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2.  Quantification of virus genes provides evidence for seed-bank populations of phycodnaviruses in Lake Ontario, Canada 
The ISME journal  2010;5(5):810-821.
Using quantitative PCR, the abundances of six phytoplankton viruses DNA polymerase (polB) gene fragments were estimated in water samples collected from Lake Ontario, Canada over 26 months. Four of the polB fragments were most related to marine prasinoviruses, while the other two were most closely related to cultivated chloroviruses. Two Prasinovirus-related genes reached peak abundances of >1000 copies ml−1 and were considered ‘high abundance', whereas the other two Prasinovirus-related genes peaked at abundances <1000 copies ml−1 and were considered ‘low abundance'. Of the genes related to chloroviruses, one peaked at ca 1600 copies ml−1, whereas the other reached only ca 300 copies ml−1. Despite these differences in peak abundance, the abundances of all genes monitored were lowest during the late fall, winter and early spring; during these months the high abundance genes persisted at 100–1000 copies ml−1 while the low abundance Prasinovirus- and Chlorovirus-related genes persisted at fewer than ca 100 copies ml−1. Clone libraries of psbA genes from Lake Ontario revealed numerous Chlorella-like algae and two prasinophytes demonstrating the presence of candidate hosts for all types of viruses monitored. Our results corroborate recent metagenomic analyses that suggest that aquatic virus communities are composed of only a few abundant populations and many low abundance populations. Thus, we speculate that an ecologically important characteristic of phycodnavirus communities is seed-bank populations with members that can become numerically dominant when their host abundances reach appropriate levels.
PMCID: PMC3105761  PMID: 21124493
algal viruses; phycodnaviruses; phytoplankton; DNA polymerase; quantitative PCR; freshwater
3.  Assessing Colonoscopy Training Outcomes Using Quality Indicators 
Training numbers for colonoscopy vary among specialties. Tracking colonoscopy quality indicators for program graduates may provide reliable outcome data to improve educational programs and establish training requirements. The purpose of this study was to measure specific colonoscopy quality indicators for a family medicine graduate to determine if outcome can be used to assess the quality of procedure training and contribute to more objective means of establishing training numbers.
We present a case series of the first 800 colonoscopies performed by a newly credentialed family physician who had performed 101 procedures during residency training. Procedure reports and medical records were reviewed for all patients receiving a colonoscopy by this physician from September 2003 to September 2007. Selected quality indicators were compared to recommended colonoscopy standards.
The overall reach-the-cecum rate was 98.6%. Adenomas were detected in 21.6% of females and 33.7% of males. All polyps measuring less than 2 cm were removed. Epinephrine was used for 3 patients with hemostasis after polypectomy. There were no perforations.
Quality indicators for colonoscopy were met after 101 supervised procedures. Postgraduate tracking of nationally recognized colonoscopy quality indicators can provide valuable outcome data to improve residency training and assist in establishing uniform training requirements among specialties.
PMCID: PMC2931191  PMID: 21975712
4.  Endurance Exercise as a Countermeasure for Aging 
Diabetes  2008;57(11):2933-2942.
OBJECTIVE— We determined whether reduced insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and other age-related dysfunctions are inevitable consequences of aging or secondary to physical inactivity.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and ATP production in mitochondria isolated from vastus lateralis biopsies of 42 healthy sedentary and endurance-trained young (18–30 years old) and older (59–76 years old) subjects. Expression of proteins involved in fuel metabolism was measured by mass spectrometry. Citrate synthase activity, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance, and expression of nuclear-encoded transcription factors for mitochondrial biogenesis were measured. SIRT3, a mitochondrial sirtuin linked to lifespan-enhancing effects of caloric restriction, was measured by immunoblot.
RESULTS— Insulin-induced glucose disposal and suppression of endogenous glucose production were higher in the trained young and older subjects, but no age effect was noted. Age-related decline in mitochondrial oxidative capacity was absent in endurance-trained individuals. Although endurance-trained individuals exhibited higher expression of mitochondrial proteins, mtDNA, and mitochondrial transcription factors, there were persisting effects of age. SIRT3 expression was lower with age in sedentary but equally elevated regardless of age in endurance-trained individuals.
