While studies of alternative pre-mRNA splicing regulation have typically focused on RNA-binding proteins and their target sequences within nascent message, it is becoming increasingly evident that mRNA splicing, RNA polymerase II (pol II) elongation and chromatin structure are intricately intertwined. The majority of introns in higher eukaryotes are excised prior to transcript release in a manner that is dependent on transcription through pol II. As a result of co-transcriptional splicing, variations in pol II elongation influence alternative splicing patterns, wherein a slower elongation rate is associated with increased inclusion of alternative exons within mature mRNA. Physiological barriers to pol II elongation, such as repressive chromatin structure, can thereby similarly impact splicing decisions. Surprisingly, pre-mRNA splicing can reciprocally influence pol II elongation and chromatin structure. Here, we highlight recent advances in co-transcriptional splicing that reveal an extensive network of coupling between splicing, transcription and chromatin remodeling complexes.
alternative pre-mRNA splicing; chromatin; transcription elongation; RNA polymerase II
Protection of cells from oxidative insult may be possible through direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species, or through stimulation of intracellular antioxidant defense mechanisms by induction of antioxidant gene expression. In this study we investigated the cytoprotective effect of chamomile and elucidated the underlying mechanisms.
The cytoprotective effect of chamomile was examined on H2O2-induced cellular stress in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.
RAW 264.7 murine macrophages treated with chamomile were protected from cell death caused by H2O2. Treatment with 50 μM H2O2 for 6 h caused significant increase in cellular stress accompanied by cell death in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Pretreatment with chamomile at 10-20 μg/mL for 16 h followed by H2O2 treatment protected the macrophages against cell death. Chamomile exposure significantly increased the expression of antioxidant enzymes viz. heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx-1), and thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) in a dose-dependent manner, compared with their respective controls. Chamomile increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 with increased phosphorylated Nrf2 levels, and binding to the antioxidant response element in the nucleus.
These molecular findings for the first time provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the induction of phase 2 enzymes through the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway by chamomile, and provide evidence that chamomile possesses antioxidant and cytoprotective properties.
chamomile; macrophages; phase II enzymes; oxidative stress; antioxidant defense; inflammation
Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)-3 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) are important signaling pathways constitutively activated during inflammation. We previously reported that high-fat diet (HFD) intake induces oxidative stress in the prostate through elevated expression of NADPH oxidase subunits causing NF-κB activation. We sought to determine whether Stat-3 is involved in the activation of NF-κB in the prostate as a result of HFD feeding, leading to inflammation.
C57BL/6 mice were either fed with regular diet (RD) or HFD for 4 and 8 weeks. Plasma cytokine levels were determined by multiplex analysis. Western blotting was performed to determine the expression of NF-κB, Stat-3, Akt, PDK1, PKCε and their phosphorylated forms along with pathologic evaluation of the prostate. Immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assay were conducted to study the association between Stat-3 and NF-κB.
C57BL/6 mice fed with HFD showed a significant increase in the plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and TNFα after 4 and 8 weeks of feeding, compared with RD controls. HFD feeding elevated the intraprostatic expression of IL-6 and caused activation of PKCε and Akt, the upstream kinase regulating Stat-3 and NF-κB. Nuclear extracts from the prostates of mice fed with HFD exhibited constitutively activated levels of Stat-3 and NF-κB/p65. Increased association between the activated forms of Stat-3 and NF-κB/p65 was observed in the nucleus as a result of HFD feeding, a finding that was accompanied by morphologic evidence of increased intraprostatic inflammation.
Our findings suggest that HFD activates Stat-3 and NF-κB/p65 in the prostate, and their interaction is associated with increased inflammation in the prostate.
