DA-6034, a eupatilin derivative of flavonoid, has shown potent effects on the protection of gastric mucosa and induced the increases in fluid and glycoprotein secretion in human and rat corneal and conjunctival cells, suggesting that it might be considered as a drug for the treatment of dry eye. However, whether DA-6034 induces Ca2+ signaling and its underlying mechanism in epithelial cells are not known. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism for actions of DA-6034 in Ca2+ signaling pathways of the epithelial cells (conjunctival and corneal cells) from human donor eyes and mouse salivary gland epithelial cells. DA-6034 activated Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) and increased intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in primary cultured human conjunctival cells. DA-6034 also increased [Ca2+]i in mouse salivary gland cells and human corneal epithelial cells. [Ca2+]i increase of DA-6034 was dependent on the Ca2+ entry from extracellular and Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores. Interestingly, these effects of DA-6034 were related to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) but not phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) pathway and lysosomal Ca2+ stores. These results suggest that DA-6034 induces Ca2+ signaling via extracellular Ca2+ entry and RyRs-sensitive Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores in epithelial cells.
Calcium signaling; DA-6034; Epithelial cells; Eupatilin
Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis is accompanied by intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in a form of oscillations, which plays essential roles by activating sequentially Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, calcineurin and NFATc1, necessary in the osteoclast differentiation. However, it is not known whether Ca2+ mobilization which is evoked in RANKL-independent way induces to differentiate into osteoclasts. In present study, we investigated Ca2+ mobilization induced by aluminum fluoride (AlF4-), a G-protein activator, with or without RANKL and the effects of AlF4- on the osteoclastogenesis in primary cultured mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). We show here that AlF4- induces intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) oscillations, which is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ influx. Notably, co-stimulation of AlF4- with RANKL resulted in enhanced NFATc1 expression and formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive multinucleated cells. Additionally, we confirmed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is also activated by AlF4-. Taken together, these results demonstrate that G-protein would be a novel modulator responsible for [Ca2+]i oscillations and MAPK activation which lead to enhancement of RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis.
AlF4-; Ca2+ signaling; G protein; MAPK activation; Osteoclastogenesis
The transient receptor potential melastatin type 7 (TRPM7) channel is a widely expressed non-selective cation channel with fusion to the C-terminal alpha kinase domain and regarded as a key regulator of whole body Mg2+ homeostasis in mammals. However, the roles of TRPM7 during osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells (BMMs) are not clear. In the present study, we investigate the roles of TRPM7 in osteoclastogenesis using methods of small interfering RNA (siRNA), RT-PCR, patch-clamp, and calcium imaging. RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand) stimulation did not affect the TRPM7 expression and TRPM7-mediated current was activated in HEK293, RAW264.7, and BMM cells by the regulation of Mg2+. Knock-down of TRPM7 by siTRPM7 reduced intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) increases by 0 mM [Mg2+]e in HEK293 cells and inhibited the generation of RANKL-induced Ca2+ oscillations in RAW264.7 cells. Finally, knock-down of TRPM7 suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis such as activation and translocation of NFATc1, formation of multinucleated cells, and the bone resorptive activity, sequentially. These results suggest that TRPM7 plays an essential role in the RANKL-induced [Ca2+]i oscillations that triggers the late stages of osteoclastogenesis.
