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author:("skipton, E")
1.  Intranasal sufentanil/midazolam versus ketamine/midazolam for analgesia/sedation in the pediatric population prior to undergoing multiple dental extractions under general anesthesia: a prospective, double-blind, randomized comparison. 
Anesthesia Progress  2004;51(4):114-121.
This article details a double-blind, randomized study evaluating the efficacy and safety of intranasal sufentanil and intranasal midazolam (S/M) when compared with intranasal ketamine and intranasal midazolam (K/M) for sedation and analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing dental surgery. Fifty healthy ASA status 1 children aged 5-7 years, weighing 15-20 kg, and having 6 or more teeth extracted, were randomly allocated to 2 groups of 25 patients each (n = 50). In the S/M group, 25 children received intranasal sufentanil 20 microg, and intranasal midazolam 0.3 mg/kg 20 minutes before the induction of anesthesia. In the K/M group, 25 children received intranasal ketamine 5 mg/kg and intranasal midazolam 0.3 mg/kg 20 minutes before the induction of anesthesia. Sevoflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia. This study demonstrated the safety and efficacy of both methods with ease of administration, combined with a rapid onset of action. Both groups were equally sedated. A smooth mask induction of anesthesia was experienced in the majority of children. Effective postoperative analgesia for multiple dental extractions was provided. The intranasal administration of drugs for sedation and analgesia has some promising features in preschool children undergoing multiple dental extractions.
PMCID: PMC2007493  PMID: 15675259
2.  Beneficial effects of weight loss associated with moderate calorie/carbohydrate restriction, and increased proportional intake of protein and unsaturated fat on serum urate and lipoprotein levels in gout: a pilot study 
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  2000;59(7):539-543.
OBJECTIVES—Insulin resistance (IR) has been increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of gout. The lipoprotein abnormalities described in hyperuricaemic subjects are similar to those associated with IR, and insulin influences renal urate excretion. In this study it was investigated whether dietary measures, reported to be beneficial in IR, have serum uric acid (SU) and lipid lowering effects in gout.
METHODS—Thirteen non-diabetic men (median age 50, range 38-62) were enrolled. Each patient had had at least two gouty attacks during the four months before enrolment. Dietary recommendations consisted of calorie restriction to 6690 kJ (1600 kcal) a day with 40% derived from carbohydrate, 30% from protein, and 30% from fat; replacement of refined carbohydrates with complex ones and saturated fats with mono- and polyunsaturated ones. At onset and after 16 weeks, fasting blood samples were taken for determination of SU, serum cholesterol (C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs). Results were expressed as median (SD).
RESULTS—At onset, the body mass index (BMI) was 30.5 (8.1) kg/m2. Dietary measures resulted in weight loss of 7.7 (5.4) kg (p=0.002) and a decrease in the frequency of monthly attacks from 2.1 (0.8) to 0.6 (0.7) (p=0.002). The SU decreased from 0.57 (0.10) to 0.47 (0.09) mmol/l (p=0.001) and normalised in 7 (58%) of the 12 patients with an initially raised level. Serum cholesterol decreased from 6.0 (1.7) to 4.7 (0.9) mmol/l (p=0.002), LDL-C from 3.5 (1.2) to 2.7 (0.8) mmol/l (p=0.004), TGs from 4.7 (4.2) to 1.9 (1.0) mmol/l (p=0.001), and C:HDL-C ratios from 6.7 (1.7) to 5.2 (1.0) (p=0.002). HDL-C levels increased insignificantly. High baseline SU, frequency of attacks, total cholesterol, LDL-C and TG levels, and total C:HDL-C ratios correlated with higher decreases in the respective variables upon dietary intervention (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION—The results suggest that weight reduction associated with a change in proportional macronutrient intake, as recently recommended in IR, is beneficial, reducing the SU levels and dyslipidaemia in gout. Current dietary recommendations for gout may need re-evaluation.

