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2.  Axillary approach versus the infraclavicular approach in ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block: comparison of anesthetic time 
Background
With ultrasound guidance, the success rate of brachial plexus block (BPB) is 95-100% and the anesthetic time has become a more important factor than before. Many investigators have compared ultrasound guidance with the nerve stimulation technique, but there are few studies comparing different approaches via the same ultrasound guidance. We compared the axillary BPB with the infraclavicular BPB under ultrasound guidance.
Methods
Twenty-two ASA physical status I-II patients presenting with elective forearm surgery were prospectively randomized to receive an axillary BPB (group AX) or an infraclavicular BPB (group IC) with ultrasound guidance. Both groups received a total of 20 ml of 1.5% lidocaine with 5 µg/ml epinephrine and 0.1 mEq/ml sodium bicarbonate. Patients were then evaluated for block onset and block performance time was also recorded.
Results
Group IC demonstrated a reduction in performance time vs. group AX (622 ± 139 sec vs. 789 ± 131 sec, P < 0.05). But, the onset time was longer in group IC than in group AX (7.7 ± 8.8 min vs. 1.4 ± 2.3 min, P < 0.05). All blocks were successful in both groups.
Conclusions
Under ultrasound guidance, infraclavicular BPB was faster to perform than the axillary approach. But the block onset was slower with the infraclavicular approach.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2011.61.1.12
PMCID: PMC3155130  PMID: 21860745
Brachial plexus; Nerve block; Ultrasound
3.  The Results of Cervical Nucleoplasty in Patients with Cervical Disc Disorder: A Retrospective Clinical Study of 22 Patients 
The Korean Journal of Pain  2011;24(1):36-43.
Background
Nucleoplasty is a minimally invasive spinal surgery using a Coblation® technique that creates small voids within the disc. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cervical nucleoplasty in patients with cervical disc disorder.
Methods
Between March 2008 and December 2009, 22 patients with cervical disc disorders were treated with cervical nucleoplasty after failed conservative treatment. All procedures were performed under local anesthesia, and fluoroscopic guidance and voids were created in the disc with the Perc™ DC Spine Wand™. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Modified Macnab criteria and VAS score at preprocedure, postprocedure 1 month, and 6 months.
Results
Six patients had one, eight patients had two and eight patients had three discs treated; a total of 46 procedures was performed. Mean VAS reduced from 9.3 at preprocedure to 3.7 at postprocedure 1 month and to 3.4 at postprocedure 6 months. There was no significant complication related to the procedure within the first month. Outcomes were good or excellent in 17/22 (77.3%) cases. Postprocedure magnetic resonance imaging was acquired in two patients after two months showing morphologic evidence of volume reduction of protruded disc material in one patient but not in the other.
Conclusions
Percutaneous decompression with a nucleoplasty using a Coblation® technique in the treatment of cervical disc disorder is a safe, minimally-invasive and less uncomfortable procedure, with an excellent short-term clinical outcome.
doi:10.3344/kjp.2011.24.1.36
PMCID: PMC3049975  PMID: 21390177
cervical; disc; diskectomy; nucleoplasty; percutaneous
4.  The effect of low fresh gas flow rate on sevoflurane consumption 
Background
In an era of medical cost containment, cost-effectiveness has become a major focus in healthcare. The effect of a new policy on the use of low fresh gas flow during maintenance of general anesthesia with volatile anesthetics was evaluated.
Methods
The numbers and duration of general anesthesia cases using sevoflurane 5 weeks prior to and 15 weeks after policy implementation were retrieved from the electronic medical records database. The number of sevoflurane bottles consumed was also assessed. The anesthesia hours per bottle of sevoflurane were compared before and after policy implementation.
Results
The number of anesthesia hours performed per bottle of sevoflurane increased by 38.3%. The effect varied over time and tended to fade with time.
Conclusions
The implementation of a low fresh gas flow rate policy effectively reduces the amount of sevoflurane consumed for the same duration of anesthesia.
doi:10.4097/kjae.2011.60.2.75
PMCID: PMC3049885  PMID: 21390160
Anesthetic consumption; Cost-effectiveness; Low-flow anesthesia; Volatile anesthetics

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