Calcium signaling; Osteoclastogenesis; RANKL; TRPM7
The receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signal is an activator of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which leads to the activation of NF-κB and other signal transduction pathways essential for osteoclastogenesis, such as Ca2+ signaling. However, the intracellular levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and IP3-mediated cellular function of RANKL during osteoclastogenesis are not known. In the present study, we determined the levels of IP3 and evaluated IP3-mediated osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast activity by RANKL treatment of mouse leukemic macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) and mouse bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells (BMMs). During osteoclastogenesis, the expression levels of Ca2+ signaling proteins such as IP3 receptors (IP3Rs), plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase, and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase type2 did not change by RANKL treatment for up to 6 days in both cell types. At 24 h after RANKL treatment, a higher steady-state level of IP3 was observed in RAW264.7 cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of phospholipase C (PLC) δ, a probe specifically detecting intracellular IP3 levels. In BMMs, the inhibition of PLC with U73122 [a specific inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC)] and of IP3Rs with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB; a non-specific inhibitor of IP3Rs) inhibited the generation of RANKL-induced multinucleated cells and decreased the bone-resorption rate in dentin slice, respectively. These results suggest that intracellular IP3 levels and the IP3-mediated signaling pathway play an important role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis.
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate; RANKL; Osteoclastogenesis; Ca2+ signaling
Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins are regulators of Ca2+ signaling that accelerate the GTPase activity of the G-protein α-subunit. RGS1, RGS2, RGS4, and RGS16 are expressed in the pancreas, and RGS2 regulates G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-induced Ca2+ oscillations. However, the role of RGS4 in Ca2+ signaling in pancreatic acinar cells is unknown. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of GPCR-induced Ca2+ signaling in pancreatic acinar cells derived from RGS4-/- mice. RGS4-/- acinar cells showed an enhanced stimulus intensity response to a muscarinic receptor agonist in pancreatic acinar cells. Moreover, deletion of RGS4 increased the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations. RGS4-/- cells also showed increased expression of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase type 2. However, there were no significant alterations, such as Ca2+ signaling in treated high dose of agonist and its related amylase secretion activity, in acinar cells from RGS4-/- mice. These results indicate that RGS4 protein regulates Ca2+ signaling in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.
RGS4; Ca2+ signaling; Pancreatic acinar cells
Zinc, an essential trace element, inhibits osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanism for the inhibitory effect of zinc, however, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc and determine its molecular mechanism on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow-derived monocyte cells (BMMs) and RAW264.7 cells.
In BMMs, zinc treatment during osteoclast differentiation decreased RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner. We show that zinc suppressed the mRNA levels of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (Nfatc1). Zinc also accumulated phospho-Nfatc1 (p-Nfatc1) in the cytosol in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited the translocation of Nfatc1 to the nucleus in RAW264.7 cells. Zinc suppressed the activities of Nfatc1 in the nucleus without changing the activities of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. In contrast, calcineurin activity decreased in response to zinc but its protein level was unchanged. RANKL-induced Ca2+ oscillations were inhibited by zinc treatment, but phospho-phospholipase Cγ1 (p-PLCγ1), the upstream signaling molecule of Ca2+ oscillations, was unaffected. Moreover, a constitutively active form of Nfatc1 obviously rescued suppression of osteoclastogenesis by zinc.
Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that the inhibitory effect of zinc during osteoclastogesis is caused by suppressing the Ca2+-Calcineurin-NFATc1 signaling pathway. Thus, zinc may be a useful therapeutic candidate for the prevention of bone loss caused by NFATc1 activation in osteoclasts.
Zinc; Bone loss; Osteoclast; NFATc1; Calcineurin; Ca2+ oscillation
Background and Aims
Receptor–stimulated Ca2+ influx is a critical component of the Ca2+ signal and mediates all cellular functions regulated by Ca2+. However, excessive Ca2+ influx is highly toxic resulting in cell death, which is the nodal point in all forms of pancreatitis. Ca2+ influx is mediated by store-operated channels (SOCs). The identity and function of the native SOCs in most cells is unknown.
Here, we determine the role of deletion of Trpc3 in mice on Ca2+ signaling, exocytosis, intracellular trypsin activation and pancreatitis.
