Due to their different propagation times, visual and auditory signals from external events arrive at the human sensory receptors with a disparate delay. This delay consistently varies with distance, but, despite such variability, most events are perceived as synchronic. There is, however, contradictory data and claims regarding the existence of compensatory mechanisms for distance in simultaneity judgments.
In this paper we have used familiar audiovisual events – a visual walker and footstep sounds – and manipulated the number of depth cues. In a simultaneity judgment task we presented a large range of stimulus onset asynchronies corresponding to distances of up to 35 meters. We found an effect of distance over the simultaneity estimates, with greater distances requiring larger stimulus onset asynchronies, and vision always leading. This effect was stronger when both visual and auditory cues were present but was interestingly not found when depth cues were impoverished.
These findings reveal that there should be an internal mechanism to compensate for audiovisual delays, which critically depends on the depth information available.
Plant genomes are massively invaded by transposable elements (TEs), many of which are located near host genes and can thus impact gene expression. In flowering plants, TE expression can be activated (de-repressed) under certain stressful conditions, both biotic and abiotic, as well as by genome stress caused by hybridization. In this study, we examined the effects of these stress agents on TE expression in two diploid species of coffee, Coffea canephora and C. eugenioides, and their allotetraploid hybrid C. arabica. We also explored the relationship of TE repression mechanisms to host gene regulation via the effects of exonized TE sequences. Similar to what has been seen for other plants, overall TE expression levels are low in Coffea plant cultivars, consistent with the existence of effective TE repression mechanisms. TE expression patterns are highly dynamic across the species and conditions assayed here are unrelated to their classification at the level of TE class or family. In contrast to previous results, cell culture conditions per se do not lead to the de-repression of TE expression in C. arabica. Results obtained here indicate that differing plant drought stress levels relate strongly to TE repression mechanisms. TEs tend to be expressed at significantly higher levels in non-irrigated samples for the drought tolerant cultivars but in drought sensitive cultivars the opposite pattern was shown with irrigated samples showing significantly higher TE expression. Thus, TE genome repression mechanisms may be finely tuned to the ideal growth and/or regulatory conditions of the specific plant cultivars in which they are active. Analysis of TE expression levels in cell culture conditions underscored the importance of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathways in the repression of Coffea TEs. These same NMD mechanisms can also regulate plant host gene expression via the repression of genes that bear exonized TE sequences.
Improper use of electronic media is considered a major contributing factor to childhood obesity. However, exergames, a new generation of active games, have made it possible to combine electronic entertainment with physical exercise. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the use of exergaming as a strategic tool in the fight against childhood obesity. Information was retrieved from the databases SciELO, LILACS, Pubmed, Ebsco, and Science Direct, using the search words “egames,” “exergames,” “exergaming,” “new generation of video games,” “active video games,” “energy expenditure,” “body composition,” and “physical activity” in English and Portuguese, covering the period January 2008 to April 2012. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Exergaming was found to increase physical activity levels, energy expenditure, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and percentage of physical activity engaged in and to reduce waist circumference and sedentary screen time. Thus, exergaming may be considered a highly relevant strategic tool for the adoption of an active and healthy lifestyle and may be useful in the fight against childhood obesity.
We examined 11 pediatric patients with eosinophilic esophagitis with a tardy diagnosis. The symptoms were initially thought to be related to other diseases, leading to the use of inadequate therapeutic approaches. The patients were between 3 and 17 years old (mean 7.8 ± 3.8 years), and 8 of the patients were male. Common symptoms included abdominal pain, regurgitation, difficulty in gaining weight, vomiting, dysphagia, and coughing. The mean age for the onset of symptoms was 4.3 ± 2.9 years. Endoscopic findings included normal mucosa in five (45%) patients, thickening of the mucosa with longitudinal grooves in three (27%), erosive esophagitis in two (18%), and a whitish stippling in one (9%) patient. Treatment included the use of a topical corticosteroid for 10 patients. In eight (73%) cases, the treatment made the symptoms disappear. Ten patients underwent histopathological management after treatment, with a decrease in the number of eosinophils.
esophagitis; eosinophilia; diagnostic
Entomopathogenic fungi could be useful tools for reducing populations of the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti. Here the efficiency of fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) impregnated cloths (with and without imidacloprid [IMI]) was evaluated against adult A. aegypti in simulated human dwellings. Behaviour of mosquitoes in the presence of black cloths was also investigated.
