PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-12 (12)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
Document Types
1.  Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a glucansucrase from the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans  
In this study, the glucansucrase from the dental caries pathogen S. mutans was purified and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant.
Glucansucrases encoded by Streptococcus mutans play essential roles in the synthesis of sticky dental plaques. Based on amino-acid sequence similarity, glucansucrases are classified as members of glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH 70). Data on the crystal structure of GH 70 glucansucrases have yet to be reported. Here, the GH 70 glucansucrase GTF-SI from S. mutans was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3), purified to homogeneity and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Orthorhombic GTF-SI crystals belonging to space group P21212 were obtained. A diffraction data set was collected to 2.1 Å resolution.
doi:10.1107/S1744309110029714
PMCID: PMC2935234  PMID: 20823533
glucansucrase; dental caries; Streptococcus mutans
2.  G protein-coupled receptor inactivation by an allosteric inverse-agonist antibody 
Nature  2012;482(7384):237-240.
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of cell-surface receptors, and these membrane proteins exist in equilibrium between inactive and active states.1-13 Conformational changes induced by extracellular ligands binding to GPCRs result in a cellular response through the activation of G-proteins. The A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) is responsible for regulating blood flow to the cardiac muscle and is important in the regulation of glutamate and dopamine release in the brain.14 In this study, we have successfully raised a mouse monoclonal antibody against human A2AAR that prevents agonist but not antagonist binding to the extracellular ligand-binding pocket. The structure of the A2AAR-antibody Fab fragment (Fab2838) complex reveals that the fragment, unexpectedly, recognises the intracellular surface of A2AAR and that its complementarity determining region, CDR-H3, penetrates into the receptor. CDR-H3 is located in a similar position to the G-protein C-terminal fragment in the active opsin structure1 and to the CDR-3 of the nanobody in the active β2 adrenergic receptor structure2 but locks the A2AAR in an inactive conformation. These results shed light on a novel strategy to modulate GPCR activity.
doi:10.1038/nature10750
PMCID: PMC3303121  PMID: 22286059
3.  Structure of the human histamine H1 receptor complex with doxepin 
Nature  2011;475(7354):65-70.
Summary
The biogenic amine histamine is an important pharmacological mediator involved in pathophysiological processes such as allergies and inflammations. Histamine-H1 receptor (H1R) antagonists are very effective drugs alleviating the symptoms of allergic reactions. Here we show the crystal structure of H1R complex with doxepin, a first-generation H1R-antagonist. Doxepin sits deep in the ligand binding pocket and directly interacts with the highly conserved Trp4286.48, a key residue in GPCR activation. This well-conserved pocket with mostly hydrophobic nature contributes to low selectivity of the first-generation compounds. The pocket is associated with an anion-binding region occupied by a phosphate ion. Docking of various second-generation H1R-antagonists reveals that the unique carboxyl-group present in this class of compounds interacts with Lys1915.39 and/or Lys179ECL2, both of which form part of the anion-binding region. This region is not conserved in other aminergic receptors defining how minor differences in receptor lead to pronounced selectivity differences with small molecules.
doi:10.1038/nature10236
PMCID: PMC3131495  PMID: 21697825
4.  Platform for the rapid construction and evaluation of GPCRs for crystallography in Saccharomyces cerevisiae 
Background
Recent successes in the determination of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) structures have relied on the ability of receptor variants to overcome difficulties in expression and purification. Therefore, the quick screening of functionally expressed stable receptor variants is vital.
Results
We developed a platform using Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the rapid construction and evaluation of functional GPCR variants for structural studies. This platform enables us to perform a screening cycle from construction to evaluation of variants within 6–7 days. We firstly confirmed the functional expression of 25 full-length class A GPCRs in this platform. Then, in order to improve the expression level and stability, we generated and evaluated the variants of the four GPCRs (hADRB2, hCHRM2, hHRH1 and hNTSR1). These stabilized receptor variants improved both functional activity and monodispersity. Finally, the expression level of the stabilized hHRH1 in Pichia pastoris was improved up to 65 pmol/mg from negligible expression of the functional full-length receptor in S. cerevisiae at first screening. The stabilized hHRH1 was able to be purified for use in crystallization trials.
