicology International  2014;21(1):8-17.
Arsenic, an environmental contaminant naturally occurred in groundwater and has been found to be associated with immune-related health problems in humans.
In view of increasing risk of arsenic exposure due to occupational and non-occupational settings, the present study has been focused to investigate the protective efficacy of amla against arsenic-induced spleenomegaly in mice.
Arsenic exposures (3 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice caused an increase production of ROS (76%), lipid peroxidation (84%) and decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase (53%) and catalase (54%) in spleen as compared to controls. Arsenic exposure to mice also caused a significant increase in caspases-3 activity (2.8 fold) and decreases cell viability (44%), mitochondrial membrane potential (47%) linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis (subG1-28.72%) and annexin V/PI binding in spleen as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation (33%), ROS production (24%), activity of caspase-3 (1.4 fold), apoptosis (subG1 12.72%) and increased cell viability (63%), levels superoxide dismutase (80%), catalase (77%) and mitochondrial membrane potential (66%) as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone.
Results of the present study indicate that the effect of arsenic is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione in liver associated with enhanced oxidative stress that has been found to be protected following simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla.
PMCID: PMC3989920  PMID: 24748729
Amla; apoptosis; arsenic; mice; oxidative stress; spleen
20.  Oral health: How much do you know? – A study on knowledge, attitude and practices of patients visiting a North Indian dental school 
European Journal of Dentistry  2014;8(1):63-67.
This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitude and behavior among patients visiting the out-patient department (OPD) of Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital, Rajpura.
Materials and Methods:
A cross-sectional study was conducted on 642 subjects who visited the OPD of Gian Sagar Dental College and Hospital. A self-constructed questionnaire was given to each of the participant. Responses from the subjects were calculated in terms of numbers and percentages.
Three hundred six (48%) of the subjects had never visited a dentist before. 304 (47%) of the subjects still prefer other cleaning aids over toothbrush. 207 (32%) subjects were of the view that dental health has no effect on general health, whereas 219 (34%) subjects were of the opinion that tooth loss is a natural sequel of the aging process.
There is a dearth of knowledge and careless attitude among people in regard to dental health. People need to be motivated and their concepts regarding the importance of dental health should be made clear through various campaigns and personal counseling.
PMCID: PMC4054034  PMID: 24966748
Dental school; knowledge; oral health; patients
21.  Comparison of SSR and SNP Markers in Estimation of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Indian Rice Varieties 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e84136.
Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphic (SNP), the two most robust markers for identifying rice varieties were compared for assessment of genetic diversity and population structure. Total 375 varieties of rice from various regions of India archived at the Indian National GeneBank, NBPGR, New Delhi, were analyzed using thirty six genetic markers, each of hypervariable SSR (HvSSR) and SNP which were distributed across 12 rice chromosomes. A total of 80 alleles were amplified with the SSR markers with an average of 2.22 alleles per locus whereas, 72 alleles were amplified with SNP markers. Polymorphic information content (PIC) values for HvSSR ranged from 0.04 to 0.5 with an average of 0.25. In the case of SNP markers, PIC values ranged from 0.03 to 0.37 with an average of 0.23. Genetic relatedness among the varieties was studied; utilizing an unrooted tree all the genotypes were grouped into three major clusters with both SSR and SNP markers. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that maximum diversity was partitioned between and within individual level but not between populations. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) with SSR markers showed that genotypes were uniformly distributed across the two axes with 13.33% of cumulative variation whereas, in case of SNP markers varieties were grouped into three broad groups across two axes with 45.20% of cumulative variation. Population structure were tested using K values from 1 to 20, but there was no clear population structure, therefore Ln(PD) derived Δk was plotted against the K to determine the number of populations. In case of SSR maximum Δk was at K=5 whereas, in case of SNP maximum Δk was found at K=15, suggesting that resolution of population was higher with SNP markers, but SSR were more efficient for diversity analysis.