inflammation; high-fat diet; prostate; Stat-3; NF-κB
Disease aggressiveness remains a critical factor to the progression of prostate cancer. Transformation of epithelial cells to mesenchymal lineage, associated with the loss of E-cadherin, offers significant invasive potential and migration capability. Recently, Special AT-rich binding protein (SATB1) has been linked to tumor progression. SATB1 is a cell-type restricted nuclear protein, which functions as a tissue-specific organizer of DNA sequences during cellular differentiation. Our results demonstrate that SATB1 plays significant role in prostate tumor invasion and migration and its nuclear localization correlates with disease aggressiveness. Clinical specimen analysis showed that SATB1 was predominantly expressed in the nucleus of high-grade tumors compared to low-grade tumor and benign tissue. A progressive increase in the nuclear levels of SATB1 was observed in cancer tissues compared to benign specimens. Similarly, SATB1 protein levels were higher in a number of prostate cancer cells viz. HPV-CA-10, DU145, DUPro, PC-3, PC-3M, LNCaP and C4-2B, compared to non-tumorigenic PZ-HPV-7 cells. Nuclear expression of SATB1 was higher in biologically aggressive subclones of prostate cancer cells with their respective parental cell lines. Furthermore, ectopic SATB1 transfection conferred increased cell motility and invasiveness in immortalized human prostate epithelial PZ-HPV-7 cells which correlated with the loss of E-cadherin expression. Consequently, knockdown of SATB1 in highly aggressive human prostate cancer PC-3M cells inhibited invasiveness and tumor growth in vivo along with increase in E-cadherin protein expression. Our findings demonstrate that SATB1 has ability to promote prostate cancer aggressiveness through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Epigenetic silencing of gluthathione-S-transferase pi (GSTP1) is recognized as being a molecular hallmark of human prostate cancer. We investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on GSTP1 re-expression and further elucidated its mechanism of action and long-term safety, compared with nucleoside-analog inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), 5-aza-2′deoxycitidine. Exposure of human prostate cancer LNCaP cells to 1–10μg/mL of GTP for 1–7 days caused a concentration- and time-dependent re-expression of GSTP1 which correlated with DNMT1 inhibition. Methyl-specific-PCR and sequencing revealed extensive demethylation in the proximal GSTP1 promoter and regions distal to the transcription factor binding sites. GTP exposure in a time-dependent fashion diminished the mRNA and protein levels of MBD1, MBD4 and MeCP2; HDAC 1–3 and increased the levels of acetylated histone H3 (LysH9/18) and H4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that cells treated with GTP have reduced MBD2 association with accessible Sp1 binding sites leading to increased binding and transcriptional activation of the GSTP1 gene. Exposure of cells to GTP did not result in global hypomethylation, as demonstrated by methyl-specific PCR for LINE-1 promoter; rather, GTP promotes maintenance of genomic integrity. Furthermore, exposure of cells to GTP did not cause activation of the pro-metaststic gene S100P, a reverse response noted after exposure of cells to 5-aza-2′deoxycitidine. Our results, for the first time, demonstrate that GTP has dual potential to alter DNA methylation and chromatin modeling, the two global epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation, and their lack of toxicity makes them excellent candidates for the chemoprevention of prostate cancer.
prostate cancer; GSTP1; chemoprevention; DNA methylation; histone modification; epigenetics
Chamomile has long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation-related disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of chamomile on nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and to explore its potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms using RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile treatment inhibited LPS-induced NO production and significantly blocked IL-1β , IL-6 and TNFα-induced NO levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Chamomile caused reduction in LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, LPS-induced DNA binding activity of RelA/p65 was significantly inhibited by chamomile, an effect that was mediated through the inhibition of IKKβ , the upstream kinase regulating NF-κ B/Rel activity, and degradation of inhibitory factor-κ B. These results demonstrate that chamomile inhibits NO production and iNOS gene expression by inhibiting RelA/p65 activation and supports the utilization of chamomile as an effective anti-inflammatory agent.
inflammation; nitric oxide; chamomile; nuclear factor-κ B; macrophages; pro-inflammatory cytokines
Forkhead box transcription factor FOXO3A is an important regulator of cellular function, is thought to act as a tumor suppressor. We studied whether alterations in FOXO3A activity occur in prostate tumorigenesis. Our studies demonstrate that FOXO3A activity is negatively regulated by Akt/PKB through posttranslational modifications. In prostate cancer cells, Akt activation causes increased accumulation of FOXO3A and its binding chaperone protein 14-3-3 in the cytosol. Higher levels of FOXO3A in the cytosol correlated with phosphorylation at Ser253, which accounted for its nuclear exclusion. Dominant negative Akt approach in PC-3 cells increased FOXO3A accumulation in the nucleus, causing upregulation of the downstream target, MnSOD. Conversely, stable DU145-Akt over-expressing cells exhibited decreased FOXO3A levels in the nucleus. Similar findings were noted in prostate tumor specimens, in which marked cytoplasmic accumulation of FOXO3A and 14-3-3 in prostate tumors was observed with increasing Gleason grade, in contrast to exclusively nuclear accumulation in benign prostate cells. These findings correlate with decreased FOXO3A DNA binding activity along with down modulation of FOXO3A transcriptional activity with increasing tumor grade. Our findings demonstrate that tumor associated alterations and redistribution of FOXO3A are frequent events in the etiology of prostate cancer.