CONCLUSIONS— The results demonstrate that reduced insulin sensitivity is likely related to changes in adiposity and to physical inactivity rather than being an inevitable consequence of aging. The results also show that regular endurance exercise partly normalizes age-related mitochondrial dysfunction, although there are persisting effects of age on mtDNA abundance and expression of nuclear transcription factors and mitochondrial protein. Furthermore, exercise may promote longevity through pathways common to effects of caloric restriction.
PMCID: PMC2570389  PMID: 18716044
5.  Identification of a silencer module which selectively represses cyclic AMP-responsive element-dependent gene expression. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1995;15(11):6139-6149.
The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-inducible promoter from the rat lactate dehydrogenase A subunit gene (LDH A) is associated with a distal negative regulatory element (LDH-NRE) that represses inherent basal and cAMP-inducible promoter activity. The element is of dyad symmetry, consisting of a palindromic sequence with two half-sites, 5'-TCTTG-3'. It represses the expression of an LDH A/chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene in a dose-dependent, orientation- and position-independent fashion, suggesting that it is a true silencer element. Uniquely, it selectively represses cAMP-responsive element (CRE)-dependent transcription but has no effect on promoters lacking a CRE sequence. The repressing action of LDH-NRE could be overcome by cotransfection with LDH A/CAT vector oligonucleotides containing either the LDH-NRE or CRE sequence. This suggests that the reversal of repression was caused by the removal of functional active, limiting transacting factors which associate with LDH-NRE as well as with CRE. Gel mobility shift, footprinting, and Southwestern blotting assays demonstrated the presence of a 69-kDa protein with specific binding activity for LDH-NRE. Additionally, gel supershift assays with anti-CREB and anti-Fos antibodies indicate the presence of CREB and Fos or antigenically closely related proteins with the LDH-NRE/protein complex. We suggest that the LDH-NRE and CRE modules functionally interact to achieve negative modulation of cAMP-responsive LDH A transcriptional activity.
PMCID: PMC230865  PMID: 7565766
6.  Histone H1 gets Pin’d onto chromatin 
PMCID: PMC3798245
7.  MAD2L2 helps mitotic cells take it slow 
PMCID: PMC3798246
8.  Ubiquitin isolates bacterial invaders 
PMCID: PMC3798254
9.  Formin’ the cytokinetic ring 
Study reveals how two formin proteins cooperate to assemble the contractile ring in fission yeast.
Study reveals how two formin proteins cooperate to assemble the contractile ring in fission yeast.
PMCID: PMC3798255
10.  Heparin inhibits Angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction on isolated mouse mesenteric resistance arteries through Rho-A- and PKA-dependent pathways 
Vascular pharmacology  2012;58(4):313-318.
Heparin is commonly used to treat intravascular thrombosis in children undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation or cardiopulmonary bypass. These clinical circumstances are associated with elevated plasma levels of angiotensin II (Ang II). However, the mechanisms by which heparin modulates vascular reactivity of Ang II remain unclear. We hypothesized that heparin may offset Ang II-induced vasoconstriction on mesenteric resistances arteries through modulating the Rho-A/Rho kinase pathway. Vascular contractility was studied using pressurized, resistance-sized mesenteric arteries from mice. Rho-A activation was measured by pull-down assay, and myosin light chain or PKA phosphorylation by immunoblotting. We found that heparin significantly attenuated vasoconstriction induced by Ang II but not that by KCl. The combined effect of Ang II with heparin was almost abolished by a specific Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632. Ang II stimulated Rho-A activation and myosin light chain phosphorylation, both responses were antagonized by heparin. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of heparin on Ang II-induced vasoconstriction was reversed by Rp-cAMPS (cAMP-dependent PKA inhibitor), blunted by ODQ (soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor), and mimicked by a cell-permeable cGMP analogue, 8-Br-cGMP, but not by a cAMP analogue. PKC and Src kinase were not involved. We conclude that heparin inhibits Ang II-induced vasoconstriction through Rho-A/Rho kinase- and cGMP/PKA-dependent pathways.
PMCID: PMC3606668  PMID: 23268358
Ang II; heparin; resistance arteries; Rho-A/Rho kinase; vascular tone
11.  RNA granules act as egg timers 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2013;202(7):986.
PMCID: PMC3787374
12.  KASH5 helps meiotic chromosomes LINC up 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2013;202(7):986.
PMCID: PMC3787379
13.  PLP helps the mother centrosome stay mum 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2013;202(7):987.
Protein aids centrosome segregation by limiting centrosome activity in neural stem cells.
