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1.  Diffusion-controlled reaction rates for two active sites on a sphere 
BMC Biophysics  2014;7:3.
Background
The diffusion-limited reaction rate of a uniform spherical reactant is generalized to anisotropic reactivity. Previous work has shown that the protein model of a uniform sphere is unsatisfactory in many cases. Competition of ligands binding to two active sites, on a spherical enzyme or cell is studied analytically.
Results
The reaction rate constant is given for two sites at opposite ends of the species of interest. This is compared with twice the reaction rate for a single site. It is found that the competition between sites lowers the reaction rate over what is expected for two sites individually. Competition between sites does not show up, until the site half angle is greater than 30 degrees.
Conclusions
Competition between sites is negligible until the site size becomes large. The competitive effect grows as theta becomes large. The maximum effect is given for theta = pi/2.
doi:10.1186/2046-1682-7-3
PMCID: PMC4058695  PMID: 24982756
2.  Effect of Particle Size, Density and Shape on Margination of Nanoparticles in Microcirculation 
Nanotechnology  2011;22(11):115101.
In the recent past, remarkable advances in nanotechnology have generated nanoparticles of different shapes and sizes, which have been shown to exhibit unique properties suitable for biomedical applications such as cancer therapy and imaging. Obviously, all nanoparticles are not made equal. This becomes evident when we consider their transport behavior under blood flow in microcirculation. In this work, we evaluated the effect of critical physical characteristics such as the particle shape, size and density on a nanoparticle’s tendency to marginate towards the vessel walls in microcirculation using an in vitro model. The wall-deposition of nanoparticles was tested in a fibronectin-coated microfluidic channel at a physiologically relevant flow rate. Different classes of nanoparticles (liposome, metal particles) of different sizes (60–130 nm), densities (1–19 g/mL) and shapes (sphere, rod) displayed significantly different deposition as a result of different margination rates. The smaller-sized and the oblate-shaped particles displayed a favorable behavior as indicated by their higher margination rates. Notably, the particle density showed an even more essential role, as it was observed that the lighter particles marginated significantly more. Since nanoparticles must escape the flow in order to approach the vascular bed and subsequently extravascular components for meaningful interactions, the design of nanoparticles strongly affects their margination, a key factor for their ultimate in vivo effectiveness.
PMCID: PMC3530262  PMID: 21387846
Margination; drifting; nanoparticles; microfluidic channel; tumor microcirculation; nanoparticle shape; nanoparticle size; nanoparticle density
3.  Mannose-Binding Lectin Binds to Amyloid β Protein and Modulates Inflammation 
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a soluble factor of the innate immune system, is a pattern recognition molecule with a number of known ligands, including viruses, bacteria, and molecules from abnormal self tissues. In addition to its role in immunity, MBL also functions in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. We present evidence here that MBL binds to amyloid β peptides. MBL binding to other known carbohydrate ligands is calcium-dependent and has been attributed to the carbohydrate-recognition domain, a common feature of other C-type lectins. In contrast, we find that the features of MBL binding to Aβ are more similar to the reported binding characteristics of the cysteine-rich domain of the unrelated mannose receptor and therefore may involve the MBL cysteine-rich domain. Differences in MBL ligand binding may contribute to modulation of inflammatory response and may correlate with the function of MBL in processes such as coagulation and tissue homeostasis.
doi:10.1155/2012/929803
PMCID: PMC3322523  PMID: 22536027
4.  Changes in Physiology before, during, and after Yawning 
The ultimate function of yawning continues to be debated. Here, we examine physiological measurements taken before, during, and after yawns in humans, in an attempt to identify key proximate mechanisms associated with this behavior. In two separate studies we measured changes in heart rate, lung volume, eye closure, skin conductance, ear pulse, respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and respiratory rate. Data were depicted from 75 s before and after yawns, and analyzed at baseline, during, and immediately following yawns. Increases in heart rate, lung volume, and eye muscle tension were observed during or immediately following yawning. Patterns of physiological changes during yawning were then compared to data from non-yawning deep inhalations. In one study, respiration period increased following the execution of a yawn. Much of the variance in physiology surrounding yawning was specific to the yawning event. This was not the case for deep inhalation. We consider our findings in light of various hypotheses about the function of yawning and conclude that they are most consistent with the brain cooling hypothesis.
doi:10.3389/fnevo.2011.00007
PMCID: PMC3251816  PMID: 22319494
yawning; thermoregulation; temperature; brain cooling; heart rate; respiration; physiology
5.  Synthesis and characterization of complexes of the {ReO}3+ core with SNS and S donor ligands 
Inorganica chimica acta  2000;306(1):30-37.