Deletion of TRPC3 reduced the receptor-stimulated and SOCs-mediated Ca2+ influx by about 50%, indicating that TRPC3 functions as SOC in vivo. The reduced Ca2+ influx in TRPC3−/− acini resulted in reduced frequency of the physiological Ca2+ oscillations and of the pathological sustained [Ca2+]i increase caused by supramaximal stimulation and by the toxins bile acids and palmitoleic acid ethyl ester. Consequently, deletion of TRPC3 shifted the dose response for receptor-stimulated exocytosis, and prevented the pathological inhibition of digestive enzyme secretion at supramaximal agonist concentrations. Accordingly, deletion of TRPC3 markedly reduced intracellular trypsin activation and excessive actin depolymerization in vitro and the severity of pancreatitis in vivo.
These findings establish the native TRPC3 as a SOC in vivo and a role for TRPC3-mediated Ca2+ influx in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis and suggest that TRPC3 should be considered a target for prevention of the pancreatic damage in acute pancreatitis.
The sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), encoded by ATP2A2, is an essential component for G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-dependent Ca2+ signaling. However, whether the changes in Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ signaling proteins in parotid acinar cells are affected by a partial loss of SERCA2 are not known.
Materials and Methods
In SERCA2+/- mouse parotid gland acinar cells, Ca2+ signaling, expression levels of Ca2+ signaling proteins, and amylase secretion were investigated.
SERCA2+/- mice showed decreased SERCA2 expression and an upregulation of the plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase. A partial loss of SERCA2 changed the expression level of 1, 4, 5-tris-inositolphosphate receptors (IP3Rs), but the localization and activities of IP3Rs were not altered. In SERCA2+/- mice, muscarinic stimulation resulted in greater amylase release, and the expression of synaptotagmin was increased compared to wild type mice.
These results suggest that a partial loss of SERCA2 affects the expression and activity of Ca2+ signaling proteins in the parotid gland acini, however, overall Ca2+ signaling is unchanged.
sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase; Ca2+ signaling proteins; parotid gland acinar cells
In non-excitable cells, which include parotid and pancreatic acinar cells, Ca2+ entry is triggered via a mechanism known as capacitative Ca2+ entry, or store-operated Ca2+ entry. This process is initiated by the perception of the filling state of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the depletion of internal Ca2+ stores, which acts as an important factor triggering Ca2+ entry. However, both the mechanism of store-mediated Ca2+ entry and the molecular identity of store-operated Ca2+ channel (SOCC) remain uncertain.
Materials and Methods
In the present study we investigated the Ca2+ entry initiation site evoked by depletion of ER to identify the localization of SOCC in mouse parotid and pancreatic acinar cells with microfluorometeric imaging system.
Treatment with thapsigargin (Tg), an inhibitor of sarco/ endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, in an extracellular Ca2+ free state, and subsequent exposure to a high external calcium state evoked Ca2+ entry, while treatment with lanthanum, a non-specific blocker of plasma Ca2+ channel, completely blocked Tg-induced Ca2+ entry. Microfluorometric imaging showed that Tg-induced Ca2+ entry started at a basal membrane, not a apical membrane.
These results suggest that Ca2+ entry by depletion of the ER initiates at the basal pole in polarized exocrine cells and may help to characterize the nature of SOCC.
Parotid; Ca2+ signaling; store-operated calcium channel
Synaptotagmin is a Ca2+ sensing protein, which triggers a fusion of synaptic vesicles in neuronal transmission. Little is known regarding the expression of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmin isoforms and their contribution to the release of secretory vesicles in mouse and rat parotid acinar cells. We investigated a type of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmin and Ca2+ signaling in both rat and mouse parotid acinar cells using RT-PCR, microfluorometry, and amylase assay. Mouse parotid acinar cells exhibited much more sensitive amylase release in response to muscarinic stimulation than did rat parotid acinar cells. However, transient [Ca2+]i increases and Ca2+ influx in response to muscarinic stimulation in both cells were identical, suggesting that the expression or activity of the Ca2+ sensing proteins is different. Seven Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmins, from 1 to 7, were expressed in the mouse parotid acinar cells. However, in the rat parotid acinar cells, only synaptotagmins 1, 3, 4 and 7 were expressed. These results indicate that the expression of Ca2+-dependent synaptotagmins may contribute to the release of secretory vesicles in parotid acinar cells.
