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1.  Association of Electrocardiographically Determined Left Ventricular Mass With Incident Diabetes, 1985–1986 to 2010–2011 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(3):645-647.
OBJECTIVE
Electrocardiographic indices reflecting left ventricular hypertrophy are associated with incident diabetes in clinical populations at risk for coronary heart disease. We tested whether electrocardiographically determined left ventricular mass was positively associated with incident diabetes in a population sample.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants (n = 4,739) were followed from 1985–1986 to 2010–2011 for incident diabetes. Validated sex- and race-specific formulas were applied to standard electrocardiograms to determine left ventricular mass.
RESULTS
Over 25 years, 444 participants developed diabetes (9.4%). After adjustment for demographic, behavioral, and clinical covariates, participants in the highest quartile of left ventricular mass index (LVMI) were twice as likely to develop diabetes than participants in the lower three quartiles (hazard ratio 2.61 [95% CI 2.16–3.17]). Neither Cornell voltage nor Cornell voltage product was associated with incident diabetes in fully adjusted models.
CONCLUSIONS
Electrocardiographically determined LVMI may be a useful noninvasive marker for identifying adults at risk for diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc12-1359
PMCID: PMC3579342  PMID: 23160723
2.  Cardiovascular Health through Young Adulthood and Cognitive Functioning in Midlife 
Annals of neurology  2013;73(2):170-179.
Objective
To examine the association between overall cardiovascular health as recently defined by the American Heart Association in young adulthood to middle-age and cognitive function in midlife. Overall ideal cardiovascular health incorporates 7 metrics, including the avoidance of overweight or obesity, a healthful diet, nonsmoking, and physical activity, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at goal levels.
Methods
This analysis of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a multicenter community-based study with 25 years of follow-up, included 2,932 participants aged 18 to 30 years at baseline (Year 0) who attended follow-up exams at Years 7 and 25. Cardiovascular health metrics were measured at each examination. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), modified Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) were completed at Year 25.
Results
A greater number of ideal cardiovascular metrics in young adulthood and middle-age was independently associated with better cognitive function in midlife (p-trend<0.01, for all). Specifically, each additional ideal metric was associated with 1.32 more symbols on the DSST (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.71), a 0.77-point lower interference score on the Stroop Test (−1.03 to −0.45), and 0.12 more words on the RAVLT (0.04 to 0.20). Participants who had ≥5 ideal metrics at a greater number of the 3 examinations over the 25-year period exhibited better performance on each cognitive test in middle-age (p-trend<0.01, for all).
Interpretation
Ideal cardiovascular health in young adulthood and its maintenance to middle-age is associated with better psychomotor speed, executive function, and verbal memory in midlife.
doi:10.1002/ana.23836
PMCID: PMC3608821  PMID: 23443990
3.  Association of early adult modifiable cardiovascular risk factors with left atrial size over a 20-year follow-up period: the CARDIA study 
BMJ Open  2014;4(1):e004001.
Objectives
We investigate how early adult and 20-year changes in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors (MRF) predict left atrial dimension (LAD) at age 43–55 years.
Methods
The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study enrolled black and white adults (1985–1986). We included 2903 participants with echocardiography and MRF assessment in follow-up years 5 and 25. At years 5 and 25, LAD was assessed by M-mode echocardiography, then indexed to body surface area (BSA) or height. Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), heart rate (HR), smoking, alcohol use, diabetes and physical activity were defined as MRF. Associations of MRF with LAD were assessed using multivariable regression adjusted for age, ethnicity, gender and year-5 left atrial (LA) size.
Results
The participants were 30±4 years; 55% white; 44% men. LAD and LAD/height were modest but significantly higher over the follow-up period, but LAD/BSA decreased slightly. Increased baseline and 20-year changes in BP were related to enlargement of LAD and indices. Higher baseline and changes in BMI were also related to higher LAD and LAD/height, but the opposite direction was found for LAD/BSA. Increase in baseline HR was related to lower LAD but not LAD indices, when only baseline covariates were included in the model. However, baseline and 20-year changes in HR were significantly associated to LA size.
Conclusions
In a biracial cohort of young adults, the most robust predictors for LA enlargement over a 20-year follow-up period were higher BP and BMI. However, an inverse direction was found for the relationship between BMI and LAD/BSA. HR showed an inverse relation to LA size.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004001
PMCID: PMC3902509  PMID: 24384901
Cardiology; Epidemiology
4.  Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain 
JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association  2010;304(23):10.1001/jama.2010.1843.
Context
Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs.
Objective
To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years.
Design, Setting, and Participants
The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline.
Main Outcome Measures
Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference
Results
Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75).
Conclusion
Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen weight gain as young adults transition to middle age, particularly in women.
doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1843
PMCID: PMC3864556  PMID: 21156948
5.  G Protein-Coupled Receptor 124 (GPR124) Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation 
Translational stroke research  2012;3(4):418-427.
