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1.  Functional activation of lymphocyte CD44 in peripheral blood is a marker of autoimmune disease activity. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1998;102(6):1173-1182.
Interactions between complementary receptors on leukocytes and endothelial cells play a central role in regulating extravasation from the blood and thereby affect both normal and pathologic inflammatory responses. CD44 on lymphocytes that has been "activated" to bind its principal ligand hyaluronate (HA) on endothelium can mediate the primary adhesion (rolling) of lymphocytes to vascular endothelial cells under conditions of physiologic shear stress, and this interaction is used for activated T cell extravasation into an inflamed site in vivo in mice (DeGrendele, H.C., P. Estess, L.J. Picker, and M.H. Siegelman. 1996. J. Exp. Med. 183:1119-1130. DeGrendele, H.D., P. Estess, and M.H. Siegelman. 1997. Science. 278:672-675. DeGrendele, H.C., P. Estess, and M.H. Siegelman. 1997. J. Immunol. 159: 2549-2553). Here, we have investigated the role of lymphocyte-borne-activated CD44 in the human and show that CD44-dependent primary adhesion is induced in human peripheral blood T cells through T cell receptor triggering. In addition, lymphocytes capable of CD44/HA-dependent rolling interactions can be found resident within inflamed tonsils. In analysis of peripheral bloods of patients from a pediatric rheumatology clinic, examining systemic lupus erythematosus, and a group of chronic arthropathies, expression of CD44-dependent primary adhesion strongly correlates with concurrent symptomatic disease, with 85% of samples from clinically active patients showing elevated levels of rolling activity (compared with only 4% of inactive patients). These rolling interactions are predominantly mediated by T cells. The results suggest that circulating T lymphocytes bearing activated CD44 are elevated under conditions of chronic inflammation and that these may represent a pathogenically important subpopulation of activated circulating cells that may provide a reliable marker for autoimmune or chronic inflammatory disease activity.
PMCID: PMC509100  PMID: 9739051
2.  Eosinophil recruitment to the lung in a murine model of allergic inflammation. The role of T cells, chemokines, and adhesion receptors. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1996;98(10):2332-2345.
Eosinophil accumulation is a distinctive feature of lung allergic inflammation. Here, we have used a mouse model of OVA (ovalbumin)-induced pulmonary eosinophilia to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms for this selective recruitment of eosinophils to the airways. In this model there was an early accumulation of infiltrating monocytes/macrophages in the lung during the OVA treatment, whereas the increase in infiltrating T-lymphocytes paralleled the accumulation of eosinophils. The kinetics of accumulation of these three leukocyte subtypes correlated with the levels of mRNA expression of the chemokines monocyte chemotactic peptide-1/JE, eotaxin, and RANTES (regulated upon activation in normal T cells expressed and secreted), suggesting their involvement in the recruitment of these leukocytes. Furthermore, blockade of eotaxin with specific antibodies in vivo reduced the accumulation of eosinophils in the lung in response to OVA by half. Mature CD4+ T-lymphocytes were absolutely required for OVA-induced eosinophil accumulation since lung eosinophilia was prevented in CD4+-deficient mice. However, these cells were neither the main producers of the major eosinophilic chemokines eotaxin, RANTES, or MIP-1alpha, nor did they regulate the expression of these chemokines. Rather, the presence of CD4+ T cells was necessary for enhancement of VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) expression in the lung during allergic inflammation induced by the OVA treatment. In support of this, mice genetically deficient for VCAM-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 failed to develop pulmonary eosinophilia. Selective eosinophilic recruitment during lung allergic inflammation results from a sequential accumulation of certain leukocyte types, particularly T cells, and relies on the presence of both eosinophilic chemoattractants and adhesion receptors.
PMCID: PMC507684  PMID: 8941651

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