Synaptotagmin; calcium signaling; exocytosis; parotid acinar cells
Control of tuberculosis worldwide depends on our understanding of human immune mechanisms, which combat the infection. Acquired T cell responses are critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet the mechanisms by which they act in humans remain unclear. We report that T cells, by the release of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), induce autophagy, phagosomal maturation, the production of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin, and antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages via a vitamin D–dependent pathway. IFN-γ induced the antimicrobial pathway in human macrophages cultured in vitamin D–sufficient sera, but not in sera from African-Americans that have lower amounts of vitamin D and who are more susceptible to tuberculosis. In vitro supplementation of vitamin D–deficient serum with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 restored IFN-γ–induced antimicrobial peptide expression, autophagy, phagosome-lysosome fusion, and antimicrobial activity. These results suggest a mechanism in which vitamin D is required for acquired immunity to overcome the ability of intracellular pathogens to evade macrophage-mediated antimicrobial responses. The present findings underscore the importance of adequate amounts of vitamin D in all human populations for sustaining both innate and acquired immunity against infection.
Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in airway epithelia and smooth muscle, plays an important role in airway inflammation. In this study, we demonstrated that activation of PAR2 induces mucus secretion from the human airway gland and examined the underlying mechanism using the porcine and murine airway glands. The mucosa with underlying submucosal glands were dissected from the cartilage of tissues, pinned with the mucosal side up at the gas/bath solution interface of a physiological chamber, and covered with oil so that secretions from individual glands could be visualized as spherical bubbles in the oil. Secretion rates were determined by optical monitoring of the bubble diameter. The Ca2+-sensitive dye Fura2-AM was used to determine intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by means of spectrofluorometry. Stimulation of human tracheal mucosa with PAR2-activating peptide (PAR2-AP) elevated intracellular Ca2+ and induced glandular secretion equal to approximately 30% of the carbachol response in the human airway. Porcine gland tissue was more sensitive to PAR2-AP, and this response was dependent on Ca2+ and anion secretion. When the mouse trachea were exposed to PAR2-AP, large amounts of secretion were observed in both wild type and ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutant mice but there is no secretion from PAR-2 knock out mice. In conclusion, PAR2-AP is an agonist for mucus secretion from the airway gland that is Ca2+-dependent and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-independent.
Background & Aims
Excessive Ca2+ influx mediates many cytotoxic processes, including those associated with autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as acute pancreatitis and Sjögren's syndrome. TRPC3 is a major Ca2+ influx channel in pancreatic and salivary gland cells. We investigated whether genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TRPC3 protects pancreas and salivary glands from Ca2+-dependent damage.
We developed a Ca2+-dependent model of cell damage for salivary gland acini. Acute pancreatitis was induced by injection of cerulein into wild-type and Trpc3−/− mice. Mice were also given the Trpc3-selective inhibitor pyrazole 3 (Pyr3).
Salivary glands and pancreas of Trpc3−/− mice were protected from Ca2+-mediated cell toxicity. Analysis of Ca2+ signaling in wild-type and Trpc3−/− acini showed that Pyr3 is highly specific inhibitor of Tprc3; it protected salivary glands and pancreas cells from Ca2+-mediated toxicity by inhibiting the Trpc3-mediated component of Ca2+ influx.
TRPC3-mediated Ca2+ influx mediates damage to pancreas and salivary glands. Pharmacological inhibition of TRPC3 with the highly selective TRPC3 inhibitor Pyr3 might be developed for treatment of patients with acute pancreatitis and Sjögren's syndrome.