Abnormal endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis may contribute to brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) formation. G protein-coupled receptor 124 (GPR124) mediates embryonic CNS angiogenesis; thus we investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotypes in GPR124 with risk of BAVM. Ten tagging SNPs spanning 39 kb of GPR124 were genotyped in 195 Caucasian BAVM patients and 243 Caucasian controls. SNP and haplotype association with risk of BAVM was screened using χ2 analysis. Associated variants were further evaluated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age and sex. The minor alleles of 3 GPR124 SNPs adjacent to exon 2 and localized to a 16 kb region of high linkage disequilibrium were associated with reduced risk of BAVM (rs7015566 A, P=0.001; rs7823249 T, P=0.014; rs12676965 C, P=0.007). SNP rs7015566 (intron 1) remained associated after permutation testing (additive model P=0.033). Haplotype analysis revealed a significant overall association (χ2=12.55, 4 df, P=0.014); 2 haplotypes (ATCC, P=0.006 and GGCT, P=0.008) were associated with risk of BAVM. We genotyped a known synonymous SNP (rs16887051) in exon 2, however genotype frequency did not differ between cases and controls. Sequencing of conserved GPR124 regions revealed a novel indel polymorphism in intron 2. Immunohistochemistry confirmed GPR124 expression in the endothelium with no qualitative difference in expression between BAVM cases and controls. SNP rs7015566 mapping to intron 1 of GPR124 was associated with BAVM susceptibility among Caucasians. Future work is focused on investigating this gene region.
doi:10.1007/s12975-012-0202-9
PMCID: PMC3544200  PMID: 23329986
Angiogenesis; Genetics; Intracerebral hemorrhage; Risk factor; Vascular malformation
6.  Recent Trauma and Acute Infection as Risk Factors for Childhood Arterial Ischemic Stroke 
Annals of neurology  2012;72(6):850-858.
Objective
Trauma and acute infection have been associated with stroke in adults, and are prevalent exposures in children. We hypothesized that these environmental factors are independently associated with childhood arterial ischemic stroke (AIS).
Methods
In a case-control study nested within a cohort of 2.5 million children (≤ 19 years old) enrolled in an integrated health care plan (1993–2007), childhood AIS cases (n=126) were identified from electronic records and confirmed through chart review. Age- and facility-matched controls (n=378) were randomly selected from the cohort. Exposures were determined from review of medical records prior to the stroke diagnosis, or the same date for the paired controls; time windows were defined a priori.
Results
A medical encounter for head or neck trauma within the prior 12 weeks was an independent risk factor for childhood AIS (odds ratio [OR] 7.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.9, 19.3), present in 12% of cases (1.6% of controls). Median time from trauma to stroke was 0.5 days (interquartile range 0, 2 days); post-hoc redefinition of trauma exposure (prior 1 week) was more strongly associated with AIS: OR 39 (95% CI 5.1, 298). A medical encounter for a minor acute infection (prior 4 weeks) was also an independent risk factor (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.6, 8.2), present in 33% of cases (13% of controls). No single infection type predominated. Only two cases had exposure to trauma and infection.
Interpretation
Trauma and acute infection are common independent risk factors for childhood AIS, and may be targets for stroke prevention strategies.
doi:10.1002/ana.23688
PMCID: PMC3539242  PMID: 23280836
7.  Correlates of heart rate recovery over 20 years in a population sample 
Medicine and science in sports and exercise  2012;44(2):10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822cb190.
Introduction
Slow heart rate recovery (HRR) from a graded exercise treadmill test (GXT) is a marker of impaired parasympathetic reactivation that is associated with elevated mortality. Our objective was to test whether demographic, behavioral or coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors during young adulthood were associated with the development of slow HRR.
Methods
Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study underwent symptom-limited maximal GXT using a modified Balke protocol at baseline (1985–86) and 20-year follow-up (2005–06) examinations. HRR was calculated as the difference between peak heart rate (HR) and HR two-minutes following cessation of the GXT. Slow HRR was defined as 2-minute HRR < 22 beats·min−1.
Results
In 2,730 participants who did not have slow HRR at baseline, mean HRR was 44 beats*min−1 (SD = 11) at baseline and declined to 40 beats·min−1 (SD=12) in 2005–06; slow HRR developed in 5% (n=135) of the sample by 2005–06. Female sex, black race, fewer years of education, obesity, cigarette smoking, higher depressive symptoms, higher fasting glucose, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and physical inactivity and low fitness were each associated with incident slow HRR. In a multivariable model higher BMI, larger waist, low education, fasting glucose and current smoking remained significantly associated with incident slow HRR. Increasing BMI (per SD higher) over follow-up and incident hypertension, diabetes and metabolic syndrome (in the subsets of participants who were free from those conditions at baseline), were each associated with a significantly elevated odds of incident slow HRR.
Conclusions
On average, HRR declines with aging; however, the odds of having slow HRR in early middle age is significantly associated with traditional CHD risk factors.
doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31822cb190
PMCID: PMC3838873  PMID: 21796053
Epidemiology; Cardiovascular Disease; Exercise; Autonomic Nervous System
8.  A Genome-Wide Investigation of Copy Number Variation in Patients with Sporadic Brain Arteriovenous Malformation 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e71434.
Background
Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) are clusters of abnormal blood vessels, with shunting of blood from the arterial to venous circulation and a high risk of rupture and intracranial hemorrhage. Most BAVMs are sporadic, but also occur in patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, a Mendelian disorder caused by mutations in genes in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway.