The reaction of [ReOCl3(PPh3)2] with N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)benzylamine and 4-bromobenzenethiol allowed for the isolation of [ReO{η3-(SCH2CH2)2N(CH2C6H5)}-(η1-C6H4Br-4-S)] (1). The reaction of [ReOCl3(PPh3)2] with [(HSCH2CH2)2N(CH2C5H4N)] and the appropriate thiol in chloroform treated with triethylamine has led to the isolation of a series of neutral rhenium complexes of the type [ReO{η3-(SCH2CH2)2N(CH2C5H4N)}(η1-C6H4X-4-S)] (X = Br (2), Cl (3), F (4), and OCH3 (5)) and [ReO{η3-(SCH2CH2)2N(CH2C5H4N)}(η1-C6H4OCH3-4-CH2S)] (6). Likewise, under similar reaction conditions, the use of the related tridentate ligand, [(HSCH2CH2)2N(CH2CH2C5H4N)], has led to the isolation of a series of rhenium complexes of the type [ReO{η3-(SCH2CH2)2N(CH2CH2C5H4N)}(η1-C6H4X-4-S)] (X=Br (7), Cl (8), OCH3 (9)), as well as [ReO{η3-(SCH2CH2)2N(CH2CH2C5H4N)}(η1-C6H4Cl-4-CH2S)]·0.5CH3(CH2)4CH3 (10). These compounds are extensions of the ‘3+1’ approach to the synthesis of materials with the {MO}3+ core (M=Tc and Re), which have applications in nuclear medicine. The ligands chosen allow systematic exploration of the consequences of para-substitution on the monodentate thiolate ligand [S] and of derivatization of the substituent R on the tridentate aminodithiol ligand [SNS] of the type (HSCH2CH2)2NR. Such modifications can influence lipophilicity, charge, size and molecular weight of the complex and consequently the biodistribution.
doi:10.1016/S0020-1693(00)00144-4
PMCID: PMC2901872  PMID: 20628539
Crystal structure; Rhenium complexes; Oxo complexes; SNS-donor ligand complexes; S-donor ligand complexes
6.  Yawning and Stretching Predict Brain Temperature Changes in Rats: Support for the Thermoregulatory Hypothesis 
Recent research suggests that yawning is an adaptive behavior that functions to promote brain thermoregulation among homeotherms. To explore the relationship between brain temperature and yawning we implanted thermocoupled probes in the frontal cortex of rats to measure brain temperature before, during and after yawning. Temperature recordings indicate that yawns and stretches occurred during increases in brain temperature, with brain temperatures being restored to baseline following the execution of each of these behaviors. The circulatory changes that accompany yawning and stretching may explain some of the thermal similarities surrounding these events. These results suggest that yawning and stretching may serve to maintain brain thermal homeostasis.
doi:10.3389/fnevo.2010.00108
PMCID: PMC2965053  PMID: 21031034
yawning; stretching; thermoregulation; brain cooling; brain temperature
7.  Unfavourable prognosis associated with K‐ras gene mutation in pancreatic cancer surgical margins 
Gut  2006;55(11):1598-1605.
Background
Despite intent to cure surgery with negative resection margins, locoregional recurrence is common in pancreatic cancer.
Aims
To determine whether detection of K‐ras gene mutation in the histologically negative surgical margins of pancreatic cancer reflects unrecognised disease.
Patients
Seventy patients who underwent curative resection for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma were evaluated.
Methods
All patients had surgical resection margins (pancreatic transection and retroperitoneal) that were histologically free of invasive cancer. DNA was extracted from these paraffin embedded surgical margins and assessed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to detect the K‐ras gene mutation at codon 12. Detection of K‐ras mutation was correlated with standard clinicopathological factors.