Forkhead transcription factor; prostate cancer; tumor suppressor; Akt/PKB; 14-3-3
Apigenin, a naturally occurring plant flavone, abundantly present in common fruits and vegetables is recognized as a bioactive flavonoid shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. Epidemiologic studies suggest that a diet rich in flavones is related to a decreased risk of certain cancers, particularly cancers of the breast, digestive tract, skin, prostate and certain hematological malignancies. It has been suggested that apigenin may be protective in other diseases that are affected by oxidative process such as cardiovascular and neurological disorders, although more research needs to be conducted in this regard. Human clinical trials examining the effect of supplementation of apigenin on disease prevention have not been conducted although there is considerable potential for apigenin to be developed as a cancer chemopreventive agent.
apigenin; chemoprevention; flavonoids; apoptosis; cell cycle
Development of chemoresistance in androgen-refractory prostate cancer cells is partly due to constitutive activation of Rel/NF-κB transcription factors that regulate several cell survival and anti-apoptotic genes. In this study we examined whether betulinic acid (BetA), a pentacyclic triterpene from the bark of white birch, is effective in inhibiting NF-κB expression in androgen-refractory human prostate cancer cells exhibiting high constitutive NF-κB expression. Treatment of PC-3 cells with BetA inhibited DNA binding and reduced nuclear levels of the NF-κB/p65. BetA-mediated NF-κB inhibition involved decreased IKK activity and phosphorylation of IκBα at serine 32/36 followed by its degradation. Reporter assays revealed that NF-κB inhibition by BetA is transcriptionally active. These effects were found to correlate with a shift in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleavage of poly(ADP)ribose polymerase more towards apoptosis. BetA also inhibited TNFα-induced activation of NF-κB via the IκBα pathway, thereby sensitizing the cells to TNFα-induced apoptosis. Our studies demonstrate that BetA effectively inhibits constitutive NF-κB activation and supports the rationale for targeting NF-κB through combination protocols with BetA in androgen-refractory prostate cancer.
transcription factor; betulinic acid; IκBα; IKK; prostate cancer
Deregulation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I/IGF-IR signaling has been implicated in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Agents that can suppress the mitogenic activity of the IGF/IGF-IR growth axis may be of preventive or therapeutic value. We have previously demonstrated that apigenin, a plant flavone, modulates IGF signaling through upregulation of IGFBP-3. In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of apigenin action on the IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway. Exposure of human prostate cancer DU145 cells to apigenin markedly reduced IGF-I-stimulated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. Apigenin inhibited IGF-I-induced activation of IGF-IR and Akt in DU145 cells. Similar growth inhibitory and apoptotic responses were observed in PC-3 cells, which constitutively over-express this pathway. This effect of apigenin appears to be due partially to reduced autophosphorylation of IGF-IR. Inhibition of p-Akt by apigenin resulted in decreased phosphorylation of GSK-3β along with decreased expression of cyclin D1 and increased expression of p27/kip1. In vivo administration of apigenin to PC-3 tumor xenografts inhibited tumor growth, resulted in IGF-IR inactivation and dephosphorylation of Akt and its downstream signaling. These results suggest that inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis by apigenin are mediated, at least in part, by its ability to inhibit IGF/IGF-IR signaling and the PI3K/Akt pathway.