Methods
To investigate whether copy number variations (CNVs) contribute to risk of sporadic BAVM, we performed a genome-wide association study in 371 sporadic BAVM cases and 563 healthy controls, all Caucasian. Cases and controls were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. CNVs were called using the PennCNV and Birdsuite algorithms and analyzed via segment-based and gene-based approaches. Common and rare CNVs were evaluated for association with BAVM.
Results
A CNV region on 1p36.13, containing the neuroblastoma breakpoint family, member 1 gene (NBPF1), was significantly enriched with duplications in BAVM cases compared to controls (P = 2.2×10−9); NBPF1 was also significantly associated with BAVM in gene-based analysis using both PennCNV and Birdsuite. We experimentally validated the 1p36.13 duplication; however, the association did not replicate in an independent cohort of 184 sporadic BAVM cases and 182 controls (OR = 0.81, P = 0.8). Rare CNV analysis did not identify genes significantly associated with BAVM.
Conclusion
We did not identify common CNVs associated with sporadic BAVM that replicated in an independent cohort. Replication in larger cohorts is required to elucidate the possible role of common or rare CNVs in BAVM pathogenesis.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071434
PMCID: PMC3789669  PMID: 24098321
9.  High critical care usage due to pediatric stroke 
Neurology  2012;79(5):420-427.
Objectives:
To measure intensive care unit (ICU) admission, intubation, decompressive craniotomy, and outcomes at discharge in a large population-based study of children with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
Methods:
In a retrospective study of all children enrolled in a Northern Californian integrated health care plan (1993–2003), we identified cases of symptomatic childhood stroke (age >28 days through 19 years) from inpatient and outpatient electronic diagnoses and radiology reports, and confirmed them through chart review. Data regarding stroke evaluation, management, and outcomes at discharge were abstracted. Intensive care unit (ICU) admission, intubation, and decompressive neurosurgery rates were measured, and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of critical care usage and outcomes at discharge.
Results:
Of 256 cases (132 hemorrhagic and 124 ischemic), 61% were admitted to the ICU, 32% were intubated, and 11% were treated with a decompressive neurosurgery. Rates were particularly high among children with hemorrhagic stroke (73% admitted to the ICU, 42% intubated, and 19% received a decompressive neurosurgery). Altered mental status at presentation was the most robust predictor for all 3 measures of critical care utilization. Neurologic deficits at discharge were documented in 57%, and were less common after hemorrhagic than ischemic stroke: 48% vs 66% (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.3–0.8). Case fatality was 4% overall, 7% among children admitted to the ICU, and was similar between ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.
Conclusions:
ICU admission is frequent after childhood stroke and appears to be justified by high rates of intubation and surgical decompression.
doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182616fd7
PMCID: PMC3405247  PMID: 22744664
10.  Fasting Insulin Level Is Positively Associated With Incidence of Hypertension Among American Young Adults 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(7):1532-1537.
OBJECTIVE
Although hyperinsulinemia, a surrogate of insulin resistance, may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension (HTN), the longitudinal association between fasting insulin level and HTN development is still controversial. We examined the relation between fasting insulin and incidence of HTN in a large prospective cohort.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A prospective cohort of 3,413 Americans, aged 18–30 years, without HTN in 1985 (baseline) were enrolled. Six follow-ups were conducted in 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 2000, and 2005. Fasting insulin and glucose levels were assessed by a radioimmunoassay and hexokinase method, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of incident HTN (defined as the initiation of antihypertensive medication, systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg).
RESULTS
During the 20-year follow-up, 796 incident cases were identified. After adjustment for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of insulin levels had a significantly higher incidence of HTN (HR 1.85 [95% CI 1.42–2.40]; Ptrend < 0.001) compared with those in the lowest quartile. The positive association persisted in each sex/ethnicity/weight status subgroup. A similar dose-response relation was observed when insulin-to-glucose ratio or homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance was used as exposure.
CONCLUSIONS
Fasting serum insulin levels or hyperinsulinemia in young adulthood was positively associated with incidence of HTN later in life for both men and women, African Americans and Caucasians, and those with normal weight and overweight. Our findings suggested that fasting insulin ascertainment may help clinicians identify those at high risk of HTN.
doi:10.2337/dc11-2443
PMCID: PMC3379592  PMID: 22511258
11.  Association of SNPs from 17 Candidate Genes with Baseline Symptom-Limited Exercise Test Duration and Decrease in Duration over 20 Years: The CARDIA Fitness Study 
Background
It is not known if the genes involved with endurance performance during young adulthood are also involved with changes in performance. We examined the associations of gene variants with symptom-limited exercise test duration at baseline and decrease in duration over 20 years.