PMCID: PMC1753185  PMID: 10873964
3.  An evaluation of analgesic efficacy and clinical acceptability of intravenous tramadol as an adjunct to propofol sedation for third molar surgery. 
Anesthesia Progress  2003;50(3):121-128.
This article details a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study evaluating the analgesic efficacy and clinical acceptability of intravenous tramadol in patients undergoing surgical removal of an impacted third molar tooth under local anesthesia and intravenous sedation with propofol. Forty-five ASA status 1 dental outpatients were randomly allocated to 2 groups of 22 (group A) and 23 (group B) patients each (n = 45). Group A (T/P) received intravenous tramadol 1.5 mg/kg injected over 2 minutes, followed by a bolus dose of intravenous propofol 0.4 mg/ kg. Maintenance consisted of a continuous infusion of propofol 3 mg/kg/h, with an additional bolus dose of 0.4 mg/kg intravenously 2-3 minutes prior to the infiltration of the local anesthetic solution. Group B (P/P) patients received no tramadol but instead a saline placebo solution and an identical amount of propofol. Overall, in this study, postoperative pain was much better controlled in the group receiving tramadol 1.5 mg/kg intravenously despite there being no significant difference in the dose of propofol administered in both groups. Intravenous tramadol, when given with propofol, did not affect the cardiovascular, respiratory, and sedative effects of propofol. Following tramadol, despite being an opioid, no nausea and vomiting were reported in the early postoperative period, indicating the value of using tramadol with propofol. Thus, this pilot study demonstrated the potential use of intravenous tramadol with propofol in day-case dento-alveolar surgery.
PMCID: PMC2007436  PMID: 14558587
4.  Pharmacokinetics of oral tramadol drops for postoperative pain relief in children aged 4 to 7 years--a pilot study. 
Anesthesia Progress  2002;49(4):109-112.
Tramadol hydrochloride is an analgesic with mu receptor activity suitable for administration to children as oral drops. As the serum concentration profile and pharmacokinetic parameters in young children are not known via this route, we studied 24 healthy ASA 1 children to determine those parameters. The children's mean age was 5.3 +/- 1.1 years and their mean weight was 17.8 +/- 3.1 kg. They underwent general anesthesia with sevoflurane for dental surgery. The mean duration of anesthesia was 27.9 +/- 10.1 minutes. Tramadol 1.5 mg/kg (this dose was chosen because we have previously shown it to be effective in providing analgesia following pediatric dental surgery) was administered as oral drops 30 minutes before anesthesia. Venous blood samples were taken following the tramadol at 30-minute intervals for 4 hours, every 2 hours for 6 hours, and every 4 hours for 12 hours. The samples were centrifuged and the serum stored at -20 degrees C, and nonstereoselective gas chromatography was used to determine the concentration of (+) and (-) tramadol enantiomers plus their o-demethyltramadol (M1) metabolite concentrations. The tramadol absorption was rapid, the maximum measured serum concentration present occurring before the first sample at 30 minutes. That first sample had a concentration of 352 +/- 83.4 ng/mL. The concentration remained above the 100 ng/mL analgesic level until 6.8 +/- 0.9 hours. The elimination half-life was 3.6 +/- 1.1 hours, the serum clearance 5.6 +/- 2.7 mL/kg/min, and the volume of distribution 4.1 +/- 1.2 L/kg. The (+) enantiomer concentration was 14.2 +/- 4.9% greater than that of the (-) enantiomer. The M1 metabolites had a (-) enantiomer concentration 92.3 +/- 75.1% greater than the (+) enantiomer. From the peak concentration at 4.5 +/- 1.5 hours, the concentration of the metabolite was approximately one third that of the parent drug. The M1 elimination half-life was 5.8 +/- 1.7 hours. Apart from the rapid rise in the serum concentration, these kinetic parameters are similar to those seen in healthy young adults. The concentration profile supports an effective clinical duration in the region of 7 hours.
PMCID: PMC2007413  PMID: 12779111

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