prostate cancer; apigenin; IGF-I; IGF-IR; PI3K-Akt; glycogen synthase kinase-3
Inappropriate activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase–Akt signaling contributes to the development of several human malignancies. Modulation of Akt activity is a strategy that may be valuable in chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic regimens. We have previously demonstrated that apigenin, a plant flavone, causes decreased survival in human prostate cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this observation remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of apigenin action on human prostate cancer PC-3 cells, which possess constitutively active Akt. Treatment of PC-3 cells with apigenin (5–40 μM) resulted in significant dose- and time-dependent decrease in Akt phosphorylation at Serine473. Apigenin-mediated dephosphorylation of Akt resulted in inhibition of its kinase activity, which was confirmed by reduced phosphorylation of proapoptotic proteins BAD and glycogen synthase kinase-3, essential downstream targets of Akt. Hypophosphorylation of BAD resulted in reduced interaction with 14-3-3β protein after 20 μM apigenin exposure to PC-3 cells for 24 h. Inactivation of Akt seems to be associated with downregulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 protein level and inhibition of its autophosphorylation upon apigenin treatment. Exposure to apigenin significantly induced caspase-9 activity and decreased the survival of PC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Serine473 phosphorylation of ectopically expressed Akt in DU145 cells was significantly reduced upon 20 μM apigenin treatment. In vivo, apigenin intake through gavage resulted in inactivation of Akt and induction of apoptosis in PC-3 tumors. These results suggest that Akt inactivation and dephosphorylation of BAD is a critical event, at least in part, in apigenin-induced decreased cell survival and apoptosis.
Our previous findings have shown that systemic administration of IL-1β induces up-regulation of NF-κB in mouse prostate tissue that may be responsible for leukocyte extravasation into prostate stroma. It has been hypothesized that NF-κB plays a role in the development of prostatitis, and that NF-κB activation might provide chemoattractive signals for leukocyte extravasation in the prostate.
IL-1β was administrated intravenously, alone or with dexamethasone, to separate groups of C57BL/6J mice. Expression of NF-κB, chemoattractant receptors, and IL-17F in the two groups of mouse prostates were evaluated and compared.
IL-1β administration up-regulated NF-κB/p65 activity in the mouse prostate. IL-1β administration promoted extravasation and accumulation of CD45+ mononuclear cells but not neutrophils in the mouse prostate stroma. IL-1β administration provided earlier (4 h) CXCR1/IL-8RA receptor expression in mouse prostate as a first signal, inducing capillary homing, adhesion and initial extravasation of mononuclear cells into the prostate tissue. IL-1β administration also induced relatively late (24 h) up-regulation of VCAM1 in the endothelial cells of microvessels and of IL-17F in prostate epithelium and in stromal infiltrating leukocytes. Concomitant administration of dexamethasone, a NF-κB inhibitor, resulted in significantly down-regulated IL-1β-induced NF-κB/p65 activity, as well as reduced expression of chemokine receptors and IL-17F in mouse prostate.
Systemic IL-1β administration induces aberrant NF-κB/p65 activity, which may be critical in the development of prostatitis through its role in the production of chemoattractant signals promoting extravasation and stromal accumulation of mononuclear cells and initiation of a new wave of pro-inflammatory signals favorable to chronic inflammation.
NF-κB; Prostate; IL-1β; CXCR4; IL-17F; Mouse
Inappropriate activation of PI3K/Akt signaling contributes to the development of several human malignancies. Modulation of Akt activity is a strategy that may be valuable in chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic regimens. We have previously demonstrated that apigenin, a plant flavone, causes decreased survival in human prostate cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this observation remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of apigenin action on human prostate cancer PC-3 cells, which possess constitutively active Akt. Treatment of PC-3 cells with apigenin (5–40µM) resulted in significant dose- and time- dependent decrease in Akt phosphorylation at Serine473. Apigenin-mediated dephosphorylation of Akt resulted in inhibition of its kinase activity, which was confirmed by reduced phosphorylation of pro-apoptotic proteins BAD and glycogen synthase kinase-3, essential downstream targets of Akt. Hypophosphorylation of BAD resulted in reduced interaction with 14-3-3β protein after 20µM apigenin exposure to PC-3 cells for 24 h. Inactivation of Akt seems to be associated with downregulation of insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 protein level and inhibition of its autophosphorylation upon apigenin treatment. Exposure to apigenin significantly induced caspase-9 activity and decreased the survival of PC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Serine473 phosphorylation of ectopically expressed Akt in DU145 cells was significantly reduced upon 20µM apigenin treatment. In vivo, apigenin intake through gavage resulted in inactivation of Akt and induction of apoptosis in PC-3 tumors. These results suggest that Akt inactivation and dephosphorylation of BAD is a critical event, at least in part, in apigenin-induced decreased cell survival and apoptosis.
