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1.  High-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for mobile tongue cancer: preliminary results of a dose reduction trial 
Purpose
To compare the outcome of our facility with another about the shortened schedule (60 Gy in 10 fractions to 54 Gy in 9 fractions) of high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR ISBT) for mobile tongue cancer.
Material and methods
Eighteen patients were treated with HDR ISBT as a monotherapy in dose reduction schedule with some unique technique to determine the border of tumor accuracy (lugol's staining and metal marker), and to minimize adverse effect (lead-lined silicon block) at our facility.
Results
The 2-year local and regional control rates and cause-specific survival rate were 82%, 80%, and 83% and moderate to severe late complications occurred in five patients (28%), which were almost the same treatment results achieved by another facility.
Conclusions
We recommend 54 Gy in 9 fractions over 7 days as a feasible treatment to reduce patient discomfort in mobile tongue cancer patients.
doi:10.5114/jcb.2014.40726
PMCID: PMC4003422  PMID: 24790616
dose reduction; high-dose-rate brachytherapy; tongue cancer
2.  High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer 
Journal of Radiation Research  2012;54(1):1-17.
Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer.
doi:10.1093/jrr/rrs103
PMCID: PMC3534285  PMID: 23179377
brachytherapy; oral cancer; high dose rate
3.  Dose reduction trial from 60 Gy in 10 fractions to 54 Gy in 9 fractions schedule in high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy for early oral tongue cancer 
Journal of Radiation Research  2012;53(5):722-726.
To compare the effects of 60 Gy/10 fractions (twice a day) with those of 54 Gy/9 fractions in high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for early tongue cancer, we performed a matched-pair analysis of patients with early tongue cancer (T1-2N0M0), who were treated with 60 or 54 Gy of radiation between 1996 and 2004. Seventeen patients treated with 54 Gy and 34 matched-pair patients treated with 60 Gy were extracted and analyzed. Local recurrence occurred in two patients in the 54-Gy arm and five patients in the 60-Gy arm. The 2-year local control rates were 88% for both the 54-Gy arm and 60-Gy arm (not significant). The 2-year overall survival rates were 88% in the 60-Gy arm and 82% in the 54-Gy arm. Two-year actuarial complication-free rates were 91% in the 60-Gy arm and 83% in the 54-Gy arm (not significant), respectively. There was no significant association between the total dose and local control rate and late complications. The outcome of 54 Gy/ 9 fractions was similar to that of 60 Gy/ 10 fractions in patients with early tongue cancer.
doi:10.1093/jrr/rrs027
PMCID: PMC3430427  PMID: 22843365
tongue cancer; brachytherapy; interstitial radiotherapy; high dose rate
4.  Age is not a limiting factor for brachytherapy for carcinoma of the node negative oral tongue in patients aged eighty or older 
Background
To examine the role of brachytherapy for aged patients 80 or more in the trend of rapidly increasing number.
Methods
We examined the outcomes for elderly patients with node negative oral tongue cancer (T1-3N0M0) treated with brachytherapy. The 21 patients (2 T1, 14 T2, and 5 T3 cases) ranged in age from 80 to 89 years (median 81), and their cancer was pathologically confirmed. All patients underwent definitive radiation therapy, with low dose rate (LDR) Ra-226 brachytherapy (n = 4; median 70Gy), with Ir-192 (n = 12; 70Gy), with Au-198 (n = 1) or with high dose rate (HDR) Ir-192 brachytherapy (n = 4; 60 Gy). Eight patients also underwent external radiotherapy (median 30 Gy). The period of observation ranged from 13 months to 14 years (median 2.5 years). We selected 226 population matched younger counterpart from our medical chart.
Results
Definitive radiation therapy was completed for all 21 patients (100%), and acute grade 2-3 mucositis related to the therapy was tolerable. Local control (initial complete response) was attained in 19 of 21 patients (90%). The 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 91%, (100% for T1, 83% for T2 and 80% for T3 tumors after 2 years). These figures was not inferior to that of younger counterpart (82% at 5-year, n.s.). The cause-specific survival rate was 83% and the regional control rate 84% at the 2-years follow-up. However, 12 patients died because of intercurrent diseases or senility, resulting in overall survival rates of 55% at 2 years and 34% at 5 years.
Conclusion
Age is not a limiting factor for brachytherapy for appropriately selected elderly patients, and brachytherapy achieved good local control with acceptable morbidity.
doi:10.1186/1748-717X-5-116
PMCID: PMC3016284  PMID: 21143904

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