When mosquitoes were released into the test rooms, the lowest survival rates (38%) were seen when five black cloths impregnated with conidia of ESALQ 818 + 10 ppm IMI were fixed under tables and chairs. This result was significantly lower than the survival rate recorded when cloths were impregnated with ESALQ 818 alone (44%) or ESALQ 818 + 0.1 ppm IMI (43%). Blood fed A. aegypti had lower landing frequencies on black cloths than sucrose fed insects during the first 24 h following feeding, which may have been due to reduced flight activity. Few mosquitoes (4-5%) were observed to land on the cloths during the hours of darkness. The landing pattern of sucrose-fed mosquitoes on non-treated and fungus-treated cloths was similar.
The synergism between M. anisopliae and IMI significantly reduced Aedes survival in simulated field conditions. The use of fungus impregnated cloths is a promising point source application method for the control of adult A. aegypti.
Virulence; Field testing; Fungus; Insecticide; Vector; Dengue; Blood feeding; Behaviour
Primary urethral cancer in females is rare. It has a poor prognosis. The published data on this topic are limited, composed mostly of small case series. This paper presents a case of an advanced adenocarcinoma of the urethra, intestinal type, treated with anterior exenteration.
Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector–human and vector–parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.
Global dengue virus spread in tropical and sub-tropical regions has become a major international public health concern. It is evident that DENV genetic diversity plays a significant role in the immunopathology of the disease and that the identification of polymorphisms associated with adaptive responses is important for vaccine development. The investigation of naturally occurring genomic variants may play an important role in the comprehension of different adaptive strategies used by these mutants to evade the human immune system. In order to elucidate this role we sequenced the complete polyprotein-coding region of thirty-three DENV-3 isolates to characterize variants circulating under high endemicity in the city of São José de Rio Preto, Brazil, during the onset of the 2006-07 epidemic. By inferring the evolutionary history on a local-scale and estimating rates of synonymous (dS) and nonsynonimous (dN) substitutions, we have documented at least two different introductions of DENV-3 into the city and detected 10 polymorphic codon sites under significant positive selection (dN/dS > 1) and 8 under significant purifying selection (dN/dS < 1). We found several polymorphic amino acid coding sites in the envelope (15), NS1 (17), NS2A (11), and NS5 (24) genes, which suggests that these genes may be experiencing relatively recent adaptive changes. Furthermore, some polymorphisms correlated with changes in the immunogenicity of several epitopes. Our study highlights the existence of significant and informative DENV variability at the spatio-temporal scale of an urban outbreak.
The aim of the present work was to study the cadmium effects on growth, ultrastructure and polyphosphate metabolism, as well as to evaluate the metal removal and accumulation by Cunninghamella elegans (IFM 46109) growing in culture medium. The presence of cadmium reduced growth, and a longer lag phase was observed. However, the phosphate uptake from the culture medium increased 15% when compared to the control. Moreover, C. elegans removed 70%–81% of the cadmium added to the culture medium during its growth. The C. elegans mycelia showed a removal efficiency of 280 mg/g at a cadmium concentration of 22.10 mg/L, and the removal velocity of cadmium was 0.107 mg/h. Additionally, it was observed that cadmium induced vacuolization, the presence of electron dense deposits in vacuoles, cytoplasm and cell membranes, as well as the distinct behavior of polyphosphate fractions. The results obtained with C. elegans suggest that precipitation, vacuolization and polyphosphate fractions were associated to cadmium tolerance, and this species demonstrated a higher potential for bioremediation of heavy metals.
heavy metal; cadmium; polyphosphate; tolerance; Cunninghamella elegans
We have recently discovered a variety of unrelated phototrophic microorganisms (two microalgae and one cyanobacteria) in specialized terrestrial habitats at The Coastal Range of the Atacama Desert. Interestingly, morphological and molecular evidence suggest that these three species are all recent colonists that came from aquatic habitats. The first case is Cyanidiales inhabiting coastal caves. Cyanidiales are microalgae that are commonly found in warm acid springs, but have also been recently discovered as cave flora in Italy. The case is Dunaliella biofilms colonizing spider webs in coastal caves; Dunaliella are microalgae typically found in hypersaline habitats. The third case is Chroococcidiopsis, a genus of Cyanobacteria commonly found in deserts around the world that has also been described in warm springs. Thus, we show that the traits found in the closest ancestors of the aforementioned species (which inhabited other unrelated extreme environments) seem to be now useful for the described species in their current subaerial habitats and may likely correspond to cases of exaptations. Altogether, the Coastal Range of the Atacama Desert may be considered as a place where key steps on the colonization of land by phototrophic organisms seem to be being repeated by convergent evolution of extant microalgae and Cyanobacteria.
