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1.  Risk Factors for Distant Metastasis as a Primary Site of Treatment Failure in Early-Stage Breast Cancer 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2014;50(3):96-101.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for distant metastasis (DM) as a primary site of failure in early-stage breast cancer. Data from 294 patients diagnosed with pathologic stage I or II breast cancer between January 2000 and December 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. Median follow-up duration was 81.0 months (range, 18-135 months). The total number of patients with DM without evidence of locoregional recurrence was 20 and the median time between surgery and DM was 29 months (range, 9-79 months). Median survival time was 38 months (range, 22-77 months) after operation. HER-2 positivity (p=0.015), T stage of tumor (p=0.012), and number of involved lymph nodes (p=0.008) were significant predictors of DM in the univariable analysis. Number of involved lymph nodes [p=0.005, hazards ratio (HR): 1.741; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.178-2.574] and HER-2 positivity (p=0.018, HR: 2.888; 95% CI: 1.201-6.941) had a statistically significant effect on DM-free survival in the multivariable analysis. A cautious evaluation may be helpful when patients with risk factors for DM have symptoms implying the possibility of DM. To reduce DM, applying intensive therapy is needed after curative surgery for patients with high risk for DM.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2014.50.3.96
PMCID: PMC4276798  PMID: 25568845
Breast neoplasm; Neoplasm metastasis; Risk factors
2.  Esophageal tolerance to high-dose stereotactic radiosurgery 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2013;31(4):234-238.
Purpose
Esophageal tolerance is needed to guide the safe administration of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We evaluated comprehensive dose-volume parameters of acute esophageal toxicity in patients with spinal metastasis treated with SRS.
Materials and Methods
From May 2008 to May 2011, 30 cases in 27 patients with spinal metastasis received single fraction SRS to targets neighboring esophagus. Endpoints evaluated include length (mm), volume (mL), maximal dose (Gy), and series of dose-volume thresholds from the dose-volume histogram (volume of the organ treated beyond a threshold dose).
Results
The median time from the start of irradiation to development of esophageal toxicity was 2 weeks (range, 1 to 12 weeks). Six events of grade 1 esophageal toxicity occurred. No grade 2 or higher events were observed. V15 of external surface of esophagus was found to predict acute esophageal toxicity revealed by multivariate analysis (odds radio = 1.272, p = 0.047).
Conclusion
In patients with spinal metastasis who received SRS for palliation of symptoms, the threshold dose-volume parameter associated with acute esophageal toxicity was found to be V15 of external surface of esophagus. Restrict V15 to external surface of esophagus as low as possible might be safe and feasible in radiosurgery.
doi:10.3857/roj.2013.31.4.234
PMCID: PMC3912238  PMID: 24501712
Esophagus; Radiation tolerance; Stereotactic radiosurgery
3.  Treatment outcome in patients with triple negative early stage breast cancers compared with other molecular subtypes 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2012;30(3):124-131.
Purpose
To determine whether triple negative (TN) early stage breast cancers have poorer survival rates compared with other molecular types.
Materials and Methods
Between August 2000 and July 2006, patients diagnosed with stage I, II early stage breast cancers, in whom all three markers (estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor [HER]-2) were available and treated with modified radical mastectomy or breast conserving surgery followed by radiotherapy, were retrospectively reviewed.
Results
Of 446 patients, 94 (21.1%) were classified as TN, 57 (12.8%) as HER-2 type, and 295 (66.1%) as luminal. TN was more frequently associated with young patients younger than 35 years old (p = 0.002), higher histologic grade (p < 0.0001), and nuclear (p < 0.0001). The median follow-up period was 78 months (range, 4 to 130 months). There were 9 local relapses (2.0%), 15 nodal (3.4%), 40 distant metastases (9.0%), and 33 deaths (7.4%) for all patients. The rates of 5-year OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS for all patients were 95.5%, 89.9%, 95.4%, and 91.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in OS, DFS, LFS, and DMFS between triple negative and other subtypes (p > 0.05).