Results
K‐ras mutation was detected in histologically negative surgical margins of 37 of 70 (53%) patients. A significant difference in overall survival was demonstrated between patients with margins that were K‐ras mutation positive compared with negative (median 15 v 55 months, respectively; p = 0.0008). By univariate and multivariate analyses, detection of K‐ras mutation in the margins was a significant prognostic factor for poor survival (hazard ratio (HR) 2.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–5.3), p = 0.0009; and HR 2.8 (95% CI 1.4–5.5), p = 0.004, respectively).
Conclusions
Detection of cells harbouring K‐ras mutation in histologically negative surgical margins of pancreatic cancer may represent unrecognised disease and correlates with poor disease outcome. The study demonstrates that molecular‐genetic evaluation of surgical resection margins can improve pathological staging and prognostic evaluation of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
doi:10.1136/gut.2005.083063
PMCID: PMC1860104  PMID: 16682430
K‐ras; pancreatic cancer; surgical margin; quantitative polymerase chain reaction
8.  Imaging amyloid deposition in Lewy body diseases 
Neurology  2008;71(12):903-910.
Background:
Extrapyramidal motor symptoms precede dementia in Parkinson disease (PDD) by many years, whereas dementia occurs early in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite this clinical distinction, the neuropsychological and neuropathologic features of these conditions overlap. In addition to widespread distribution of Lewy bodies, both diseases have variable burdens of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer disease (AD).
Objectives:
To determine whether amyloid deposition, as assessed by PET imaging with the β-amyloid–binding compound Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), can distinguish DLB from PDD, and to assess whether regional patterns of amyloid deposition correlate with specific motor or cognitive features.
Methods:
Eight DLB, 7 PDD, 11 Parkinson disease (PD), 15 AD, and 37 normal control (NC) subjects underwent PiB-PET imaging and neuropsychological assessment. Amyloid burden was quantified using the PiB distribution volume ratio.
Results:
Cortical amyloid burden was higher in the DLB group than in the PDD group, comparable to the AD group. Amyloid deposition in the PDD group was low, comparable to the PD and NC groups. Relative to global cortical retention, occipital PiB retention was lower in the AD group than in the other groups. For the DLB, PDD, and PD groups, amyloid deposition in the parietal (lateral and precuneus)/posterior cingulate region was related to visuospatial impairment. Striatal PiB retention in the DLB and PDD groups was associated with less impaired motor function.
Conclusions:
Global cortical amyloid burden is high in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) but low in Parkinson disease dementia. These data suggest that β-amyloid may contribute selectively to the cognitive impairment of DLB and may contribute to the timing of dementia relative to the motor signs of parkinsonism.
GLOSSARY
= Automated Anatomic Labeling;
= Alzheimer disease;
= Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center;
= American version of the National Adult Reading Test;
= analysis of covariance;
= Blessed Dementia Scale;
= cerebral amyloid angiopathy;
= Clinical Dementia Rating;
= Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes;
= dementia with Lewy bodies;
= distribution volume ratio;
= Cued Selective Reminding Test;
= Free Selective Reminding Test;
= Hoehn and Yahr;
= Massachusetts General Hospital;
= Mini-Mental State Examination;
= normal control;
= neurofibrillary tangle;
= Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire;
= not significant;
= Parkinson disease;
= Parkinson disease dementia;
= Pittsburgh Compound B;
= region of interest;
= Statistical Parametric Mapping;
= UK Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank Research Center;
= United Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale;
= Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Revised.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000326146.60732.d6
PMCID: PMC2637553  PMID: 18794492
9.  Imaging amyloid deposition in Lewy body diseases 
Neurology  2008;71(12):903-910.
Background
Extrapyramidal motor symptoms precede dementia in Parkinson disease (PDD) by many years, whereas dementia occurs early in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Despite this clinical distinction, the neuropsychological and neuropathologic features of these conditions overlap. In addition to widespread distribution of Lewy bodies, both diseases have variable burdens of neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles characteristic of Alzheimer disease (AD).
Objectives
To determine whether amyloid deposition, as assessed by PET imaging with the β-amyloid–binding compound Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), can distinguish DLB from PDD, and to assess whether regional patterns of amyloid deposition correlate with specific motor or cognitive features.
