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1.  A case of cystadenocarcinoma of the ectopic salivary gland: comparison of pre-operative ultrasound, CT and MR images with the pathological specimen 
Dentomaxillofacial Radiology  2012;41(4):349-354.
Cystadenocarcinoma is a rare salivary gland tumour. Only a few case studies have provided pre-operative images of these tumours. This report demonstrates the case of a 28-year-old male with cystadenocarcinoma arising from an ectopic salivary gland with lymph node metastasis in the right upper neck. Ultrasound including Doppler images showed two masses with scant vascular flow. One was a hyperechoic mass enclosed within a low echoic cystic lesion and the other was a solid hypoechoic mass. Contrast enhancement CT scans demonstrated a ring enhanced mass and weakly homogeneous enhanced masses in the right upper neck. Dynamic studies showed increased enhancement in delayed phase CT that was the same as that in other malignant salivary gland tumours. Moderate to slightly high signal intensity was seen on T1 weighted MR images and axial T2 weighted MR images showed one heterogeneous mass in a high signal lesion and a moderate to high signal intensity mass. The authors discuss the pre-operative findings of ultrasound with Doppler imaging of this neoplasm, and CT findings including dynamic study images and MRI, comparing the findings with the post-operative pathological features of the tumour.
PMCID: PMC3728995  PMID: 22518000
cystadenocarcinoma; ultrasound; parotid; salivary grand; imaging
2.  Disease control using low-dose-rate brachytherapy is unaffected by comorbid severity in oral cancer patients 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1006):930-938.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome and complications of low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-BT) for oral cancer according to comorbidity.
The records of a total of 180 patients who received LDR-BT for T1-2N0M0 oral cancers between January 2005 and December 2007 were analysed. The comorbidities of the patients were retrospectively graded according to the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27, and the relationships between the comorbidity grades and survival, disease control and the incidence of complications were analysed.
The 2 year overall survival rates of patients with no comorbidity, Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 comorbidity were 87%, 85%, 76% and 65%, respectively, and the reduction in the survival rate according to comorbid severity was significant in a univariate analysis (p = 0.032) but not in a multivariate analysis including other clinical factors. Cause-specific survival, locoregional control and local control were not related to the comorbidity grade, or any other clinical factors. Grade 2 or 3 complications developed in 27% of the patients. The incidence of complications was unrelated to the comorbidity grade.
The disease control of oral cancer and the incidence of complications after LDR-BT were not related to comorbid severity. LDR-BT is a useful and safe treatment for patients regardless of the presence of severe comorbidity.
PMCID: PMC3473764  PMID: 21224307
3.  Brachytherapy for tongue cancer in the very elderly is an alternative to external beam radiation 
The British Journal of Radiology  2011;84(1004):747-749.
The result of curative treatment for very elderly patients with tongue carcinoma has not been reported to date. We retrospectively reviewed the results of brachytherapy in 125 the patients aged over 75 years.
The results of brachytherapy in 125 patients, 75 years old or older, with Stage I or II squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue were reviewed. The 125 cases consisted of 31 Stage I and 94 Stage II cases; 67 patients were under 80 years old and 58 were over 80 years old. All patients were treated using low-dose-rate brachytherapy (198Au/222Rn: 59 cases; 192Ir: 38 cases; 226Ra/137Cs: 28 cases).
None of the patients stopped treatment during the course of brachytherapy. The 3 year and 5 year control rates of the primary lesions were both 86%. Post-brachytherapy neck node metastasis was diagnosed in 43 cases and radical neck dissection was performed for 24 cases (21 of the 24 cases were under 80 years old). As a result, the 7 year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate for patients aged under 80 years old was 70% and 41% for those over 80 years old (p = 0.03).
The brachytherapy for elderly patients with tongue cancer was safe, and the control of the primary lesion was almost the same as in younger patients. However, modalities available to treat neck node metastasis are limited. More conservative surgical approaches combined with post-operative irradiation may be advocated for neck node metastasis for elderly patients with tongue cancer.
PMCID: PMC3473442  PMID: 20682593
4.  Optic nerve and spinal cord manifestations of malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos disease) 
A fatal case of malignant atrophic papulosis (Degos disease) with optic nerve and spinal cord involvement is described. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the optic nerve showed abnormal signal enhancement on fat suppressed T1 weighted images after intravenous meglumine gadopentetate infusion. On T2 weighted sagittal images, a sawtooth pattern was observed over seven vertebral segments of the spinal cord. On necropsy, a severe loss of myelinated nerve fibres in the left optic nerve was seen, with thrombotic obstruction of the central retinal artery. Spongy degeneration was observed in all levels of the spinal cord, with patchy and motheaten patterns caused by thromboses and endothelial proliferation in subarachnoid vessels. Findings on MRI were consistent with findings on pathological examination.
PMCID: PMC2077559  PMID: 16421135
malignant atrophic papulosis; pathology; optic nerve; spinal cord
5.  Nitric oxide production by tumour tissue: impact on the response to photodynamic therapy 
British Journal of Cancer  2000;82(11):1835-1843.