Protein aids centrosome segregation by limiting centrosome activity in neural stem cells.
PMCID: PMC3787383
14.  Determining the replication factory settings 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2013;202(7):986.
PMCID: PMC3787385
15.  Linking Neurogenetics and Individual Differences in Language Learning: The Dopamine Hypothesis 
Fundamental advances in neuroscience have come from investigations into neuroplasticity and learning. These investigations often focus on identifying universal principles across different individuals of the same species. Increasingly, individual differences in learning success have also been observed, such that any seemingly universal principle might only be applicable to a certain extent within a particular learner. One potential source of this variation is individuals’ genetic differences. Adult language learning provides a unique opportunity for understanding individual differences and genetic bases of neuroplasticity because of the large individual differences in learning success that have already been documented, and because of the body of empirical work connecting language learning and neurocognition. In this article, we review the literature on the genetic bases of neurocognition, especially studies examining polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes and procedural learning. This review leads us to hypothesize that there may be an association between dopamine-related genetic variation and language learning differences. If this hypothesis is supported by future empirical findings we suggest that it may point to neurogenetic markers that allow for language learning to be personalized.
PMCID: PMC3965203  PMID: 22565204
neurogenetics; procedural learning; dopamine
16.  Children’s symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression after a natural disaster: Comorbidity and risk factors 
Journal of affective disorders  2012;146(1):71-78.
The current study examined rates of comorbidity among children’s symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) and depression after a natural disaster, Hurricane Ike. We also compared children with comorbid symptoms to children without comorbid symptoms, examining recovery, severity of symptoms, and risk factors.
Children (n=277; 52% girls; 38% Hispanic, 28% White, 19% Black; grades 2–4) were assessed at 8 and 15 months postdisaster. Children completed measures of PTS and depressive symptoms at both time points and measures of exposure and recovery stressors at 8 months postdisaster.
At 8 months postdisaster, 13% of children reported elevated PTS-only, 11% depression-only, and 10% comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression. At 15 months postdisaster, 7% of children reported elevated PTS-only, 11% depression-only, and 7% comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression. Children with comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression had poorer recovery, more severe symptoms, and they reported greater exposure and recovery stressors.
We lacked information on children’s predisaster functioning and diagnostic interview of psychological distress symptoms.
Children with comorbid symptoms need to be identified early postdisaster. Levels of stressors should be monitored postdisaster, as highly stressed youth have difficulties recovering and may need help. Interventions should be tailored for children with comorbid symptoms of PTS and depression.
PMCID: PMC3640419  PMID: 22974469
Posttraumatic stress; Depression; Children; Disasters; Stressors
17.  Association of Autoimmune Addison's Disease with Alleles of STAT4 and GATA3 in European Cohorts 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(3):e88991.
Gene variants known to contribute to Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) susceptibility include those at the MHC, MICA, CIITA, CTLA4, PTPN22, CYP27B1, NLRP-1 and CD274 loci. The majority of the genetic component to disease susceptibility has yet to be accounted for.
To investigate the role of 19 candidate genes in AAD susceptibility in six European case-control cohorts.
A sequential association study design was employed with genotyping using Sequenom iPlex technology. In phase one, 85 SNPs in 19 genes were genotyped in UK and Norwegian AAD cohorts (691 AAD, 715 controls). In phase two, 21 SNPs in 11 genes were genotyped in German, Swedish, Italian and Polish cohorts (1264 AAD, 1221 controls). In phase three, to explore association of GATA3 polymorphisms with AAD and to determine if this association extended to other autoimmune conditions, 15 SNPs in GATA3 were studied in UK and Norwegian AAD cohorts, 1195 type 1 diabetes patients from Norway, 650 rheumatoid arthritis patients from New Zealand and in 283 UK Graves' disease patients. Meta-analysis was used to compare genotype frequencies between the participating centres, allowing for heterogeneity.
We report significant association with alleles of two STAT4 markers in AAD cohorts (rs4274624: P = 0.00016; rs10931481: P = 0.0007). In addition, nominal association of AAD with alleles at GATA3 was found in 3 patient cohorts and supported by meta-analysis. Association of AAD with CYP27B1 alleles was also confirmed, which replicates previous published data. Finally, nominal association was found at SNPs in both the NF-κB1 and IL23A genes in the UK and Italian cohorts respectively.