Methods
Eight DLB, 7 PDD, 11 Parkinson disease (PD), 15 AD, and 37 normal control (NC) subjects underwent PiB-PET imaging and neuropsychological assessment. Amyloid burden was quantified using the PiB distribution volume ratio.
Results
Cortical amyloid burden was higher in the DLB group than in the PDD group, comparable to the AD group. Amyloid deposition in the PDD group was low, comparable to the PD and NC groups. Relative to global cortical retention, occipital PiB retention was lower in the AD group than in the other groups. For the DLB, PDD, and PD groups, amyloid deposition in the parietal (lateral and precuneus)/posterior cingulate region was related to visuospatial impairment. Striatal PiB retention in the DLB and PDD groups was associated with less impaired motor function.
Conclusions
Global cortical amyloid burden is high in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) but low in Parkinson disease dementia. These data suggest that β-amyloid may contribute selectively to the cognitive impairment of DLB and may contribute to the timing of dementia relative to the motor signs of parkinsonism.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000326146.60732.d6
PMCID: PMC2637553  PMID: 18794492
10.  Validation of a survey instrument to assess home environments for physical activity and healthy eating in overweight children 
Background
Few measures exist to measure the overall home environment for its ability to support physical activity (PA) and healthy eating in overweight children. The purpose of this study was to develop and test the reliability and validity of such a measure.
Methods
The Home Environment Survey (HES) was developed to reflect availability, accessibility, parental role modelling, and parental policies related to PA resources, fruits and vegetables (F&V), and sugar sweetened drinks and snacks (SS). Parents of overweight children (n = 219) completed the HES and concurrent behavioural assessments. Children completed the Block Kids survey and wore an accelerometer for one week. A subset of parents (n = 156) completed the HES a second time to determine test-retest reliability. Finally, 41 parent dyads living in the same home (n = 41) completed the survey to determine inter-rater reliability. Initial psychometric analyses were completed to trim items from the measure based on lack of variability in responses, moderate or higher item to scale correlation, or contribution to strong internal consistency. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were completed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Validity was assessed using Pearson correlations between the HES scores and child and parent nutrition and PA.
Results
Eight items were removed and acceptable internal consistency was documented for all scales (α = .66–84) with the exception of the F&V accessibility. The F&V accessibility was reduced to a single item because the other two items did not meet reliability standards. Test-retest reliability was high (r > .75) for all scales. Inter-rater reliability varied across scales (r = .22–.89). PA accessibility, parent role modelling, and parental policies were all related significantly to child (r = .14–.21) and parent (r = .15–.31) PA. Similarly, availability of F&V and SS, parental role modelling, and parental policies were related to child (r = .14–36) and parent (r = .15–26) eating habits.
Conclusion
The HES shows promise as a potentially valid and reliable assessment of the physical and social home environment related to a child's physical activity and eating habits.
doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-3
PMCID: PMC2253552  PMID: 18190709
11.  Heterotopic bone formation within a missile track. 
A case is presented which is thought to be the first described example of heterotopic ossification occurring within the path of a bullet. Although the information was not available from prior medical records, the bullet presumably passed though bone or periosteum, thereby seeding the permanent cavity and facilitating ossification within the surrounding muscle and soft tissue.
Images
PMCID: PMC1342706  PMID: 8733674
12.  Implementation of a Public Health Client Data Base — Lessons Learned 
A Health Department client data base was developed in 1983 in conjunction with City-owned Brackenridge Hospital. From systems analyses through implementation phases, the Health Department's Information Management team worked closely with Hospital Data Processing to insure mutual accessibility of information between the Hospital Admission/Registration system and the Health Department client data base. Shared information facilitates continuity of health care, effective discharge planning, networking/referral, and program evaluation/monitoring. Of particular concern are the numerous problems encountered during the process: Factors ranging from under-estimates of time required to program and actual implementation to functional impact on clinic operations. These underscore the need to realistically and adequately plan the development of a mainframe client data base in a local Health Department.
PMCID: PMC2578579
13.  Austin-Travis County Health Department's Information System 
In response to increased organizational complexity, reduced financial resources and an expanding client population, an Information Management Division was created within the Austin-Travis County Health Department in March 1982.