Methods and Results
3,783 (1,835 Blacks 1,948 Whites) and 2,335 (1,035 Blacks 1,300 Whites) participants from CARDIA were included in the baseline and 20 year models, respectively. 217 SNPs in Blacks and 171 SNPs in Whites from 17 genes were genotyped. In Blacks, five SNPs in the ATP1A2, HIF1A, NOS3, and PPARGC1A loci tended to be associated (p<0.05) with baseline duration in a multivariate regression model. Blacks (n=99) with at least four of the most-favorable genotypes at these loci had approximately two minutes longer baseline duration than those with only two such genotypes (P<0.0001). In Whites, the HIF1A rs1957757 and PPARGC1A rs3774909 markers tended to be associated with baseline duration, but the association of a multimarker construct of the most-favorable genotypes at both SNPs with baseline duration was not statistically significant. In Whites, four SNPs in the AGT, AMPD1, ANG, and PPARGC1A loci tended to be associated with decrease in exercise duration over 20 years, and those (n=40) with all four favorable genotypes had 0.8 min less decline in duration compared to those with none or one (n=232) (P<0.0001).
Conclusion
In multimarker constructs, alleles at genes related to skeletal muscle Na+/K+ transport, hypoxia, and mitochondrial metabolism are associated with symptom-limited exercise test duration over time in adults.
doi:10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.110.957183
PMCID: PMC3595020  PMID: 20952631
cardiorespiratory fitness; genotype; prospective study
12.  Association of Increased Upper Trunk and Decreased Leg Fat With 2-h Glucose in Control and HIV-Infected Persons 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(11):2448-2453.
OBJECTIVE
Changes in body fat distribution and abnormal glucose metabolism are common in HIV-infected patients. We hypothesized that HIV-infected participants would have a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared with control subjects.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 491 HIV-infected and 187 control participants from the second examination of the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) underwent glucose tolerance testing (GTT). Multivariable regression was used to identify factors associated with GTT parameters.
RESULTS
The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (>110 mg/dL) was similar in HIV-infected and control participants (21 vs. 25%, P = 0.23). In those without IFG, the prevalence of IGT was slightly higher in HIV-infected participants compared with control subjects (13.1 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.14) and in HIV+ participants with lipoatrophy versus without (18.1 vs. 11.5%, P = 0.084). Diabetes detected by GTT was rare (HIV subjects 1.3% and control subjects 0%, P = 0.65). Mean 2-h glucose levels were 7.6 mg/dL higher in the HIV-infected participants (P = 0.012). Increased upper trunk subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and decreased leg SAT were associated with 2-h glucose and IGT in both HIV-infected and control participants. Adjusting for adipose tissue reduced the estimated effects of HIV. Exercise, alcohol use, and current tenofovir use were associated with lower 2-h glucose levels in HIV-infected participants.
CONCLUSIONS
In HIV infection, increased upper trunk SAT and decreased leg SAT are associated with higher 2-h glucose. These body fat characteristics may identify HIV-infected patients with normal fasting glucose but nonetheless at increased risk for diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc11-0616
PMCID: PMC3198295  PMID: 21926283
13.  Fish oil, selenium, and mercury in relation to incidence of hypertension: a 20-year follow-up study 
Journal of internal medicine  2011;270(2):175-186.
Objectives
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCω3PUFAs), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) are three important components in fish. The cardioprotective effect of LCω3PUFA intake has been recognized; however, the hypothesis that this benefit may be greatest with high Se and low Hg levels has not been investigated.
Design
A cohort of 4,508 American adults aged 18–30, without hypertension at baseline in 1985, were enrolled. Six follow-ups were conducted at exams in 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 2000 and 2005. Diet was assessed by a validated interviewer-administered quantitative food frequency questionnaire at exams in 1985, 1992 and 2005. Incident hypertension was defined as first occurrence at any follow-up examination of systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or taking anti-hypertensive medication. Toenail clippings were collected in 1987, and Se and Hg levels were quantified by instrumental neutron-activation analysis.
Result
Participants in the highest LCω3PUFAintake quartile had a significantly lower incidence of hypertension (Hazard Ratio: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.53–0.79; Ptrend<0.01) compared to those in the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders. Docosahexaenoic acid showed a greater inverse association than eicosapentaenoic acid. The inverse association of LCω3PUFA intake with hypertension appeared more pronounced at higher Se and lower Hg levels, although interaction tests were statistically non-significant.
Conclusions
Out findings indicated that LCω3PUFA intake was inversely associated with incidence of hypertension. The prior hypothesis that the potential anti-hypertensive effect of LCω3PUFA intake varies depending on joint levels of Se and Hg received modest support, and cannot be ruled out.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02338.x
PMCID: PMC3070957  PMID: 21205024
omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; selenium; mercury; hypertension; effect modification
14.  Urgent Neurology Consultation from the Emergency Department for Transient Ischemic Attack 
doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2009.12.025
PMCID: PMC3005542  PMID: 20825839
Transient Ischemic Attack; Referral and Consultation; Emergency Medicine; Stroke
15.  Imaging Data Reveal a Higher Pediatric Stroke Incidence than Prior U.S. Estimates 
Background
Prior annualized estimates of pediatric ischemic stroke incidence have ranged from 0.54 to 1.2 per 100,000 U.S. children, but relied purely on diagnostic code searches to identify cases. We sought to obtain a new estimate using both diagnostic code searches and searches of radiology reports, and to assess the relative value of these two strategies.