Conclusion
We found that patients with TN early stage breast cancers had no difference in survival rates compared with other molecular subtypes. Prospective study in homogeneous treatment group will need for a prognosis of TN early stage breast cancer.
doi:10.3857/roj.2012.30.3.124
PMCID: PMC3496846  PMID: 23170291
Triple negative breast cancer; Early stage; Overall survival; Disease-free survival; Locoregional relapse-free survival; Distant metastasis-free survival
4.  A comparison of preplan MRI and preplan CT-based prostate volume with intraoperative ultrasound-based prostate volume in real-time permanent brachytherapy 
Radiation Oncology Journal  2011;29(3):199-205.
Purpose
The present study compared the difference between intraoperative transrectal ultrasound (iTRUS)-based prostate volume and preplan computed tomography (CT), preplan magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based prostate volume to estimate the number of seeds needed for appropriate dose coverage in permanent brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
Materials and Methods
Between March 2007 and March 2011, among 112 patients who underwent permanent brachytherapy with 125I, 60 image scans of 56 patients who underwent preplan CT (pCT) or preplan MRI (pMRI) within 2 months before brachytherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Twenty-four cases among 30 cases with pCT and 26 cases among 30 cases with pMRI received neoadjuvant hormone therapy (NHT). In 34 cases, NHT started after acquisition of preplan image. The median duration of NHT after preplan image acquisition was 17 and 21 days for cases with pCT and pMRI, respectively. The prostate volume calculated by different modalities was compared. And retrospective planning with iTRUS image was performed to estimate the number of 125I seed required to obtain recommended dose distribution according to prostate volume.
Results
The mean difference in prostate volume was 9.05 mL between the pCT and iTRUS and 6.84 mL between the pMRI and iTRUS. The prostate volume was roughly overestimated by 1.36 times with pCT and by 1.33 times with pMRI. For 34 cases which received NHT after image acquisition, the prostate volume was roughly overestimated by 1.45 times with pCT and by 1.37 times with pMRI. A statistically significant difference was found between preplan image-based volume and iTRUS-based volume (p < 0.001). The median number of wasted seeds is approximately 13, when the pCT or pMRI volume was accepted without modification to assess the required number of seeds for brachytherapy.
Conclusion
pCT-based volume and pMRI-based volume tended to overestimate prostate volume in comparison to iTRUS-based volume. To reduce wasted seeds and cost of the brachytherapy, we should take the volume discrepancy into account when we estimate the number of 125I seeds for permanent brachytherapy.
doi:10.3857/roj.2011.29.3.199
PMCID: PMC3429903  PMID: 22984671
Brachytherapy; Prostate cancer; Prostate volume
5.  Outcomes of Gleason Score ≤8 among High Risk Prostate Cancer Treated with 125I Low Dose Rate Brachytherapy Based Multimodal Therapy 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(5):1207-1213.
Purpose
To investigate the role of low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy-based multimodal therapy in high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) and analyze its optimal indications.
Materials and Methods
We reviewed the records of 50 high-risk PCa patients [clinical stage ≥T2c, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >20 ng/mL, or biopsy Gleason score ≥8] who had undergone 125I LDR brachytherapy since April 2007. We excluded those with a follow-up period <3 years. Biochemical recurrence (BCR) followed the Phoenix definition. BCR-free survival rates were compared between the patients with Gleason score ≥9 and Gleason score ≤8.
Results
The mean initial PSA was 22.1 ng/mL, and mean D90 was 244.3 Gy. During a median follow-up of 39.2 months, biochemical control was obtained in 72% (36/50) of the total patients; The estimated 3-year BCR-free survival was 92% for the patients with biopsy Gleason scores ≤8, and 40% for those with Gleason scores ≥9 (p<0.001). In Cox multivariate analysis, only Gleason score ≥9 was observed to be significantly associated with BCR (p=0.021). Acute and late grade ≥3 toxicities were observed in 20% (10/50) and 36% (18/50) patients, respectively.
Conclusion
Our results showed that 125I LDR brachytherapy-based multimodal therapy in high-risk PCa produced encouraging relatively long-term results among the Asian population, especially in patients with Gleason score ≤8. Despite small number of subjects, biopsy Gleason score ≥9 was a significant predictor of BCR among high risk PCa patients after brachytherapy.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.5.1207
PMCID: PMC3743192  PMID: 23918571
Prostate cancer; brachytherapy; high risk group; biochemical recurrence

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