The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the response to Photofrin-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) was investigated using mouse tumour models characterized by either relatively high or low endogenous NO production (RIF and SCCVII vs EMT6 and FsaR, respectively). The NO synthase inhibitors Nω-nitro- L -arginine (L-NNA) or Nω-nitro- L -arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), administered to mice immediately after PDT light treatment of subcutaneously growing tumours, markedly enhanced the cure rate of RIF and SCCVII models, but produced no obvious benefit with the EMT6 and FsaR models. Laser Doppler flowmetry measurement revealed that both L-NNA and L-NAME strongly inhibit blood flow in RIF and SCCVII tumours, but not in EMT6 and FsaR tumours. When injected intravenously immediately after PDT light treatment, L-NAME dramatically augmented the decrease in blood flow in SCCVII tumours induced by PDT. The pattern of blood flow alterations in tumours following PDT indicates that, even with curative doses, regular circulation may be restored in some vessels after episodes of partial or complete obstruction. Such conditions are conducive to the induction of ischaemia-reperfusion injury, which is instigated by the formation of superoxide radical. The administration of superoxide dismutase immediately after PDT resulted in a decrease in tumour cure rates, thus confirming the involvement of superoxide in the anti-tumour effect. The results of this study demonstrate that NO participates in the events associated with PDT-mediated tumour destruction, particularly in the vascular response that is of critical importance for the curative outcome of this therapy. The level of endogenous production of NO in tumours appears to be one of the determinants of sensitivity to PDT. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign
PMCID: PMC2363231  PMID: 10839299
photodynamic therapy; nitric oxide; ischaemia-reperfusion injury; mouse tumour models; tumour blood flow; nitric oxide synthase inhibitors
6.  Functional dissection of p56lck, a protein tyrosine kinase which mediates interleukin-2-induced activation of the c-fos gene. 
Molecular and Cellular Biology  1994;14(9):5812-5819.
Members of the newly identified receptor family for cytokines characteristically lack the intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase domain that is a hallmark of other growth factor receptors. Instead, accumulating evidence suggests that these receptors utilize nonreceptor-type protein tyrosine kinases for downstream signal transduction by cytokines. We have shown previously that the interleukin-2 receptor beta-chain interacts both physically and functionally with a Src family member, p56lck, and that p56lck activation leads to induction of the c-fos gene. However, the mechanism linking p56lck activation with c-fos induction remains unelucidated. In the present study, we systematically examined the extent of c-fos promoter activation by expression of a series of p56lck mutants, using a transient cotransfection assay. The results define a set of the essential amino acid residues that regulate p56lck induction of the c-fos promoter. We also provide evidence that the serum-responsive element and sis-inducible element are both targets through which p56lck controls c-fos gene activation.
PMCID: PMC359107  PMID: 8065316
7.  Identification of multiple cis-elements and trans-acting factors involved in the induced expression of human IL-2 gene. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1989;17(22):9173-9184.
Regulated expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene constitutes an essential part in the clonal proliferation of activated T lymphocytes (T-cells). In order to gain insight on the mechanism(s) of the IL-2 gene induction, deletions were introduced in the human IL-2 gene 5'-flanking region and the mitogen inducibility of each deletion mutant was examined in cultured T cell lines. At least four functional regions were identified, they contain potential binding sites for several transcription factors including one NF-kappa B and two octamer binding factor sites. Whereas each of the functional regions (or elements) is required for the maximal induction of the IL-2 gene by mitogen, one such region was found to be dispensable for activation by the HTLV-1-encoded trans-activator, tax-1. Furthermore, the potent immunosuppressive agent, cyclosporin A was found to inhibit the gene induction by mitogen, but not by tax-1.
PMCID: PMC335122  PMID: 2555786
8.  The human interleukin-2 receptor beta-chain gene: genomic organization, promoter analysis and chromosomal assignment. 
Nucleic Acids Research  1990;18(13):3697-3703.
The chromosomal gene for the human interleukin-2 receptor beta-chain (IL-2R beta) was isolated and characterized. The entire IL-2R beta gene is composed of ten exons spanning about 24.3 kilobases, in which the protein is encoded by the exons 2-10. The cysteine rich extracellular region which displays a significant evolutionary resemblance to other cytokine receptors, as well as growth hormone and prolactin receptors, is encoded primarily by exons 3 and 4, whereas the membrane proximal, cysteine poor domain showing a homology with type III modules of fibronectin is encoded by exon 7. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region revealed the presence of potential binding sites for transcription factors such as Octamer binding factors, AP-1, AP-2 as well as the 'GC-clusters'. At least five potential cap sites were identified by S1 mapping analysis. The 850 bp DNA sequence of the 5'-flanking region exhibited constitutive promoter activity when it was linked upstream of the HSV-tk reporter gene and then transfected into YT cells, a human leukemic cell line. By applying the RFLP linkage analysis, the IL-2R beta gene has been assigned to chromosome 22q12-13.
PMCID: PMC331067  PMID: 1973832

Results 1-8 (8)