Methods
Using the population of 2.3 million children (<20 years old) enrolled in a Northern Californian managed care plan (1993–2003), we performed electronic searches of (1) in-patient and out-patient diagnoses for ICD-9 codes suggestive of stroke and cerebral palsy (CP) and (2) radiology reports for keywords suggestive of infarction. Cases were confirmed through chart review. We calculated sensitivities and positive predictive values (PPV) for the two search strategies.
Results
We identified 1,307 potential cases from the ICD-9 code search, and 510 from the radiology search. A total of 205 ischemic stroke cases were confirmed, yielding an ischemic stroke incidence of 2.4 per 100,000 person-years. The radiology search had a higher sensitivity (83%) than the ICD-9 code search (39%), although both had low PPV’s. For perinatal stroke, the sensitivity of the stroke ICD-9 codes alone was 12%, versus 57% for stroke and CP codes combined; the radiology search was again the most sensitive (87%).
Conclusions
Our incidence estimate doubles that of prior U.S. reports, a difference at least partially explained by our use of radiology searches for case identification. Studies relying purely on ICD-9 code searches may underestimate childhood ischemic stroke rates, particularly for neonates.
doi:10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.564633
PMCID: PMC3387270  PMID: 19762687
Stroke; ischemic; Child; Neonatal; Incidence
16.  Angiopoietin-Like 4 (ANGPTL4) Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations 
Background
Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) are high-flow vascular lesions prone to intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Abnormal angiogenesis is a key characteristic of BAVM tissue. Angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), a secreted glycoprotein, is thought to be involved in angiogenesis and required for proper postnatal blood vessel partitioning. We investigated whether common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ANGPTL4 were associated with risk of BAVM or ICH.
Methods and Results
We conducted a case-control study of 216 Caucasian BAVM cases and 246 healthy controls, and a secondary case-only analysis, comparing 83 ruptured (ICH) with 133 unruptured BAVM cases at presentation. Four tagSNPs in ANGPTL4 captured variation over a 10-kb region (rs2278236, rs1044250, rs11672433, and rs1808536) and were tested for association with BAVM or ICH. The minor allele (A) of rs11672433 (exon 6, Pro389Pro) was associated with an increased risk of BAVM (p = 0.006), which persisted after adjusting for multiple comparisons (p = 0.03). After adjustments for age and sex, carriers of the minor allele (A) remained at higher risk for BAVM compared to noncarriers (odds ratio, OR = 1.56; 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.01–2.41; p = 0.046) and risk of BAVM was increased with increasing copy of the minor A allele (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.03–2.15; ptrend = 0.03). Five common haplotypes (frequency >1%) were inferred; overall haplotype distribution differed between BAVM cases and controls (χ2 = 12.2, d.f. = 4, p = 0.02). Neither SNPs (p > 0.05) nor haplotype distribution (χ2 = 1.1, d.f. = 4, p = 0.89) were associated with risk of ICH among BAVM cases.
Conclusion
A synonymous SNP in ANGPTL4 and haplotypes carrying it are associated with risk of BAVM but not with ICH presentation in BAVM cases.
doi:10.1159/000322601
PMCID: PMC3030504  PMID: 21212665
Arteriovenous malformations; Cerebrovascular disorders; Epidemiology; Genetics; Intracranial hemorrhage
17.  SNP-by-fitness and SNP-by-BMI interactions from seven candidate genes and incident hypertension after 20 years of follow-up: The CARDIA Fitness Study 
Journal of human hypertension  2010;25(8):509-518.
The association of SNPs from seven candidate genes, including genotype-by-baseline fitness and genotype-by-baseline body mass index (BMI) interactions, with incident hypertension over 20 years was investigated in 2663 participants (1301 blacks, 1362 whites) of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA) Study. Baseline cardiorespiratory fitness was determined from duration of a modified Balke treadmill test. A total of 98 SNPs in blacks and 89 SNPs in whites from seven candidate genes were genotyped. Participants that became hypertensive (295 blacks and 146 whites) had significantly higher blood pressure and BMI (both races), and lower fitness (blacks only) at baseline than those who remained normotensive. Markers at the PPARGC1A and BDKRB2 genes were nominally associated with greater risk of hypertension, while one marker each at the BDKRB2 and NOS3 genes were nominally associated with lower risk. The association of baseline fitness with risk of hypertension was nominally modified by genotype at markers within the ACE, AGT, BDKRB2, and NOS3 genes in blacks and the BDKRB2, EDN1, and PPARGC1A genes in whites. BDKRB2 rs4900318 showed nominal interactions with baseline fitness on the risk of hypertension in both races. The association of baseline BMI with risk of hypertension was nominally modified by GNB3 rs2301339 genotype in whites. None of the above associations were statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing. We found that SNPs in these candidate genes did not modify the association between baseline fitness or BMI and risk of hypertension in CARDIA participants.
doi:10.1038/jhh.2010.94
PMCID: PMC3034111  PMID: 20944660
cardiorespiratory fitness; gene-environment interaction; blood pressure; genotype
18.  Longitudinal Study of Prepregnancy Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Subsequent Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 
American Journal of Epidemiology  2010;172(10):1131-1143.