Ca2+ influx; inflammation; cell death; therapeutics
Among a number of innate receptors, the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor families are involved in the recognition of cytosolic pathogen- or danger-associated molecules. Activation of these specific sets of receptors leads to the assembly of a multiprotein complex, the inflammasome, leading to the activation of caspase-1 and maturation of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, and IL-33. Among NLRs, NLR-related protein 3 (NLRP3) is one of the best-characterized receptors that activates the inflammasome. There is no doubt that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is important for host defense and effective pathogen clearance against fungal, bacterial, and viral infection. In addition, mounting evidence indicates that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a role in a variety of inflammatory diseases, including gout, atherosclerosis, and type II diabetes, as well as under conditions of cellular stress or injury. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome in host defense and various inflammatory diseases.
Inflammasomes; Defense mechanisms; Inflammation
Polarized Ca2+ signals in secretory epithelial cells are determined by compartmentalized localization of Ca2+ signaling proteins at the apical pole. Recently the ER Ca2+ sensor STIM1 and the Orai channels were shown to play a critical role in store-dependent Ca2+ influx. STIM1 also gates the TRPC channels. Here, we asked how cell stimulation affects the localization, recruitment and function of the native proteins in polarized cells. Inhibition of Orai1, STIM1, or deletion of TRPC1 reduces Ca2+ influx and frequency of Ca2+ oscillations. Orai1 localization is restricted to the apical pole of the lateral membrane. Surprisingly, cell stimulation does not lead to robust clustering of native Orai1, as is observed with expressed Orai1. Unexpectedly, cell stimulation causes polarized recruitment of native STIM1 to both the apical and lateral regions, thus to regions with and without Orai1. Accordingly, STIM1 and Orai1 show only 40% co-localization. Consequently, STIM1 shows higher co-localization with the basolateral membrane marker E-cadherin than does Orai1, while Orai1 showed higher co-localization with the tight junction protein ZO1. TRPC1 is expressed in both apical and basolateral regions of the plasma membrane. Co-IP of STIM1/Orai1/IP3Rs/TRPCs is enhanced by cell stimulation and disrupted by 2APB. The polarized localization and recruitment of these proteins results in preferred Ca2+ entry that is initiated at the apical pole. These findings reveal that in addition to Orai1, STIM1 likely regulates other Ca2+ permeable channels, such as the TRPCs. Both channels contribute to the frequency of [Ca2+] oscillations and thus impact critical cellular functions.
STIM1; Orai1; TRPC1; polarized; recruitment; epithelial cells
Studies over the past decade have helped to decipher molecular networks dependent on Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, in mycobacteria-infected macrophages. Stimulation of TLRs by mycobacteria and their antigenic components rapidly induces intracellular signaling cascades involved in the activation of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, which play important roles in orchestrating proinflammatory responses and innate defense through generation of a variety of antimicrobial effector molecules. Recent studies have provided evidence that mycobacterial TLR-signaling cross talks with other intracellular antimicrobial innate pathways, the autophagy process and functional vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling. In this article we describe recent advances in the recognition, responses, and regulation of mycobacterial signaling through TLRs.
mycobacteria; vitamin D; autophagy; antimicrobial peptides; innate immunity
To evaluate the clinical efficacy and histopathological tolerance of 2-octyl cyanoacrylate versus conventional suture materials for eyelid wound closure in rabbits.
We performed an experimental study on 16 eyes of eight New Zealand albino rabbits. Eyelid incisions of 15 mm were done 4mm from the upper eyelid margin in both eyes. The eyes of the rabbits were divided into two groups: eyelid incisions of the right eye were closed by a 2-octyl cyanoacrylate adhesive (group A) and eyelid incisions of the left eye were closed by 7-0 nylon sutures (group B). At 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery, the rabbits were macroscopically examined and then sacrificed. The specimens of their eyelid tissues were stained by a hematoxylin and eosin stain and Masson-trichrome stain, and were observed under microscope.