Atacama Desert; convergent evolution; photrophic eukaryotes
Group cohesion in sport is a widely spread theme today. Research has found cohesion to be influenced by several individual and group components. Among the cognitive variables that relate to cohesion we found competitive anxiety. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between task cohesion (ATG-T, and GI-T) and competitive state anxiety (A-state), and also if there would be a relation between cohesion and self-confidence. Participants were 366 football players of both genders male and female, aged between 15 to 23 years old, from Portugal’s championships. Cohesion was measured using the Portuguese version of the Group Environment Questionnaire, and to assess competitive anxiety, we used the Portuguese version of the Competition State Anxiety Inventory 2. Our results show that female athletes report experiencing more cognitive anxiety and less self-confidence than male athletes. Only cognitive anxiety relates in a significantly negative way with the perception of cohesion (GI-T e ATG-T) in the total number of participants and in male athletes. Relatively to the somatic anxiety, it only relates negatively with the perception of the integration of the group in the total number of participants and in the male gender.
Group Dynamics; cohesion; anxiety; soccer
Terrestrial mammals are a key component of tropical forest communities as indicators of ecosystem health and providers of important ecosystem services. However, there is little quantitative information about how they change with local, regional and global threats. In this paper, the first standardized pantropical forest terrestrial mammal community study, we examine several aspects of terrestrial mammal species and community diversity (species richness, species diversity, evenness, dominance, functional diversity and community structure) at seven sites around the globe using a single standardized camera trapping methodology approach. The sites—located in Uganda, Tanzania, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Suriname, Brazil and Costa Rica—are surrounded by different landscape configurations, from continuous forests to highly fragmented forests. We obtained more than 51 000 images and detected 105 species of mammals with a total sampling effort of 12 687 camera trap days. We find that mammal communities from highly fragmented sites have lower species richness, species diversity, functional diversity and higher dominance when compared with sites in partially fragmented and continuous forest. We emphasize the importance of standardized camera trapping approaches for obtaining baselines for monitoring forest mammal communities so as to adequately understand the effect of global, regional and local threats and appropriately inform conservation actions.
camera traps; global network; occupancy; public data; terrestrial mammals; tropical forests
The desulphurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT), a recalcitrant thiophenic fossil fuel component by Serratia marcescens (UCP 1549) in order for reducing the Sulphur content was investigated. The Study was carried out establishing the growth profile using Luria Bertani medium to different concentrations of DBT during 120 hours at 28°C, and orbital Shaker at 150 rpm.
The results indicated that concentrations of DBT 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM do not affected the growth of the bacterium. The DBT showed similar Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MCB) (3.68 mM). The desulphurization of DBT by S. marcescens was used with 96 hours of growth on 2 mM of DBT, and was determined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. In order to study the desulphurization process by S. marcescens was observed the presence of a sulfur-free product at 16 hours of cultivation.
The data suggests the use of metabolic pathway “4S” by S. marcescens (UCP 1549) and formed biphenyl. The microbial desulphurization process by Serratia can be suggest significant reducing sulphur content in DBT, and showed promising potential for reduction of the sulfur content in diesel oil.
Urinary lithiasis is a common disease. The aim of the present study is to assess the knowledge regarding the diagnosis, treatment and recommendations given to patients with ureteral colic by professionals of an academic hospital.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Sixty-five physicians were interviewed about previous experience with guidelines regarding ureteral colic and how they manage patients with ureteral colic in regards to diagnosis, treatment and the information provided to the patients.
Thirty-six percent of the interviewed physicians were surgeons, and 64% were clinicians. Forty-one percent of the physicians reported experience with ureterolithiasis guidelines. Seventy-two percent indicated that they use noncontrast CT scans for the diagnosis of lithiasis. All of the respondents prescribe hydration, primarily for the improvement of stone elimination (39.3%). The average number of drugs used was 3.5. The combination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioids was reported by 54% of the physicians (i.e., 59% of surgeons and 25.6% of clinicians used this combination of drugs) (p = 0.014). Only 21.3% prescribe alpha blockers.