This study examined prepregnancy cardiometabolic risk factors and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in subsequent pregnancies. The authors selected 1,164 women without diabetes before pregnancy who delivered 1,809 livebirths between 5 consecutive examinations from 1985 to 2006 in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. The authors measured prepregnancy cardiometabolic risk factors and performed multivariate repeated-measures logistic regression to compute the odds of GDM adjusted for race, age, parity, birth order, and other covariates. Impaired fasting glucose (100–125 vs. <90 mg/dL), elevated fasting insulin (>15–20 and >20 vs. <10 μU/mL), and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (<40 vs. >50 mg/dL) before pregnancy were directly associated with GDM: The odds ratios = 4.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.14, 10.51) for fasting glucose, 2.19 (95% CI: 1.15, 4.17) for middle insulin levels and 2.36 (95% CI: 1.20, 4.63) for highest insulin levels, and 3.07 (95% CI: 1.62, 5.84) for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among women with a negative family history of diabetes; all P < 0.01. Among overweight women, 26.7% with 1 or more cardiometabolic risk factors developed GDM versus 7.4% with none. Metabolic impairment exists before GDM pregnancy in nondiabetic women. Interconceptual metabolic screening could be included in routine health assessments to identify high-risk women for GDM in a subsequent pregnancy and to potentially minimize fetal exposure to metabolic abnormalities that program future disease.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwq267
PMCID: PMC3004767  PMID: 20929958
cohort studies; diabetes, gestational; lipids; longitudinal studies; obesity; preconception care; pregnancy; risk factors
19.  Lack of association between the Trp719Arg polymorphism in kinesin-like protein 6 and coronary artery disease in 19 case-control studies 
Assimes, Themistocles L | Hólm, Hilma | Kathiresan, Sekar | Reilly, Muredach P | Thorleifsson, Gudmar | Voight, Benjamin F | Erdmann, Jeanette | Willenborg, Christina | Vaidya, Dhananjay | Xie, Changchun | Patterson, Chris C | Morgan, Thomas M | Burnett, Mary Susan | Li, Mingyao | Hlatky, Mark A | Knowles, Joshua W | Thompson, John R | Absher, Devin | Iribarren, Carlos | Go, Alan | Fortmann, Stephen P | Sidney, Stephen | Risch, Neil | Tang, Hua | Myers, Richard M | Berger, Klaus | Stoll, Monika | Shah, Svati H. | Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur | Andersen, Karl | Havulinna, Aki S | Herrera, J. Enrique | Faraday, Nauder | Kim, Yoonhee | Kral, Brian G. | Mathias, Rasika | Ruczinski, Ingo | Suktitipat, Bhoom | Wilson, Alexander F | Yanek, Lisa R. | Becker, Lewis C | Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick | Lieb, Wolfgang | König, Inke R | Hengstenberg, Christian | Fischer, Marcus | Stark, Klaus | Reinhard, Wibke | Winogradow, Janina | Grassl, Martina | Grosshennig, Anika | Preuss, Michael | Eifert, Sandra | Schreiber, Stefan | Wichmann, H-Erich | Meisinger, Christa | Yee, Jean | Friedlander, Yechiel | Do, Ron | Meigs, James B | Williams, Gordon | Nathan, David M | MacRae, Calum A | Qu, Liming | Wilensky, Robert L | Matthai, William H. | Qasim, Atif N | Hakonarson, Hakon | Pichard, Augusto D | Kent, Kenneth M | Satler, Lowell | Lindsay, Joseph M | Waksman, Ron | Knouff, Christopher W | Waterworth, Dawn M | Walker, Max C | Mooser, Vincent | Marrugat, Jaume | Lucas, Gavin | Subirana, Isaac | Sala, Joan | Ramos, Rafael | Martinelli, Nicola | Olivieri, Oliviero | Trabetti, Elisabetta | Malerba, Giovanni | Pignatti, Pier Franco | Guiducci, Candace | Mirel, Daniel | Parkin, Melissa | Hirschhorn, Joel N | Asselta, Rosanna | Duga, Stefano | Musunuru, Kiran | Daly, Mark J | Purcell, Shaun | Braund, Peter S | Wright, Benjamin J | Balmforth, Anthony J | Ball, Stephen G | Ouwehand, Willem H | Deloukas, Panos | Scholz, Michael | Cambien, Francois | Huge, Andreas | Scheffold, Thomas | Salomaa, Veikko | Girelli, Domenico | Granger, Christopher B. | Peltonen, Leena | McKeown, Pascal P | Altshuler, David | Melander, Olle | Devaney, Joseph M | Epstein, Stephen E | Rader, Daniel J | Elosua, Roberto | Engert, James C | Anand, Sonia S | Hall, Alistair S | Ziegler, Andreas | O’Donnell, Christopher J | Spertus, John A | Siscovick, David | Schwartz, Stephen M | Becker, Diane | Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur | Stefansson, Kari | Schunkert, Heribert | Samani, Nilesh J | Quertermous, Thomas
Objectives
We sought to replicate the association between the kinesin-like protein 6 (KIF6) Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455) and clinical coronary artery disease (CAD).
Background
Recent prospective studies suggest that carriers of the 719Arg allele in KIF6 are at increased risk of clinical CAD compared with non-carriers.