prostate cancer; apigenin; PI3K-Akt; BAD; glycogen synthase kinase-3
Apigenin, a plant flavone, potentially activates wild-type p53 and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. We conducted detailed studies to understand its mechanism of action. Exposure of human prostate cancer 22Rv1 cells, harboring wild-type p53, to growth-suppressive concentrations (10–80 μM) of apigenin resulted in the stabilization of p53 by phosphorylation on critical serine sites, p14ARF-mediated downregulation of MDM2 protein, inhibition of NF-κB/p65 transcriptional activity, and induction of p21/WAF-1 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apigenin at these doses resulted in ROS generation, which was accompanied by rapid glutathione depletion, disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, cytosolic release of cytochrome c, and apoptosis. Interestingly, we observed accumulation of a p53 fraction to the mitochondria, which was rapid and occurred between 1 and 3 h after apigenin treatment. All these effects were significantly blocked by pretreatment of cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α, and enzyme catalase. Apigenin-mediated p53 activation and apoptosis were further attenuated by p53 antisense oligonucleotide treatment. Exposure of cells to apigenin led to a decrease in the levels of Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 and increase in Bax, triggering caspase activation. Treatment with the caspase inhibitors Z-VAD-FMK and DEVD-CHO partially rescued these cells from apigenin-induced apoptosis. In vivo, apigenin administration demonstrated p53-mediated induction of apoptosis in 22Rv1 tumors. These results indicate that apigenin-induced apoptosis in 22Rv1 cells is initiated by a ROS-dependent disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential through transcriptional-dependent and -independent p53 pathways.
Reactive oxygen species; Apoptosis; p53; Prostate cancer; Apigenin; Free radicals
Aberrant nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human malignancies. In this study, we determined whether NF-κB is constitutively activated in human prostate adenocarcinoma, and, if so, whether increased NF-κB activation and its binding to DNA influence tumor progression. Using tissue samples obtained during transurethral prostatic resection and paraffin-embedded sections of benign and cancer specimens, we determined the nuclear expression of NF-κB/p65 and NF-κB/p50, cytoplasmic expression of IκBα, its phosphorylation, and expression of NF-κB-regulated genes, specifically Bcl2, cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). A progressive increase in the expression of NF-τB/p65 (but not of p50) was observed in cancer specimens compared to benign tissue, which correlated with increasing levels of IτBα and its phosphorylation. NF-τB DNA-binding activity increased with increasing tumor grade and the binding complex mainly consisted of NF-τB/p65-p50 heterodimers. Immunohistochemical analysis showed enhanced nuclear staining for NF-τB/p65 in both high-grade (P < .0001) and low-grade (P < .003) cancer specimens, compared to benign tissue. The nuclear levels of NF-τB/p65 correlated with concurrent increase in cytosolic levels of IτBα along with NF-τB-dependent expression of Bcl2, cyclin D1, MMP-9, and VEGF. These results demonstrate that NF-τB/p65 is constitutively activated in human prostate adenocarcinoma and is related to tumor progression due to transcriptional regulation of NF-τB-responsive genes.
Nuclear factor-κB; NF-κB-responsive genes; prostate cancer; IκB; Rel A
In the present study the antioxidative potential ofMomordica charantia, Azadirachta indica, Allium sativum andOcimum sanctum was assessed in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Lipid peroxide levels were also measured in normal, diabetic and treated animals. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly higher and antioxidant activity was found low in diabetic groups as compared to the control groups, and significant alteration in both the MDA levels and antioxidant activity was also observed when the above herbal hypoglycemic agents were given to diabetic rats. On the basis of our results we conclude thatM. charantia, A. indica, A. sativum andO. sanctum are not only useful in controlling the lipid peroxide levels but are also helpful in further strengthening the antioxidant potential.
Free radicals; diabetes mellitus; antioxidants; herbal hypoglycemic agents