Both eyelid surgical closure methods were found to be equally efficacious in fixing the eyelids of groups A and B, and their clinical efficacy was similar. Histopathological findings of the hematoxylin and eosin stain of group A showed less inflammatory infiltration than group B at 2 weeks. There were no significant histopathological differences between the two groups at 1, 4, and 8 weeks. The degree of fibrosis of the Masson-trichrome stain was similar between the two groups at 8 weeks.
The 2-octyl cyanoacrylate adhesive proved to be an effective eyelid closure method and was very well tolerated by the skin surface. 2-Octyl cyanoacrylate could be used as an alternative tissue adhesive for eyelid wound closure along with conventional suture materials.
Eyelid wound closure; Octyl 2-cyanoacrylate
The “enhanced intracellular survival” (eis) gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is involved in the intracellular survival of M. smegmatis. However, its exact effects on host cell function remain elusive. We herein report that Mtb Eis plays essential roles in modulating macrophage autophagy, inflammatory responses, and cell death via a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent pathway. Macrophages infected with an Mtb eis-deletion mutant H37Rv (Mtb-Δeis) displayed markedly increased accumulation of massive autophagic vacuoles and formation of autophagosomes in vitro and in vivo. Infection of macrophages with Mtb-Δeis increased the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 over the levels produced by infection with wild-type or complemented strains. Elevated ROS generation in macrophages infected with Mtb-Δeis (for which NADPH oxidase and mitochondria were largely responsible) rendered the cells highly sensitive to autophagy activation and cytokine production. Despite considerable activation of autophagy and proinflammatory responses, macrophages infected with Mtb-Δeis underwent caspase-independent cell death. This cell death was significantly inhibited by blockade of autophagy and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-ROS signaling, suggesting that excessive autophagy and oxidative stress are detrimental to cell survival. Finally, artificial over-expression of Eis or pretreatment with recombinant Eis abrogated production of both ROS and proinflammatory cytokines, which depends on the N-acetyltransferase domain of the Eis protein. Collectively, these data indicate that Mtb Eis suppresses host innate immune defenses by modulating autophagy, inflammation, and cell death in a redox-dependent manner.
Tuberculosis is a global health problem: at least one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb is a successful pathogen that enhances its own intracellular survival by arresting phagolysosomal fusion. Recently, autophagy has emerged as a host defense strategy against Mtb infection, through stimulation of the fusion of phagosomes and lysosomes. However, excessive and uncontrolled autophagic activity can be detrimental to host cells and can result in their death. The Mtb “enhanced intracellular survival” (eis) gene has been implicated in the intracellular survival of M. smegmatis. However, its exact role and how it regulates host innate immune responses have not been fully explained. Here, we provide evidence that Eis suppresses macrophage autophagy, inflammation, and cell death through the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Although it has previously been demonstrated that autophagy is a key host defense response to mycobacterial infections, our data indicate that excessive autophagy, and the resulting cell death, do not significantly affect host defense responses to mycobacteria. Additionally, our data reveal that Eis's ability to regulate ROS generation and proinflammatory responses depends on its N-acetyltransferase domain. These results underscore a previously unrecognized role of Eis in modulating host inflammatory responses, oxidative stress, and cell survival/death during mycobacterial infection.
In human monocytes, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2/1 activation leads to vitamin D3-dependent antimycobacterial activities, but the molecular mechanisms by which TLR2/1 stimulation induces antimicrobial activities against mycobacteria remain unclear. Here we show that TLR2/1/CD14 stimulation by mycobacterial lipoprotein LpqH can robustly activate antibacterial autophagy through vitamin D receptor signalling activation and cathelicidin induction. We found that CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-β-dependent induction of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol-1α-hydroxylase (Cyp27b1) hydroxylase was critical for LpqH-induced cathelicidin expression and autophagy. In addition, increases in intracellular calcium following AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation played a crucial role in LpqH-induced autophagy. Moreover, AMPK-dependent p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was required for LpqH-induced Cyp27b1 expression and autophagy activation. Collectively, these data suggest that TLR2/1/CD14-Ca2+-AMPK-p38 MAPK pathways contribute to C/EBP-β-dependent expression of Cyp27b1 and cathelicidin, which played an essential role in LpqH-induced autophagy. Furthermore, these results establish a previously uncharacterized signalling pathway of antimycobacterial host defence through a functional link of TLR2/1/CD14-dependent sensing to the induction of autophagy.
