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1.  Activating transcription factor 3 is a negative regulator of allergic pulmonary inflammation 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2008;205(10):2349-2357.
We recently demonstrated the pivotal role of the transcription factor (TF) activating TF 3 (ATF3) in dampening inflammation. We demonstrate that ATF3 also ameliorates allergen-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of human asthma. ATF3 expression was increased in the lungs of mice challenged with ovalbumin allergen, and this was associated with its recruitment to the promoters of genes encoding Th2-associated cytokines. ATF3-deficient mice developed significantly increased airway hyperresponsiveness, pulmonary eosinophilia, and enhanced chemokine and Th2 cytokine responses in lung tissue and in lung-derived CD4+ lymphocytes. Although several TFs have been associated with enhanced inflammatory responses in the lung, ATF3 attenuates the inflammatory responses associated with allergic airway disease.
PMCID: PMC2556774  PMID: 18794337
2.  Amphiphysin IIm Is Required for Survival of Chlamydia pneumoniae in Macrophages 
Macrophages play a critical role in both innate and acquired immunity because of their unique ability to internalize, kill, and degrade bacterial pathogens through the process of phagocytosis. The adaptor protein, amphiphysin IIm, participates in phagocytosis and is transiently associated with early phagosomes. Certain pathogens, including Chlamydia pneumoniae, have evolved mechanisms to subvert macrophage phagosome maturation and, thus, are able to survive within these cells. We report here that, although amphiphysin IIm is usually only transiently associated with the phagosome, it is indefinitely retained on vacuoles containing C. pneumoniae. Under these wild-type conditions, C. pneumoniae do not elicit significant nitric oxide (NO) production and are not killed. Abrogation of amphiphysin IIm function results in C. pneumoniae–induced NO production and in the sterilization of the vacuole. The data suggest that C. pneumoniae retains amphiphysin IIm on the vacuole to survive within the macrophage.
PMCID: PMC2212749  PMID: 15337791
innate immunity; bacterial infection; pathogen; phagocytosis; nitric oxide
3.  Collaborative Induction of Inflammatory Responses by Dectin-1 and Toll-like Receptor 2 
The Journal of Experimental Medicine  2003;197(9):1107-1117.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate recognition of a wide range of microbial products including lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, flagellin, and bacterial DNA, and signaling through TLRs leads to the production of inflammatory mediators. In addition to TLRs, many other surface receptors have been proposed to participate in innate immunity and microbial recognition, and signaling through some of these receptors is likely to cooperate with TLR signaling in defining inflammatory responses. In this report we have examined how dectin-1, a lectin family receptor for β-glucans, collaborates with TLRs in recognizing microbes. Dectin-1, which is expressed at low levels on macrophages and high levels on dendritic cells, contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif–like signaling motif that is tyrosine phosphorylated upon activation. The receptor is recruited to phagosomes containing zymosan particles but not to phagosomes containing immunoglobulin G–opsonized particles. Dectin-1 expression enhances TLR-mediated activation of nuclear factor κB by β-glucan–containing particles, and in macrophages and dendritic cells dectin-1 and TLRs are synergistic in mediating production of cytokines such as interleukin 12 and tumor necrosis factor α. Additionally, dectin-1 triggers production of reactive oxygen species, an inflammatory response that is primed by TLR activation. The data demonstrate that collaborative recognition of distinct microbial components by different classes of innate immune receptors is crucial in orchestrating inflammatory responses.
PMCID: PMC2193968  PMID: 12719479
lectin; ITAM; zymosan; dendritic cell; macrophage

Results 1-3 (3)