Conclusions
We demonstrated that the S. cerevisiae system should serve as an easy-to-handle and rapid platform for the construction and evaluation of GPCR variants. This platform can be a powerful prescreening method to identify a suitable GPCR variant for crystallography.
doi:10.1186/1475-2859-11-78
PMCID: PMC3495400  PMID: 22694812
G-protein coupled receptor; Membrane protein; High expression; Screening; Receptor variants; Structural study; Saccharomyces cerevisiae
5.  Evaluation of the Pichia pastoris expression system for the production of GPCRs for structural analysis 
Background
Various protein expression systems, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris), insect cells and mammalian cell lines, have been developed for the synthesis of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for structural studies. Recently, the crystal structures of four recombinant human GPCRs, namely β2 adrenergic receptor, adenosine A2a receptor, CXCR4 and dopamine D3 receptor, were successfully determined using an insect cell expression system. GPCRs expressed in insect cells are believed to undergo mammalian-like posttranscriptional modifications and have similar functional properties than in mammals. Crystal structures of GPCRs have not yet been solved using yeast expression systems. In the present study, P. pastoris and insect cell expression systems for the human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype (CHRM2) were developed and the quantity and quality of CHRM2 synthesized by both expression systems were compared for the application in structural studies.
Results
The ideal conditions for the expression of CHRM2 in P. pastoris were 60 hr at 20°C in a buffer of pH 7.0. The specific activity of the expressed CHRM2 was 28.9 pmol/mg of membrane protein as determined by binding assays using [3H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB). Although the specific activity of the protein produced by P. pastoris was lower than that of Sf9 insect cells, CHRM2 yield in P. pastoris was 2-fold higher than in Sf9 insect cells because P. pastoris was cultured at high cell density. The dissociation constant (Kd) for QNB in P. pastoris was 101.14 ± 15.07 pM, which was similar to that in Sf9 insect cells (86.23 ± 8.57 pM). There were no differences in the binding affinity of CHRM2 for QNB between P. pastoris and Sf9 insect cells.
Conclusion
Compared to insect cells, P. pastoris is easier to handle, can be grown at lower cost, and can be expressed quicker at a large scale. Yeast, P. pastoris, and insect cells are all effective expression systems for GPCRs. The results of the present study strongly suggested that protein expression in P. pastoris can be applied to the structural and biochemical studies of GPCRs.
doi:10.1186/1475-2859-10-24
PMCID: PMC3094209  PMID: 21513509
6.  Improvement of crystal quality by surface mutations of β-lactamase Toho-1 
By introducing surface mutations, the crystal quality of a β-lactamase, Toho-1, was drastically improved. The resultant crystals showed no tendency towards merohedral twinning and diffracted to 0.97 Å resolution.
The β-lactamase Toho-1 exhibits a strong tendency to form merohedrally twinned crystals. Here, the crystal quality of Toho-1 was improved by using surface modification to remove a sulfate ion involved in crystal packing. The surface-modified Toho-1 variant (R274N/R276N) was crystallized under similar conditions to those used for wild-type Toho-1. R274N/R276N did not form merohedrally twinned crystals. The crystals diffracted to a significantly higher resolution (∼0.97 Å) than the wild-type crystals (1.65 Å); they belonged to the same space group and had almost identical unit-cell parameters to those of wild-type Toho-­1.
doi:10.1107/S1744309109008240
PMCID: PMC2664765  PMID: 19342785
extended-spectrum β-lactamases; crystal contacts; surface mutations; ultra-high resolution; merohedral twinning
7.  Crystallization of the hydantoin transporter Mhp1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens  
Mhp1, a hydantoin transporter from M. liquefaciens, was purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.85 Å resolution; the crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121.
The integral membrane protein Mhp1 from Microbacterium liquefaciens transports hydantoins and belongs to the nucleobase:cation symporter 1 family. Mhp1 was successfully purified and crystallized. Initial crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method but diffracted poorly. Optimization of the crystallization conditions resulted in the generation of orthorhombic crystals (space group P212121, unit-cell parameters a = 79.7, b = 101.1, c = 113.8 Å). A complete data set has been collected from a single crystal to a resolution of 2.85 Å with 64 741 independent observations (94% complete) and an R merge of 0.12. Further experimental phasing methods are under way.
doi:10.1107/S1744309108036920
PMCID: PMC2593711  PMID: 19052379
transporters; nucleobase:cation symporter 1 family; membrane proteins; hydantoins
8.  The alternating access mechanism of transport as observed in the sodium-hydantoin transporter Mhp1 
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation  2010;18(Pt 1):20-23.
Crystal structures of a membrane protein transporter in three different conformational states provide insights into the transport mechanism.
Secondary active transporters move molecules across cell membranes by coupling this process to the energetically favourable downhill movement of ions or protons along an electrochemical gradient. They function by the alternating access model of transport in which, through conformational changes, the substrate binding site alternately faces either side of the membrane. Owing to the difficulties in obtaining the crystal structure of a single transporter in different conformational states, relatively little structural information is known to explain how this process occurs. Here, the structure of the sodium-benzylhydantoin transporter, Mhp1, from Microbacterium liquefaciens, has been determined in three conformational states; from this a mechanism is proposed for switching from the outward-facing open conformation through an occluded structure to the inward-facing open state.
doi:10.1107/S0909049510032449
PMCID: PMC3004247  PMID: 21169684
membrane transport; transport protein; alternating access; hydantoins
9.  Molecular Basis of Alternating Access Membrane Transport by the Sodium-Hydantoin Transporter, Mhp1 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2010;328(5977):470-473.