An important component of this Division is the Information Systems Plan which insures the systematic collection, storage and analysis of data and information used by managers to facilitate decision making and to meet reporting requirements. In addition to providing Public Health Services to the community, the Health Department is responsible for indigent health care. After three years of managing the Medical Assistance Program for indigent care, it became apparent that a shared data base with city-owned Brackenridge Hospital was appropriate to insure continuity of health care, program monitoring/evaluation and effective discharge planning.
PMCID: PMC2578332
14.  SPERMIOGENESIS IN WILD TYPE AND IN A MALE STERILITY MUTANT OF DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1967;32(3):663-675.
Spermiogenesis in the translocation heterozygote T (1; 2H) 25(20) y l 25/FM6 has been studied with the electron microscope and compared with that in wild type males. It appears that the genetic lesion in the male sterility mutant is associated primarily with a failure in differentiation of the head. In wild type flies, the spermatid nucleus assumes a conchoidal shape; chromatin accumulates along the convex surface. Adjacent to the concave surface a large bundle of microtubules runs parallel to the long axis of the spermatid. A single row of microtubules is juxtaposed against the convex surface of the head. As differentiation proceeds, the nucleus elongates, chromatin condenses, and the nucleus is compacted to a final diameter of about 0.3 µ. In the sterile mutant the spermatid nucleus has an irregular or wedge-shaped profile and no concavity is formed, nor is the bundle of microtubules observed. The row of microtubules, however, is usually present around the periphery. The change from lysine-rich to arginine-rich histone in mature wild type sperm does not occur in the sterile male. The substructure of the axial filament and mitochondrial derivatives, however, are similar to those in wild type.
PMCID: PMC2107266  PMID: 6034483
15.  THYMIDINE TRIPHOSPHATE SYNTHESIS IN TETRAHYMENA  
The Journal of Cell Biology  1966;31(2):295-300.
The amount of thymidine-H3 converted to thymidine-H3 monophosphate in 30 min formed the basis for assays of thymidine kinase in cell extracts from Tetrahymena pyriformis. The optimal concentration of adenosine triphosphate is lower than that required by other cell types. Thymidine triphosphate does not exercise any feedback control of the enzyme. Other deoxyprimidine nucleotides were tested, but these also failed to exhibit any feedback inhibition. At suboptimal adenosine triphosphate levels, thymidine triphosphate and other deoxypyrimidine nucleotides stimulate the reaction, suggesting that these nucleotides may act either directly or indirectly as phosphate donors in the crude enzyme preparations. This possibility was affirmed when thymidine triphosphate and deoxycytidine triphosphate were shown to be capable of limited phosphorylation of thymidine. Comparison of enzymatic activities in logarithmically growing culture and stationary phase culture, in which nuclear DNA synthesis has virtually ceased, reveals no change in enzymatic activity. The results suggest that thymidine kinase is a constitutive enzyme in Tetrahymena.
PMCID: PMC2107052  PMID: 19866702
16.  THE DEVELOPMENT OF PIGMENT GRANULES IN THE EYES OF WILD TYPE AND MUTANT DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1966;29(2):223-249.
The eye pigment system in Drosophila melanogaster has been studied with the electron microscope. Details in the development of pigment granules in wild type flies and in three eye color mutants are described. Four different types of pigment granules have been found. Type I granules, which carry ommochrome pigment and occur in both primary and secondary pigment cells of ommatidia, are believed to develop as vesicular secretions by way of the Golgi apparatus. The formation of Type II granules, which are restricted to the secondary pigment cells and contain drosopterin pigments, involves accumulation of 60- to 80-A fibers producing an elliptical granule. Type III granules appear to be empty vesicles, except for small marginal areas of dense material; they are thought to be abnormal entities containing ommochrome pigment. Type IV granules are characteristic of colorless mutants regardless of genotype, and during the course of development they often contain glycogen, ribosomes, and show acid phosphatase activity; for these reasons and because of their bizarre and variable morphology, they are considered to be autophagic vacuoles. The 300-A particles commonly found in pigment cells are identified as glycogen on the basis of their morphology and their sensitivity to salivary digestion.