Reported experience with guidelines had little impact on several habitual practices. For example, only 21.3% of the respondents indicated that they prescribed alpha blockers; however, alpha blockers may increase stone elimination by up to 54%. Furthermore, although a meta-analysis demonstrated that hydration had no effect on the transit time of the stone or on the pain, the majority of the physicians reported that they prescribed more than 500 ml of fluid. Dipyrone, hyoscine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids were identified as the most frequently prescribed drug combination. The information regarding the time for the passage of urinary stones was inconsistent. The development of continuing education programs regarding ureteral colic in the emergency room is necessary.
Ureterolithiasis; Emergency Department; University Hospital
Heterochromatin comprises a fraction of the genome usually with highly repeated DNA sequences and lacks of functional genes. This region can be revealed by using Giemsa C-banding, fluorochrome staining and cytomolecular tools. Some plant species are of particular interest through having a special type of heterochromatin denominated the cold-sensitive region (CSR). Independent of other chromosomal regions, when biological materials are subjected to low temperatures (about 0 °C), CSRs appear slightly stained and decondensed. In this study, we used Cestrum strigilatum (Solanaceae) to understand some aspects of CSR condensation associated with cytosine methylation levels, and to compare the behavior of different heterochromatin types of this species, when subjected to low temperatures.
anti-5-methylcytosine; Cestrum; chromosomes; CMA/DAPI banding; heterochromatin; immunolabeling
A major limitation in the clinical management and experimental research of leptospirosis is the poor performance of the available methods for the direct detection of leptospires. In this study, we compared real-time PCR (qPCR), targeting the lipL32 gene, with the immunofluorescent imprint method (IM) for the detection and quantification of leptospires in kidney samples from the rat and hamster experimental models of leptospirosis. Using a virulent strain of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni, a chronic infection was established in the rat model, which were euthanized 28 days post-infection, while the hamster model simulated an acute infection and the hamsters were euthanized eight days after inoculation. Leptospires in the kidney samples were detected using culture isolation, qPCR and the IM, and quantified using qPCR and the IM. In both the acute and chronic infection models, the correlation between quantification by qPCR and the IM was found to be positive and statistically significant (P<0.05). Therefore, this study demonstrates that the IM is a viable alternative for not only the detection but also the quantification of leptospires, particularly when the use of qPCR is not feasible.
During storage, red blood cells (RBCs) for transfusion purposes suffer progressive deterioration. Sialylated glycoproteins of the RBC membrane are responsible for a negatively charged surface which creates a repulsive electrical zeta potential. These charges help prevent the interaction between RBCs and other cells, and especially among each RBCs. Reports in the literature have stated that RBCs sialylated glycoproteins can be sensitive to enzymes released by leukocyte degranulation. Thus, the aim of this study was, by using an optical tweezers as a biomedical tool, to measure the zeta potential in standard RBCs units and in leukocyte reduced RBC units (collected in CPD-SAGM) during storage. Optical tweezers is a sensitive tool that uses light for measuring cell biophysical properties which are important for clinical and research purposes. This is the first study to analyze RBCs membrane charges during storage. In addition, we herein also measured the elasticity of RBCs also collected in CPD-SAGM. In conclusion, the zeta potential decreased 42% and cells were 134% less deformable at the end of storage. The zeta potential from leukodepleted units had a similar profile when compared to units stored without leukoreduction, indicating that leukocyte lyses were not responsible for the zeta potential decay. Flow cytometry measurements of reactive oxygen species suggested that this decay is due to membrane oxidative damages. These results show that measurements of zeta potentials provide new insights about RBCs storage lesion for transfusion purposes.
Proximal cytoplasmic droplets (PCDs), a remnant of germ cell cytoplasm, are common non-specific morphological defects in bovine semen. This study evaluated the effect of higher percentages of PCDs on the quality of frozen-thawed bovine semen, embryo production and early embryo development.