Variants in the STAT4 gene, previously associated with other autoimmune conditions, confer susceptibility to AAD. Additionally, we report association of GATA3 variants with AAD: this adds to the recent report of association of GATA3 variants with rheumatoid arthritis.
PMCID: PMC3948621  PMID: 24614117
18.  Distinct Loci in the CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 Gene Cluster Are Associated With Onset of Regular Smoking 
Stephens, Sarah H. | Hartz, Sarah M. | Hoft, Nicole R. | Saccone, Nancy L. | Corley, Robin C. | Hewitt, John K. | Hopfer, Christian J. | Breslau, Naomi | Coon, Hilary | Chen, Xiangning | Ducci, Francesca | Dueker, Nicole | Franceschini, Nora | Frank, Josef | Han, Younghun | Hansel, Nadia N. | Jiang, Chenhui | Korhonen, Tellervo | Lind, Penelope A. | Liu, Jason | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Michel, Martha | Shaffer, John R. | Short, Susan E. | Sun, Juzhong | Teumer, Alexander | Thompson, John R. | Vogelzangs, Nicole | Vink, Jacqueline M. | Wenzlaff, Angela | Wheeler, William | Yang, Bao-Zhu | Aggen, Steven H. | Balmforth, Anthony J. | Baumeister, Sebastian E. | Beaty, Terri H. | Benjamin, Daniel J. | Bergen, Andrew W. | Broms, Ulla | Cesarini, David | Chatterjee, Nilanjan | Chen, Jingchun | Cheng, Yu-Ching | Cichon, Sven | Couper, David | Cucca, Francesco | Dick, Danielle | Foroud, Tatiana | Furberg, Helena | Giegling, Ina | Gillespie, Nathan A. | Gu, Fangyi | Hall, Alistair S. | Hällfors, Jenni | Han, Shizhong | Hartmann, Annette M. | Heikkilä, Kauko | Hickie, Ian B. | Hottenga, Jouke Jan | Jousilahti, Pekka | Kaakinen, Marika | Kähönen, Mika | Koellinger, Philipp D. | Kittner, Stephen | Konte, Bettina | Landi, Maria-Teresa | Laatikainen, Tiina | Leppert, Mark | Levy, Steven M. | Mathias, Rasika A. | McNeil, Daniel W. | Medland, Sarah E. | Montgomery, Grant W. | Murray, Tanda | Nauck, Matthias | North, Kari E. | Paré, Peter D. | Pergadia, Michele | Ruczinski, Ingo | Salomaa, Veikko | Viikari, Jorma | Willemsen, Gonneke | Barnes, Kathleen C. | Boerwinkle, Eric | Boomsma, Dorret I. | Caporaso, Neil | Edenberg, Howard J. | Francks, Clyde | Gelernter, Joel | Grabe, Hans Jörgen | Hops, Hyman | Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Johannesson, Magnus | Kendler, Kenneth S. | Lehtimäki, Terho | Magnusson, Patrik K.E. | Marazita, Mary L. | Marchini, Jonathan | Mitchell, Braxton D. | Nöthen, Markus M. | Penninx, Brenda W. | Raitakari, Olli | Rietschel, Marcella | Rujescu, Dan | Samani, Nilesh J. | Schwartz, Ann G. | Shete, Sanjay | Spitz, Margaret | Swan, Gary E. | Völzke, Henry | Veijola, Juha | Wei, Qingyi | Amos, Chris | Cannon, Dale S. | Grucza, Richard | Hatsukami, Dorothy | Heath, Andrew | Johnson, Eric O. | Kaprio, Jaakko | Madden, Pamela | Martin, Nicholas G. | Stevens, Victoria L. | Weiss, Robert B. | Kraft, Peter | Bierut, Laura J. | Ehringer, Marissa A.
Genetic epidemiology  2013;37(8):846-859.
