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author:("shiba, atf M.")
1.  Molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in Riyadh: emergence of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli ST131 
Background
The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) has increased recently. The aim of this study was to further characterise and to assess the occurrence of ESBL-EC in Riyadh, to use pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing to investigate the epidemiology of ESBL-EC and to determine the prevalence of ST131 in ESBL-EC.
Methods
A total of 152 E. coli isolates were collected at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh from September 2010 to June 2011. Genotypic and phenotypic methods were used to characterise ESBLs. PFGE was used to determine genetic relatedness. Detection of ST131 and CTX-M-like ESBLs was performed using real-time PCR.
Results
Of 152 strains, 31 were positive for ESBLs by phenotypic methods. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was highly prevalent (30/31 strains, 96.77%) among the 31 ESBL-positive E. coli strains. The blaCTX-M-27 gene was detected in one strain. Twenty (64.5%) out of 31 of ESBL-EC were ST131. PFGE revealed 29 different pulsotypes.
Conclusions
Our study documented the high prevalence of ESBLs in E. coli isolates, with CTX-M-15 as the predominant ESBL gene. ST131 clone producing CTX-M-15 has a major presence in our hospital. The high prevalence of CTX-M producers was not due to the spread of a single clone. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first report of CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-27 β-lactamases and the detection of the ST131 clone in Saudi E. coli isolates.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-13-4
PMCID: PMC3898780  PMID: 24397567
β-lactam resistance; Class A β-lactamases; PFGE; ST131; Saudi Arabia
2.  Prevalence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2009;29(4):253-257.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Reports on extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) production by Enterobacteriaceae, and especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae, are few in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of ESBL in K pneumoniae from Riyadh and characterized the predominant β-lactamase gene in these isolates.
METHODS:
A total of 400 K pneumoniae samples were isolated from two hospitals in Riyadh during 2007 and screened for production of ESBL using ESBL-E-strips and combined disk methods. PCR assay was used to detect blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes.
RESULTS:
Phenotypic characterization identified a high ESBL rate of 55% of K pneumoniae isolates. ESBL-producing K pneumoniae were PCR positive for SHV, TEM and CTX-M β-lactamase genes with prevalences 97.3%, 84.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Within the CTX-M family, two groups of enzymes, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9-like genes were found with prevalences of 60% and 40%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study confirms the high rate of ESBL in K pneumoniae clinical isolates in hospitals in Riyadh. This study demonstrates the worldwide spread of blaCTX-M genes. This first report of the presence of the blaCTX-M gene in clincial isolates in Saudi Arabia is evidence of the continuing worldwide spread of this gene.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.55306
PMCID: PMC2841451  PMID: 19587523
3.  Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates 
Background:
The emergence of infection caused by invasive penicillinnonsusceptible (PNS) and multidrug-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae has become a worldwide concern, necessitating the epidemiologic surveillance of such strains.
Objectives:
One aim of this study was to identify clones of invasive PNS S pneumoniae among isolates in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The second aim was to compare these clones with international clones to track their spread in Saudi Arabia.
Methods:
The phenotypes of invasive isolates characterized as S pneumoniae were determined using susceptibility testing and serotyping (capsular test and E-test). The genotypes of PNS isolates were determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. The genetic relatedness of these local strains to the international widespread clones was investigated.
Results:
Of 296 S pneumoniae isolates identified using biochemical and culture characteristics, 89 (30.1%) were invasive. Susceptibility testing using the E-test revealed that 17 of the 89 invasive isolates (19.1%) were PNS. Most of the 89 isolates (89.9%) were resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim; 32.6% and 23.6% of isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline, respectively. All of the isolates (100.0%) were fully susceptible to ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Capsular serotyping of the 89 isolates showed that 19A (18.0%), 613 (14.6%), 23F (13.5%), 9V (11.2%), 14 (6.7%), 19F (5.6%), and 18C (4.5%) were the most predominant serogroups/serotypes. The 17 PNS strains were confirmed on polymerase chain reaction to have penicillin resistance genes. Of these 17 strains, international clone 19A-a was the most predominant (41.2%), followed by 6B-a (17.6%), and 23F-a and 9V-a (each, 11.8%).
Conclusions:
The present study identified the spread of the 4 most commonPNS S pneumoniae isolates (clones)—19A, 613, 23F, and 9V-to Riyadh, but identified no new clones among patients having invasive infection with S pneumoniae in Riyadh. This study emphasizes that international PNS clones have contributed to the prevalence and spread of PNS pneumococci among the clinical isolates in Saudi Arabia.
doi:10.1016/j.curtheres.2004.10.005
PMCID: PMC3964522  PMID: 24672095
Streptococcus pneumoniae; susceptibility; serotyping; randomamplified polymorphic DNA analysis
4.  Changing Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance and Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Asian Countries: an Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) Study 
Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a serious concern worldwide, particularly in Asian countries, despite the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) performed a prospective surveillance study of 2,184 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients with pneumococcal infections from 60 hospitals in 11 Asian countries from 2008 to 2009. Among nonmeningeal isolates, the prevalence rate of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml) was 4.6% and penicillin resistance (MIC, ≥8 μg/ml) was extremely rare (0.7%). Resistance to erythromycin was very prevalent in the region (72.7%); the highest rates were in China (96.4%), Taiwan (84.9%), and Vietnam (80.7%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 59.3% of isolates from Asian countries. Major serotypes were 19F (23.5%), 23F (10.0%), 19A (8.2%), 14 (7.3%), and 6B (7.3%). Overall, 52.5% of isolates showed PCV7 serotypes, ranging from 16.1% in Philippines to 75.1% in Vietnam. Serotypes 19A (8.2%), 3 (6.2%), and 6A (4.2%) were the most prominent non-PCV7 serotypes in the Asian region. Among isolates with serotype 19A, 86.0% and 79.8% showed erythromycin resistance and MDR, respectively. The most remarkable findings about the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in Asian countries after the introduction of PCV7 were the high prevalence of macrolide resistance and MDR and distinctive increases in serotype 19A.
doi:10.1128/AAC.05658-11
PMCID: PMC3294909  PMID: 22232285

Results 1-4 (4)