Methods
The KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism (rs20455) was genotyped in nineteen case-control studies of non-fatal CAD either as part of a genome-wide association study or in a formal attempt to replicate the initial positive reports.
Results
Over 17 000 cases and 39 000 controls of European descent as well as a modest number of South Asians, African Americans, Hispanics, East Asians, and admixed cases and controls were successfully genotyped. None of the nineteen studies demonstrated an increased risk of CAD in carriers of the 719Arg allele compared with non-carriers. Regression analyses and fixed effect meta-analyses ruled out with high degree of confidence an increase of ≥2% in the risk of CAD among European 719Arg carriers. We also observed no increase in the risk of CAD among 719Arg carriers in the subset of Europeans with early onset disease (<50 years of age for males and <60 years for females) compared with similarly aged controls as well as all non-European subgroups.
Conclusions
The KIF6 Trp719Arg polymorphism was not associated with the risk of clinical CAD in this large replication study.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2010.06.022
PMCID: PMC3084526  PMID: 20933357
kinesin-like protein 6; KIF6; coronary artery disease; myocardial infarction; polymorphism
20.  Lower Extremity Fat Mass Is Associated With Insulin Resistance in Overweight and Obese Individuals: The CARDIA Study 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2011;19(11):2248-2253.
Lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) has been shown to be favorably associated with glucose metabolism. However, it is not clear whether this relationship is similar across varying levels of obesity. We hypothesized that lower amounts of LEFM is associated with higher insulin resistance (IR) and this association may vary according to weight status. Participants with available measures were examined from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study (CARDIA), a multi-center longitudinal study of the etiology of atherosclerosis in black and white men and women aged 38–50 years old in 2005–2006 (n = 1,579). The homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMAIR) was calculated to estimate IR, regional adiposity was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and weight status was defined according to BMI categories. Obese and overweight participants exhibited higher IR, total fat mass (FM), trunk FM (TFM), and LEFM compared to normal weight participants. After controlling for age, height, race, study center, education, smoking, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), greater LEFM was significantly associated with higher IR only in normal weight men and women. Further adjustment for TFM revealed that lower LEFM was significantly associated with higher IR in overweight and obese men and women and the positive association in normal weight individuals was attenuated. These results suggest that excess adiposity in the lower extremities may attenuate the metabolic risk observed at a given level of abdominal adiposity in overweight and obese individuals. Weight status presents additional complexity since the metabolic influence of adipose tissue may not be homogenous across anatomic regions or level of obesity.
doi:10.1038/oby.2011.113
PMCID: PMC3203327  PMID: 21617639
21.  Illicit drug use and HIV treatment outcomes in a US cohort 
AIDS (London, England)  2008;22(3):357-365.
Objective
To determine the prevalence of illicit drug use and the impact on HIV treatment.
Design
Multivariable regression of cross-sectional data from 1163 HIV-infected and 294 controls from the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM).
Methods
An analysis of (1) prevalence of specific illicit drug use (ever, current), (2) being on HAART among those with an indication and (3) current HIV RNA and CD4 cell count among HAART users.
Results
Median age was 42 years, approximately 50% were non-Caucasian and 33% were women. Eighty-six percent of HIV-infected and 67% of controls reported ever using illicit drugs (P <0.0001); 28% of HIV-infected and 16% of controls reported current use (P = 0.0001). In adjusted models, current cocaine use and past heroin use were associated with not currently being on HAART. Among HAART users, those reporting past heroin use were as likely to have an undetectable HIV viral load as those who had never used heroin. Current and past cocaine use and current heroin use was associated with lower odds of undetectable HIV RNA. Past amphetamine use was associated with having an undetectable HIV. Similar results were seen for CD4 lymphocyte counts.
Conclusion
Illicit drug use in the US is common, although far fewer report current use than past use. Among HIV-infected patients, understanding of the type of illicit drugs used and whether drug use was in the past or ongoing is important, because of their differential effects on HIV treatment outcomes.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f3cc21
PMCID: PMC3189479  PMID: 18195562
amphetamines; cocaine; heroin; HIV; street drugs; viral load
22.  Microalbuminuria in HIV infection 
AIDS (London, England)  2007;21(8):1003-1009.
Objective
Microalbuminuria is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. The objective of the study was to evaluate if HIV infection was an independent risk factor for microalbuminuria.
Design
Cross sectional.
Methods
The relationship between HIV infection and microalbuminuria was assessed using subjects enrolled in the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection, which consists of HIV-positive and control men and women. Participants with proteinuria (dipstick ≥1+) were excluded.
Results
Microalbuminuria (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, ACR>30 mg/g) was present in 11% of HIV infected, and 2% of control participants (P<0.001); a fivefold odds after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio, 5.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.97–13.31; P=0.0008). Several cardiovascular risk factors were associated with higher ACR in HIV participants: insulin resistance (HOMA>4; 32%, P<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (21%, P=0.01 for 120–140 versus <120 mmHg, and 43%, P <0.06 for >140 versus <120 mmHg), and family history of hypertension (17%, P=0.03). Higher CD4 cell count was associated with lower albumin/creatinine ratio (−24%, P=0.009 for 200–400 versus <200 cells/ml and −26%, P=0.005 for >400 versus <200 cells/ml).