Three ejaculates from each of five (group 1: PCD ≤ 1%, control) and eight adult Bos indicus bulls (group 2: PCD ≥ 24%) were analysed. Semen samples were examined for: post-thaw motility, vigour of movement, concentration, sperm morphology, slow thermoresistance test (STT), membrane integrity, acrosome status, mitochondrial function using fluorescent probes association (FITC-PSA, PI and JC-1) and sperm chromatin integrity using acridine orange assay. Two bulls from group 2, with 28.5% and 48.5% PCD, respectively, and three bulls from the control group, each with 0% PCD, were selected for IVF (in vitro fertilisation).
Semen analyses revealed a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between increased rates of PCD and sperm quality traits. Nevertheless, no differences were observed in sperm motility and vigour either before or after the STT or in the percentage of intact acrosomes (analysed by differential interference contrast microscopy (DIC) after STT), but membrane integrity, acrosome status (evaluated with FITC-PSA staining method after thawing) and mitochondrial function were reduced, when compared with group 1 (P < 0.05). The higher incidence of PCD was positively correlated to chromatin damage, especially after three hours of incubation at 37°C. IVF showed similar results for bull C2 (group 1, control) and bull P2 (group 2, group with higher PCDs).
Higher PCD levels influenced spermatozoa quality traits. IVF and embryo development data showed that cleavage, blastocyst formation and blastocyst hatching may have been influenced by the interaction of morphology traits and individual bull effects.
sperm morphology; proximal cytoplasmic droplets; IVF; fluorescent probes
The aim was to characterize the karyotype of rodents of the genus Proechimys from three localities in the central Brazilian Amazon, in the search for new markers that might shed light on our understanding of the taxonomy and evolutionary history of this taxon. Two karyotypes were found, viz., 2n = 28, FN = 46 in individuals from the NRSP (Cuieiras River) and REMAN (Manaus), and 2n = 46, FN = 50 in individuals from the Balbina Hydroelectric Plant. While individuals with the karyotype with 2n = 28 chromosomes were morphologically associated with Proechimys cuvieri, their karyotype shared similarities with those of the same diploid number in two other regions. Although three karyotypes are described for Proechimys cuvieri, no geographic distribution pattern that defined a cline could be identified. Based on the morphological examination of voucher specimens and additional results from molecular analysis, the karyotype with 2n = 46 and FN = 50 could be associated with P. guyannensis.
spiny rats; C-banding; Amazon region; karyotypes; FISH
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids and resistance training (RT) on insulin sensitivity in ovariectomized rats. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into ten experimental groups (n = 5 animals per group): (1) sedentary (Sed-Intact); (2) sedentary ovariectomized (Sed-Ovx); (3) sedentary nandrolone (Sed-Intact-ND); (4) sedentary ovariectomized plus nandrolone (Sed-Ovx-ND); (5) trained (TR-Intact); (6) trained nandrolone (TR-Intact-ND); (7) trained ovariectomized (TR-Ovx); (8) trained ovariectomized plus nandrolone; (9) trained sham; and (10) trained ovariectomized plus sham. Four sessions of RT were used, during which the animals climbed a 1.1 m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails. The sessions were performed once every 3 days, with between four and nine climbs and with eight to twelve dynamic movements per climb. To test the sensitivity of insulin in the pancreas, glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed. For insulin sensitivity, there was a statistically significant interaction for the TR-Ovx group, which presented higher sensitivity than the Sed-Intact, Sed-Ovx, and TR-Intact groups. Sed-Intact-ND and TR-Intact-ND groups exhibited higher values of insulin sensitivity than the Sed-Intact group. Except for the TR-Intact group, sensitivity was greater in trained groups than in the Sed-Intact group. There was higher insulin sensitivity in the TR-Intact-ND group than in the Sed-Intact and Sed-Intact-ND groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ovariectomy and short-term RT alone induced no change on insulin action. Administration of nandrolone decanoate improved insulin action, mainly when it was associated with RT.
ovariectomy; glucose; pancreas; nandrolone decanoate
Results from our laboratory have demonstrated that intracerebroventricular administration of sildenafil to conscious rats promoted a noticeable increase in both lumbar sympathetic activity and heart rate, with no change in the mean arterial pressure. The intracerebroventricular administration of sildenafil may have produced the hemodynamic effects by activating sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the supraspinal regions and spinal cord. It is well documented that sildenafil increases intracellular cGMP levels by inhibiting phosphodiesterase type 5 and increases cAMP levels by inhibiting other phosphodiesterases.