The structure of the sodium-benzylhydantoin transport protein, Mhp1, from Microbacterium liquefaciens comprises a 5-helix inverted repeat, which is widespread amongst secondary transporters. Here we report the crystal structure of an inward-facing conformation of Mhp1 at 3.8 Å resolution, complementing its previously-described structures in outward-facing and occluded states. From analyses of the three structures and molecular dynamics simulations we propose a mechanism for the transport cycle in Mhp1. Switching from the outward- to the inward- facing state, to effect the inward release of sodium and benzylhydantoin, is primarily achieved by a rigid body movement of transmembrane helices 3, 4, 8 and 9 relative to the rest of the protein. This forms the basis of an alternating access mechanism applicable to many transporters of this emerging superfamily.
doi:10.1126/science.1186303
PMCID: PMC2885435  PMID: 20413494
10.  Molecular mechanism of energy conservation in polysulfide respiration 
Bacterial polysulfide reductase (PsrABC) is an integral membrane protein complex responsible for quinone coupled reduction of polysulfide, a process important in extreme environments such as deep-sea vents and hot springs. We determined the structure of polysulfide reductase from Thermus thermophilus at 2.4 Å resolution, revealing how the PsrA subunit recognizes and reduces its unique poly anionic substrate. The integral membrane subunit PsrC was characterized using the natural substrate menaquinone-7 and inhibitors, providing a comprehensive representation of a quinone binding site and revealing the presence of a water filled cavity connecting the quinone binding site on the periplasmic side to the cytoplasm. These results suggest that polysulfide reductase could be a key energy-conserving enzyme of the T. thermophilus respiratory chain, utilizing polysulfide as the terminal electron acceptor and pumping protons across the membrane via a previously unknown mechanism.
doi:10.1038/nsmb.1434
PMCID: PMC2887006  PMID: 18536726
11.  Structure and molecular mechanism of a nucleobase-cation-symport-1 family transporter 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2008;322(5902):709-713.
The ‘Nucleobase-Cation-Symport-1’, NCS1, transporters are essential components of salvage pathways for nucleobases and related metabolites. Here, we report the 2.85 Å resolution structure of the NCS1 benzyl-hydantoin transporter, Mhp1, from Microbacterium liquefaciens. Mhp1 contains 12 transmembrane helices, ten of which are arranged in two inverted repeats of 5 helices. The structures of the outward-facing open and substrate-bound occluded conformations were solved showing how the outward-facing cavity closes upon binding of substrate. Comparisons with the leucine (LeuTAa) and the galactose (vSGLT) transporters reveal that the outward- and inward-facing cavities are symmetrically arranged on opposite sides of the membrane. The reciprocal opening and closing of these cavities is synchronised by the inverted repeat helices 3 and 8, providing the structural basis of the ‘alternating access’ model for membrane transport.
doi:10.1126/science.1164440
PMCID: PMC2885439  PMID: 18927357
12.  Crystal Structure of Squid Rhodopsin with Intracellularly Extended Cytoplasmic Region*S⃞ 
The Journal of Biological Chemistry  2008;283(26):17753-17756.
G-protein-coupled receptors play a key step in cellular signal transduction cascades by transducing various extracellular signals via G-proteins. Rhodopsin is a prototypical G-protein-coupled receptor involved in the retinal visual signaling cascade. We determined the structure of squid rhodopsin at 3.7Å resolution, which transduces signals through the Gq protein to the phosphoinositol cascade. The structure showed seven transmembrane helices and an amphipathic helix H8 has similar geometry to structures from bovine rhodopsin, coupling to Gt, and humanβ2-adrenergic receptor, coupling to Gs. Notably, squid rhodopsin contains a well structured cytoplasmic region involved in the interaction with G-proteins, and this region is flexible or disordered in bovine rhodopsin and humanβ2-adrenergic receptor. The transmembrane helices 5 and 6 are longer and extrude into the cytoplasm. The distal C-terminal tail contains a short hydrophilic α-helix CH after the palmitoylated cysteine residues. The residues in the distal C-terminal tail interact with the neighboring residues in the second cytoplasmic loop, the extruded transmembrane helices 5 and 6, and the short helix H8. Additionally, the Tyr-111, Asn-87, and Asn-185 residues are located within hydrogen-bonding distances from the nitrogen atom of the Schiff base.
doi:10.1074/jbc.C800040200
PMCID: PMC2440622  PMID: 18463093

Results 1-12 (12)