PMCID: PMC2106902  PMID: 5961338
17.  FINE STRUCTURE OF CELL SURFACE SPECIALIZATIONS IN THE MATURING DUODENAL MUCOSA OF THE CHICK 
The Journal of Cell Biology  1964;21(1):75-85.
Cell surfaces in the duodenal mucosa have been studied in maturing tissue of the chick from incubation until hatching. Changes in the distribution of mitoses in this tissue give an indication of its rate of maturation. This rate is paralleled in developmental changes in microvilli and junctional complexes. Concentration of mitotic figures towards the base of villous folds is gradual from day 9 to day 16, then rapid to day 19, after which the mature pattern is acquired. By day 11, microvilli appear in a regular pattern which does not alter through hatching. Their height remains the same to day 16 when it increases gradually to day 19, then very sharply. The angle formed between the microvilli and the cell surface increases gradually to day 16, giving evidence of advancing internal structure. Changes in cell adhesion also occur at day 16. Thereafter, following trypsin treatment cells are held together in patches by the tight junctions of the terminal bar, although the desmosomes are separated. The timing of these morphological changes is compared with that of alkaline phosphatase accumulation in this tissue as reported by Moog (13). Increase in the surface area of the microvilli parallels the increase in the activity of the enzyme.
PMCID: PMC2106426  PMID: 14154497
18.  THE INSENSITIVITY OF PARAMECIUM TO CYANIDE AND EFFECTS OF IRON ON RESPIRATION 
The Journal of General Physiology  1931;15(1):107-118.
1. The effects of KCN and iron salts on oxygen consumption has been studied in the cell of Paramecium caudatum by manometric methods. 2. KCN solutions of strengths from M/200 to M/10,000 have been shown to produce no decrease in oxygen consumption, but have in most cases produced a very slight increase in the respiration rate. 3. The pH values were found to have little or no effect on these results. 4. Iron salts produce either no effect or a great diminution of oxygen consumption, in no case causing stimulation of rates of respiration. 5. Iron salts in neutral solutions do not penetrate the Paramecium cell nor do they cause so marked an effect as in an acid state. 6. The iron-content of Paramecium was found to be extremely small and not demonstrable by delicate tests. It is believed that iron is not combined in the cell in the form of a respiration-catalyst sensitive to cyanide.
PMCID: PMC2141140  PMID: 19872623
19.  THE RESPIRATION OF LUMINOUS BACTERIA AND THE EFFECT OF OXYGEN TENSION UPON OXYGEN CONSUMPTION 
1. The respiration of luminous bacteria has been studied by colorimetric and manometric methods. 2. Limulus oxyhaemocyanin has been used as a colorimetric indicator of oxygen consumption and indicator dyes were used for colorimetric determination of carbon dioxide production. 3. The Thunberg-Winterstein microrespirometer has been used for the measurement of the rate of oxygen consumption by luminous bacteria at different partial pressures of oxygen. 4. The effect of oxygen concentration upon oxygen consumption has been followed from equilibrium with air to low pressures of oxygen. 5. Luminous bacteria consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide independent of oxygen pressures from equilibrium with air (152 mm.) to approximately 22.80 mm. oxygen or 0.03 atmosphere. 6. Dimming of a suspension of luminous bacteria occurs when oxygen tension is lowered to approximately 2 mm. Hg (0.0026 atmosphere) and when the rate of respiration becomes diminished one-half. 7. Pure nitrogen stops respiratory activity and pure oxygen irreversibly inhibits oxygen consumption. 8. The curve for rate of oxygen consumption with oxygen concentration is similar to curves for adsorption of gasses at catalytic surfaces, and agrees with the Langmuir equation for the expression of the amount of gas adsorbed in unimolecular layer at catalytic surfaces with gas pressure. 9. A constant and maximum rate of oxygen consumption occurs in small cells when oxygen concentration becomes sufficient to entirely saturate the surface of the oxidative catalyst of the cell.
PMCID: PMC2141017  PMID: 19872507
20.  OBSERVATIONS ON LUMINOUS BACTERIA 
Journal of Bacteriology  1929;18(2):95-99.
PMCID: PMC375070  PMID: 16559387

Results 1-20 (20)