To examine and compare, in conscious rats, the hemodynamic response following the intrathecal administration of sildenafil, 8-bromo-cGMP (an analog of cGMP), forskolin (an activator of adenylate cyclase), or dibutyryl-cAMP (an analog of cAMP) in order to elucidate the possible role of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the observed hemodynamic response.
The hemodynamic responses observed following intrathecal administration of the studied drugs demonstrated the following: 1) sildenafil increased the mean arterial pressure and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner, 2) increasing doses of 8-bromo-cGMP did not alter the mean arterial pressure and heart rate, 3) forskolin did not affect the mean arterial pressure but did increase the heart rate and 4) dibutyryl-cAMP increased the mean arterial pressure and heart rate, similar to the effect observed following the intrathecal injection of the highest dose of sildenafil.
Overall, the findings of the current study suggest that the cardiovascular response following the intrathecal administration of sildenafil to conscious rats involves the inhibition of phosphodiesterases other than phosphodiesterase type 5 that increase the cAMP level and the activation of sympathetic preganglionic neurons.
Sympathetic preganglionic neurons; Lumbar sympathetic activity; Forskolin; Phosphodiesterase 5; Spinal cord
Translate, culturally adapt, and validate the “Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life” (PDQL) BR, into Brazilian Portuguese. Fifty-two patients answered the PDQL-BR. Twenty-one patients answered the PDQL-BR again 14 days later. The UPDRS and HY scale was applied. Validation was evaluated using psychometric properties, checking the quality of the data, reliability, and validity. Quality of the data was evaluated based on occurrence of ceiling and floor effects. Reliability was evaluated based on: internal consistency of an item, homogeneity, and reproducibility. Validation was checked through the evaluation of convergent and discriminatory validation. There was no ceiling and floor effect. When evaluating reliability, items 20, 30, and 37 showed correlation of 0.34, 0.26, and 0.37, respectively, to your scale; the other items was higher than 0.4. The alpha Cronbach coefficient was higher than 0.7 for most domains. There was good reproducibility. There were no meaningful changes in the PDQL-BR translation and cross-cultural adaptation.
The diencephalic leaf of the Liliequist's membrane is a continuous structure that should be perforated in the endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Its lateral borders are penetrated by the third cranial nerve and the posterior communicating arteries. The most important complication of endoscopic third ventriculostomy is the vascular injury, such as the posterior communicating artery. The purpose of this study is to measure the distance between posterior communicating arteries located below the third ventricle floor and anterior of the mammillary bodies.
In this observational prospective study 20 fresh brains from cadavers were utilized to measure the distance between the posterior communicating arteries in April 2008 at the Death Check Unit of our Institution. A digital photograph of the posterior communicating arteries was taken and the distance between the arteries was measured. The measurement was analyzed using descriptive statistics.
In the descriptive analysis of the 20 specimens, the posterior communicating arteries distance was 9 to 18.9 mm, a mean of 12.5 mm, median of 12.2 mm, standard deviation of 2.3 mm.
The detailed knowledge of vascular structures involved in the endoscopic third ventriculostomy as to the posterior communicating arteries distance provides a safe lateral vascular border when performing such procedure.
Cerebral arteries; neuroanatomy; neuroendoscopy; posterior communicating artery; ventriculostomy
Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is a highly prevalent urinary
dysfunction, with considerable economic and human costs. Clinical diagnosis of OAB is still based on subjective symptoms. A new
accurate, objective and noninvasive test to diagnose OAB and assess therapeutic outcome is lacking. Recent studies in lower
urinary tract (LUT) dysfunctions, particularly in OAB patients, indicate that urinary proteins (neurotrophins, prostaglandins, and
cytokines), serum C reactive protein, and detrusor wall thickness are altered, and such changes could be used as biomarkers of the
disease. Nowadays, increasing emphasis has been given to the role of urinary neurotrophins, namely nerve growth factor (NGF) and
brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as key players in some urinary dysfunctions. Although recently considered to be a bladder
dysfunction biomarker, urinary NGF presents low sensitivity and specificity. Preliminary results suggest that BDNF may serve as a
more efficient biomarker. Even though we have to wait for future studies to confirm the potential role of NGF and BDNF as OAB
biomarkers, it is already clear that neurotrophins will contribute to elucidate the physiopathological basis of OAB. Herein are
reviewed the latest advances in this new and exciting field, the detection and clinical application of emerging OAB biomarkers.