Conclusion
HIV infection had a strong and independent association with microalbuminuria, the severity of which was predicted by markers of insulin resistance, hypertension, and advanced HIV infection. These associations warrant further investigation, as the increased prevalence of microalbuminuria in HIV infection may be a harbinger of future risk of cardiovascular and kidney diseases.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3280d3587f
PMCID: PMC3189480  PMID: 17457094
Microalbuminuria; kidney; urine protein; insulin resistance; lipodystrophy
23.  Cystatin C Level as a Marker of Kidney Function in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection 
Archives of internal medicine  2007;167(20):2213-2219.
Background
Although studies have reported a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, little is known about moderate impairments in kidney function. Cystatin C measurement may be more sensitive than creatinine for detecting impaired kidney function in persons with HIV.
Methods
We evaluated kidney function in the Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM) cohort, a representative sample of 1008 HIV-infected persons and 290 controls from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study in the United States.
Results
Cystatin C level was elevated in HIV-infected individuals; the mean±SD cystatin C level was 0.92±0.22 mg/L in those infected with HIV and 0.76±0.15 mg/L in controls (P<.001). In contrast, both mean creatinine levels and estimated glomerular filtration rates appeared similar in HIV-infected individuals and controls (0.87±0.21 vs 0.85±0.19 mg/dL [to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4] [P=.35] and 110±26 vs 106±23 mL/min/1.73 m2 [P=.06], respectively). Persons with HIV infection were more likely to have a cystatin C level greater than 1.0 mg/L (OR, 9.8; 95% confidence interval, 4.4-22.0 [P<.001]), a threshold demonstrated to be associated with increased risk for death and cardiovascular and kidney disease. Among participants with HIV, potentially modifiable risk factors for kidney disease, hypertension, and low high-density lipoprotein concentration were associated with a higher cystatin C level, as were lower CD4 lymphocyte count and coinfection with hepatitis C virus (all P<.001).
Conclusions
Individuals infected with HIV had substantially worse kidney function when measured by cystatin Clevel compared with HIV-negative controls, whereas mean creatinine levels and estimated glomerular filtration rates were similar. Cystatin C measurement could be a useful clinical tool to identify HIV-infected persons at increased risk for kidney and cardiovascular disease.
doi:10.1001/archinte.167.20.2213
PMCID: PMC3189482  PMID: 17998494
24.  Chiari Type I Malformation in a Pediatric Population 
Pediatric neurology  2009;40(6):449-454.
Objective
The natural history of Chiari I malformation in children remains unclear.
Methods
In this population-based retrospective cohort study, we searched radiology reports from all head and spine MRI scans (n=5248) performed among 741, 815 children under age 20 within Kaiser Northern California, 1997–1998, for Chiari I. We reviewed medical records and imaging studies to determine clinical and radiographic predictors of significant neurologic symptoms defined as moderate to severe headache, neck pain, vertigo or ataxia.
Results
The 51 patients identified with Chiari I represented 1% of children who had head or spine MRI scans performed during the study period. Headache (55%) and neck pain (12%) were the most common symptoms. Syringomyelia was present in 6 patients (12%) at time of initial diagnosis; no new syrinxes developed during follow-up. Older age at time of diagnosis was associated with increased risk of headache (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1–1.5) and significant neurologic symptoms (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.04–1.4).
Conclusions
Chiari I, an under-recognized cause of headaches in children, is also frequently discovered incidentally in children without symptoms. Larger and longer-term studies are needed to determine the prognosis and optimal treatment of pediatric Chiari I.
doi:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2009.01.003
PMCID: PMC3176758  PMID: 19433279
25.  The Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM): Methods, Design, and Sample Characteristics 
American journal of epidemiology  2006;163(9):860-869.
The Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM), initiated in 2000, investigates the prevalence and correlates of changes in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men and women compared with a population-based group of control men and women. Between June 2000 and September 2002, 1,480 participants (1,183 HIV-infected persons and 297 controls) were enrolled in FRAM. Measurements taken included whole-body magnetic resonance imaging for quantification of regional fat, anthropometric measurements, central laboratory analysis of metabolites, and assessment of symptoms, sociodemographic factors, and lifestyle. Similar measurements were repeated among FRAM participants 4 years later (FRAM 2) for investigation of the progression of fat distribution changes, insulin resistance, and hyperlipidemia. In FRAM 2, which is ongoing, investigators are also determining the associations of subclinical cardiovascular disease, as measured by carotid intimal-medial wall thickness, with HIV infection, fat distribution changes, insulin resistance, and other proatherogenic changes in serum lipid levels. The demographic characteristics of HIV-infected FRAM men and women were comparable to those reported from a national random sampling of HIV-infected men and women receiving medical care in the United States. The representativeness of the FRAM sample increases its value as a resource for studies on fat distribution, metabolic changes, and atherosclerosis in HIV infection.
doi:10.1093/aje/kwj111
PMCID: PMC3170407  PMID: 16524955
body fat distribution; dyslipidemias; HIV infections; insulin resistance; lipodystrophy; metabolism

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