The hyperosmotic stimulus is regarded as a mechanical factor for bone remodeling. However, whether the hyperosmotic stimulus affects 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3)-induced osteoclastogenesis is not clear. In the present study, the effect of the hyperosmotic stimulus on 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced osteoclastogenesis was investigated in an osteoblast-preosteoclast co-culture system. Serial doses of sucrose were applied as a mechanical force. These hyperosmotic stimuli significantly evoked a reduced number of 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells and 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced bone-resorbing pit area in a co-culture system. In osteoblastic cells, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and Runx2 expressions were down-regulated in response to 1α,25(OH)2D3. Knockdown of Runx2 inhibited 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced RANKL expression in osteoblastic cells. Finally, the hyperosmotic stimulus induced the overexpression of TonEBP in osteoblastic cells. These results suggest that hyperosmolarity leads to the down-regulation of 1α,25(OH)2D3-induced osteoclastogenesis, suppressing Runx2 and RANKL expression due to the TonEBP overexpression in osteoblastic cells.
Hyperosmotic stimulus; TonEBP; Osteoblast; RANKL; Runx2
Membrane lipid rafts are enriched in cholesterol and play an important role as signalling platforms. However, the roles of lipid rafts and associated signalling molecules in the innate immune responses to mycobacteria remain unknown. Here we show that stimulation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19 kDa lipoprotein, a TLR2/1 agonist, results in translocation of TLR2 to lipid rafts, coalescence of lipid rafts and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that drive pro-inflammatory responses. Disruption of lipid raft organization markedly reduced lipoprotein-induced ROS and inflammatory responses. Remarkably, the atypical protein kinase C (PKC) ζ was specifically recruited into detergent-resistant membrane fractions and associated with TLR2. PKCζ activity was critical for lipoprotein-dependent ROS generation, raft coalescence and the pro-inflammatory responses by macrophages. Moreover, lipid raft organization was required for 19 kDa mediated PKCζ activation. These results demonstrate that TLR2 trafficking and raft coalescence play an essential role for the initiation of lipoprotein-induced innate immune responses via TLR2 and ROS signalling. In addition, PKCζ targets to lipid rafts and may act as a critical adaptor molecule to regulate lipid raft dynamics during TLR2 signalling.
Little information is available the role of Nitric Oxide (NO) in host defenses during human tuberculosis (TB) infection. We investigated the modulating factor(s) affecting NO synthase (iNOS) induction in human macrophages.
Both iNOS mRNA and protein that regulate the growth of mycobacteria were determined using reverase transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The upstream signaling pathways were further investigated using iNOS specific inhibitors.
Here we show that combined treatment with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-D3) and Interferon (IFN)-γ synergistically enhanced NO synthesis and iNOS expression induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) or by its purified protein derivatives in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Both the nuclear factor-κB and MEK1-ERK1/2 pathways were indispensable in the induction of iNOS expression, as shown in toll like receptor 2 stimulation. Further, the combined treatment with 1,25-D3 and IFN-γ was more potent than either agent alone in the inhibition of intracellular MTB growth. Notably, this enhanced effect was not explained by increased expression of cathelicidin, a known antimycobacterial effector of 1,25-D3.