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) have been reproducibly associated with nicotine dependence, smoking behaviors, and lung cancer risk. Of the few reports that have focused on early smoking behaviors, association results have been mixed. This meta-analysis examines early smoking phenotypes and SNPs in the gene cluster to determine: (1) whether the most robust association signal in this region (rs16969968) for other smoking behaviors is also associated with early behaviors, and/or (2) if additional statistically independent signals are important in early smoking. We focused on two phenotypes: age of tobacco initiation (AOI) and age of first regular tobacco use (AOS). This study included 56,034 subjects (41 groups) spanning nine countries and evaluated five SNPs including rs1948, rs16969968, rs578776, rs588765, and rs684513. Each dataset was analyzed using a centrally generated script. Meta-analyses were conducted from summary statistics. AOS yielded significant associations with SNPs rs578776 (beta = 0.02, P = 0.004), rs1948 (beta = 0.023, P = 0.018), and rs684513 (beta = 0.032, P = 0.017), indicating protective effects. There were no significant associations for the AOI phenotype. Importantly, rs16969968, the most replicated signal in this region for nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and cotinine levels, was not associated with AOI (P = 0.59) or AOS (P = 0.92). These results provide important insight into the complexity of smoking behavior phenotypes, and suggest that association signals in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster affecting early smoking behaviors may be different from those affecting the mature nicotine dependence phenotype.
PMCID: PMC3947535  PMID: 24186853
CHRNA5; CHRNA3; CHRNB4; meta-analysis; nicotine; smoke
19.  Dietary plant phenolic improves survival of bacterial infection in Manduca sexta caterpillars 
Plant phenolics are generally thought to play significant roles in plant defense against herbivores and pathogens. Many plant taxa, including Solanaceae, are rich in phenolic compounds and some insect herbivores have been shown to acquire phenolics from their hosts to use them as protection against their natural enemies. Here we demonstrate that larvae of an insect specialist on Solanaceae, the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae), acquire the plant phenolic chlorogenic acid (CA), and other caffeic acid derivatives as they feed on one of their hosts, Nicotiana attenuata L. (Solanaceae), and on artificial diet supplemented with CA. We test the hypothesis that larvae fed on CA-supplemented diet would have better resistance against bacterial infection than larvae fed on a standard CA-free diet by injecting bacteria into the hemocoel of fourth instars. Larvae fed CA-supplemented diet show significantly higher survival of infection with Enterococcus faecalis (Andrewes & Horder) Schleifer & Kilpper-Bälz, but not of infection with the more virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter) Migula. Larvae fed on CA-supplemented diet possess a constitutively higher number of circulating hemocytes than larvae fed on the standard diet, but we found no other evidence of increased immune system activity, nor were larvae fed on CA-supplemented diet better able to suppress bacterial proliferation early in the infection. Thus, our data suggest an additional defensive function of CA to the direct toxic inhibition of pathogen proliferation in the gut.
PMCID: PMC3570171  PMID: 23420018
chemical defense; acquired plant metabolite; immune defense; Lepidoptera; Solanaceae; Sphingidae; Nicotiana attenuata; tobacco hornworm; Enterococcus faecalis; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; chlorogenic acid
20.  Dynamic relations between fast-food restaurant and body weight status: a longitudinal and multilevel analysis of Chinese adults 
Mixed findings have been reported on the association between Western fast-food restaurants and body weight status. Results vary across study contexts and are sensitive to the samples, measures and methods used. Most studies have failed to examine the temporally dynamic associations between community exposure to fast-food restaurants and weight changes.
Bayesian hierarchical regressions are used to model changes in body mass index, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHpR) as a function of changes in Western fast-food restaurants in 216 communities for more than 9000 Chinese adults followed up multiple times between 2000 and 2009.
Number of Western fast-food restaurants is positively associated with subsequent increases in WHtR and WHpR among rural population. More fast-food restaurants are positively associated with a future increase in WHpR for urban women. Increased availability of fast food between two waves is related to increased WHtR for urban men over the same period. A past increase in number of fast-food restaurants is associated with subsequent increases in WHtR and WHpR for rural population.
The associations between community exposure to Western fast food and weight changes are temporally dynamic rather than static. Improved measures of exposure to community environment are needed to achieve more precise estimates and better understanding of these relationships. In light of the findings in this study and China’s rapid economic growth, further investigation and increased public health monitoring is warranted since Western fast food is likely to be more accessible and affordable in the near future.
PMCID: PMC3574174  PMID: 22923769
22.  Chest High Frequency Oscillatory Treatment for Severe Atelectasis in a Patient with Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) 
Atelectasis is a significant risk factor for the development of pneumonia, especially in pediatric populations that are more prone to alveolar collapse or those who may have weakened muscular tone. The Metaneb® System is a pneumatic, non-invasive physiotherapy technique that delivers chest high frequency oscillations (CHFO). CHFO has been shown to enhance mucociliary clearance of secretions and help resolve patchy atelectasis. This report describes the case of a 17 year old female who developed significant left sided atelectasis after extubation and was effectively managed with complete resolution of her atelectasis with the Metaneb System, obviating the need for reintubation.