PMCID: PMC3868579  PMID: 24367635
22.  Improvement of workflow and processes to ease and enrich meaningful use of health information technology 
The introduction of health information technology (HIT) can have unexpected and unintended patient safety and/or quality consequences. This highly desirable but complex intervention requires workflow changes in order to be effective. Workflow is often cited by providers as the number one ‘pain point’. Its redesign needs to be tailored to the organizational context, current workflow, HIT system being introduced, and the resources available. Primary care practices lack the required expertise and need external assistance. Unfortunately, the current methods of using esoteric charts or software are alien to health care workers and are, therefore, perceived to be barriers. Most importantly and ironically, these do not readily educate or enable staff to inculcate a common vision, ownership, and empowerment among all stakeholders. These attributes are necessary for creating highly reliable organizations. We present a tool that addresses US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical (ACGME) competency requirements. Of the six competencies called for by the ACGME, the two that this tool particularly addresses are ‘system-based practice’ and ‘practice-based learning and continuing improvement’. This toolkit is founded on a systems engineering approach. It includes a motivational and orientation presentation, 128 magnetic pictorial and write-erase icons of 40 designs, dry-erase magnetic board, and five visual aids for reducing cognitive and emotive biases in staff. Pilot tests were carried out in practices in Western New York and Colorado, USA. In addition, the toolkit was presented at the 2011 North American Primary Care Research Group (NAPCRG) meeting and an Agency for Health Research and Quality (AHRQ) meeting in 2013 to solicit responses from attendees. It was also presented to the officers of the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) for HIT. All qualitative feedback was extremely positive and enthusiastic. The respondents recommended that the toolkit be disseminated widely to improve staff education and training, leading to practice improvements.
Video abstract
PMCID: PMC3826941  PMID: 24235855
education; health; practice; quality; reliability; safety
23.  Strong Impact of TGF-β1 Gene Polymorphisms on Breast Cancer Risk in Indian Women: A Case-Control and Population-Based Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e75979.
TGF-β1 is a multi-functional cytokine that plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis. Critical role of TGF-β1 signaling in breast cancer progression is well documented. Some TGF-β1 polymorphisms influence its expression; however, their impact on breast cancer risk is not clear.
We analyzed 1222 samples in a candidate gene-based genetic association study on two distantly located and ethnically divergent case-control groups of Indian women, followed by a population-based genetic epidemiology study analyzing these polymorphisms in other Indian populations. The c.29C>T (Pro10Leu, rs1982073 or rs1800470) and c.74G>C (Arg25Pro, rs1800471) polymorphisms in the TGF-β1 gene were analyzed using direct DNA sequencing, and peripheral level of TGF-β1 were measured by ELISA.
c.29C>T substitution increased breast cancer risk, irrespective of ethnicity and menopausal status. On the other hand, c.74G>C substitution reduced breast cancer risk significantly in the north Indian group (p = 0.0005) and only in the pre-menopausal women. The protective effect of c.74G>C polymorphism may be ethnicity-specific, as no association was seen in south Indian group. The polymorphic status of c.29C>T was comparable among Indo-Europeans, Dravidians, and Tibeto-Burmans. Interestingly, we found that Tibeto-Burmans lack polymorphism at c.74G>C locus as true for the Chinese populations. However, the Brahmins of Nepal (Indo-Europeans) showed polymorphism in 2.08% of alleles. Mean TGF-β1 was significantly elevated in patients in comparison to controls (p<0.001).
c.29C>T and c.74G>C polymorphisms in the TGF-β1 gene significantly affect breast cancer risk, which correlates with elevated TGF-β1 level in the patients. The c.29C>T locus is polymorphic across ethnically different populations, but c.74G>C locus is monomorphic in Tibeto-Burmans and polymorphic in other Indian populations.
PMCID: PMC3798290  PMID: 24146803
24.  Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Felicitous Approach to Esthetic and Prosthetic Management 
Ectodermal dysplasia is a hereditary disease characterized by congenital dysplasia of one or more ectodermal structure and other accessory appendages. The oral manifestations are anodontia and poor bony foundation which impairs both esthetic as well as the masticatory function. The prosthodontic management of patients with such dysplastic condition necessitates a multidisciplinary approach. This case report describes the prosthodontic oral rehabilitation of a 16 years old female pediatric patient with ectodermal dysplasia.
How to cite this article: Singh T, Singh R, Singh GP, Singh JP. Hypohidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: A Felicitous Approach to Esthetic and Prosthetic Management. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2):140-145.
PMCID: PMC4086592  PMID: 25206210
Ectodermal dysplasia; Anodontia; Prosthodontic rehabilitation

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