These data support a key role of NO in host defenses against TB and identify novel modulating factors for iNOS induction in human macrophages.
monocytes/macrophages; nitric oxide; human; bacterial; TLR
Homers are scaffolding proteins that bind Ca2+ signaling proteins in cellular microdomains. The Homers participate in targeting and localization of Ca2+ signaling proteins in signaling complexes. However, recent work showed that the Homers are not passive scaffolding proteins, but rather they regulate the activity of several proteins within the Ca2+ signaling complex in an isoform specific manner. Homer2 increases the GAP activity of RGS proteins and PLCβ that accelerate the GTPase activity of Gα subunits. Homer1 gates the activity of TRPC channels, controls the rates of their translocation and retrieval from the plasma membrane and mediates the conformational coupling between TRPC channels and IP3Rs. Homer1 stimulates the activity of the cardiac and neuronal L-type Ca2+ channels Cav1.2 and Cav1.3. Homer1 also mediates the communication between the cardiac and smooth muscle ryanodine receptor RyR2 and Cav1.2 to regulate E–C coupling. In many cases the Homers function as a buffer to reduce the intensity of Ca2+ signaling and create a negative bias that can be reversed by the immediate early gene form of Homer 1. Hence, the Homers should be viewed as the buffers of Ca2+ signaling that ensure a high spatial and temporal fidelity of the Ca2+ signaling and activation of downstream effects.
Activated microglia elicits a robust amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis in the central nervous system (CNS). However, little is known about the intracellular signaling mechanisms governing these inflammatory responses in microglia in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb).
Murine microglial BV-2 cells and primary mixed glial cells were stimulated with sonicated Mtb (s-Mtb). Intracellular ROS levels were measured by staining with oxidative fluorescent dyes [2',7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) and dihydroethidium (DHE)]. NADPH oxidase activities were measured by lucigenin chemiluminescence assay. S-Mtb-induced MAPK activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in microglial cells were measured using by Western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.
We demonstrate that s-Mtb promotes the up-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the rapid activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, as well as the secretion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12p40 in murine microglial BV-2 cells and primary mixed glial cells. Both NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial electron transfer chain subunit I play an indispensable role in s-Mtb-induced MAPK activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in BV-2 cells and mixed glial cells. Furthermore, the activation of cytosolic NADPH oxidase p47phox and MAPKs (p38 and ERK1/2) is mutually dependent on s-Mtb-induced inflammatory signaling in murine microglia. Neither TLR2 nor dectin-1 was involved in s-Mtb-induced inflammatory responses in murine microglia.
These data collectively demonstrate that s-Mtb actively induces the pro-inflammatory response in microglia through NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation, although the specific pattern-recognition receptors involved in these responses remain to be identified.
The mechanism(s) involved in regulation of store operated calcium entry in Darier's disease (DD) is not known. We investigated the distribution and function of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) in epidermal skin cells. DD patients demonstrated up-regulation of TRPC1, but not TRPC3, in the squamous layers. Ca2+ influx was significantly higher in keratinocytes obtained from DD patients and showed enhanced proliferation compared with normal keratinocytes. Similar up-regulation of TRPC1 was also detected in epidermal layers of SERCA2+/− mice. HaCaT cells expressed TRPC1 in the plasma membrane. Expression of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA)2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) in HaCaT cells increased TRPC1 levels and thapsigargin-stimulated Ca2+ influx, which was blocked by store-operated calcium entry inhibitors. Thapsigargin-stimulated intracellular Ca2+ release was decreased in DD cells. DD keratinocytes exhibited increased cell survival upon thapsigargin treatment. Alternatively, overexpression of TRPC1 or SERCA2-siRNA in HaCaT cells demonstrated resistance to thapsigargin-induced apoptosis. These effects were dependent on external Ca2+ and activation of nuclear factor-κB. Isotretinoin reduced Ca2+ entry in HaCaT cells and decreased survival of HaCaT and DD keratinocytes. These findings put forward a novel consequence of compromised SERCA2 function in DD wherein up-regulation of TRPC1 augments cell proliferation and restrict apoptosis. We suggest that the anti-apoptotic effect of TRPC1 could potentially contribute to abnormal keratosis in DD.