PMCID: PMC3606286  PMID: 23377350
Chest high frequency oscillations; atelectasis
23.  Pharmacogenetics for Genes Associated with Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) in the Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT) 
Ophthalmology  2013;120(3):593-599.
To evaluate the pharmacogenetic relationship between genotypes of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and response to treatment with ranibizumab (Lucentis) or bevacizumab (Avastin) for neovascular AMD.
Clinical trial.
834 (73%) of 1149 patients participating in the Comparison of AMD Treatments Trials (CATT) were recruited through 43 CATT clinical centers.
Each patient was genotyped for SNPs rs1061170 (CFH), rs10490924 (ARMS2), rs11200638 (HTRA1), and rs2230199 (C3), using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays.
Main Outcomes Measures
Genotypic frequencies were compared to clinical measures of response to therapy at one year including mean visual acuity (VA), mean change in VA, ≥15 letter increase, retinal thickness, mean change in total foveal thickness, presence of fluid on OCT, presence of leakage on fluorescein angiography (FA), mean change in lesion size and mean number of injections administered. Differences in response by genotype were evaluated with tests of linear trend calculated from logistic regression models for categorical outcomes and linear regression models for continuous outcomes. To adjust for multiple comparisons, p≤0.01 was considered statistically significant.
No statistically significant differences in response by genotype were identified for any of the clinical measures studied. Specifically, there were no high-risk alleles that predicted final VA or change in VA, the degree of anatomical response (fluid on OCT or FA, retinal thickness, change in total foveal thickness, change in lesion size) or the number of injections. Furthermore, a stepwise analysis failed to show a significant epistatic interaction among the variants analyzed; i.e., response did not vary by the number of risk alleles present. The lack of association was similar whether patients were treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab or whether they received monthly or pro re nata (PRN) dosing.
Although specific alleles for CFH, ARMS2, HTRA1 and C3 may predict the development of AMD, they did not predict response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy.
PMCID: PMC3633658  PMID: 23337555
24.  A Novel Bacillus thuringiensis Cry-Like Protein from a Rare Filamentous Strain Promotes Crystal Localization within the Exosporium 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2013;79(18):5774-5776.
Mutation of a novel cry-like gene (cry256) from Bacillus thuringiensis resulted in a protein crystal, normally located within the spore's exosporium, being found predominately outside the exosporium. The cry256 gene codes for a 3-domain Cry-like protein that does not correspond to any of the known Cry protein holotypes.
PMCID: PMC3754189  PMID: 23851091
25.  Individual characteristics associated with physical activity intervention delivery mode preferences among adults 
People have different preferences on how health behaviour change interventions are delivered to them; intervention implementation, retention and effectiveness may be improved if preferences can be matched.
This study aims to explore factors related to preference of face-to-face, and group-, print- or web-based physical activity intervention delivery modes among adults recruited from the general population.
A question relating to physical activity intervention preference was included in the telephone administered 2010 Queensland Social Survey. Multinomial regression models were used to explore socio-demographic (e.g., age, marital status, location), health (e.g., BMI, chronic disease status) and behavioral factors (e.g., internet use, physical activity, diet, social networking) related to intervention preferences, using ‘a face-to-face intervention’ as the reference category.
35.2% of those approached took part in the telephone interviews (n = 1,261). Preference for a web-based intervention was positively associated with being in the 35–44 age group (compared to the 18–34 age group; RR = 2.71), living in a rural area (RR = 2.01), and high internet use (RR = 1.03); and negatively associated with female gender (RR = 0.52), obesity (RR = 0.42), and higher physical activity participation (RR = 0.99). Preference for a print-based intervention was positively associated with older age (RR = 5.50); and negatively associated with female gender (RR = 0.48) and obesity (RR = 0.47). Preference for a group-based program was positively associated with living in a regional town (RR = 1.48) and negatively associated with being separated (RR = 0.45) and obesity (RR =0.56).
Findings from this study help to delineate what physical activity intervention delivery modes are likely to be appealing for specific target groups, especially in relation to people of different weight status, age, gender and living environment. As such, this information will be useful in the development of interventions targeted at these groups.
PMCID: PMC3938301  PMID: 24568611

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