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author:("shiba, ate M.")
1.  Genetic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Retail Meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 
Limited data exist from the Gulf Cooperation Council states on the prevalence and population dynamics of Staphylococcus aureus colonizing livestock or contaminating retail meat. This study was designed to determine the presence and genetic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from raw retail meat sold in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Over a period of 9 months, different raw retail meat types were aseptically processed using the double broth enrichment technique, characteristic colonies from chromogenic and mannitol salt agar were further identified using conventional methods. Susceptibility to 9 antibiotics was determined using the disc diffusion technique. Interpretation of inhibition zone was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Molecular characterization was carried out using the StaphyType DNA microarray technology. Twenty-five meat samples yielded Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Camel meat had the highest contamination rate with Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (20%) and Methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (28%), while poultry meat had the least contamination rate with MRSA (4%). The MRSA isolates were grouped into 4 clonal complexes (CCs) namely CC1-MRSA-IV/SCCfus (n = 2), CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus (n = 4), CC80-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 5), and CC88-MRSA-IV/PVL+ (n = 2). All CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus isolates were obtained from camel meat. This is the first study to demonstrate the novel CC15-MRSA-V/SCCfus in retail camel meat. We recommend that surveillance studies should be incorporated in public health and food hygiene programs.
doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00911
PMCID: PMC4899468  PMID: 27375611
CC15-MRSA; camel meat; retail meat; MRSA prevalence; Saudi Arabia
2.  Fecal Colonization with Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase and AmpC-Producing Escherichia coli 
BioMed Research International  2016;2016:3704150.
Background. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs) and AmpC β-lactamases cause β-lactam resistance in Escherichia coli. Fecal colonization by ESβL- and/or AmpC-positive E. coli is a source of nosocomial infections. Methods. In order to investigate inpatient fecal colonization by ESβLs and AmpC, antibiotic sensitivity tests were conducted and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the disk diffusion method and E-test, respectively. Characterization of ESβL and AmpC was performed using E-test strips, and a set of PCRs and DNA sequence analyses were used to characterize the ESβL and AmpC genes. Results. The whole collection of E. coli isolates (n = 50) was sensitive to imipenem, tigecycline, colistin, and fosfomycin, while 26% of the isolates showed reduced susceptibility to ceftazidime (MIC ≥ 4 μg/mL). ESβL was phenotypically identified in 26% (13/50) of cases, while AmpC activity was detected in two ESβL-producing E. coli isolates. All ESβL-producing E. coli were positive for the CTX-M gene, eleven isolates carried blaCTX-M-15, and two isolates carried blaCTX-M-14 gene. Two CTX-M-positive E. coli isolates carried blaCMY-2. Conclusions. The alimentary tract is a significant reservoir for ESβL- and/or AmpC-producing E. coli, which may lead to nosocomial infection.
doi:10.1155/2016/3704150
PMCID: PMC4906171  PMID: 27340657
3.  Diversity of Molecular Mechanisms Conferring Carbapenem Resistance to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Saudi Arabia 
Background. This study described various molecular and epidemiological characters determining antibiotic resistance patterns in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Methods. A total of 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were isolated from samples collected at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2011. Susceptibility testing, serotyping, molecular characterization of carbapenem resistance, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed. Results. All isolates were resistant to ceftazidime, and more than half were highly resistant (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 256 mg/L). Fifteen isolates had MIC values ≥64 mg/L for any of the carbapenems examined. Vietnamese extended-spectrum β-lactamase (VEB-1) (n = 16/34) and oxacillinase (OXA-10) (n = 14/34) were the most prevalent extended-spectrum β-lactamase and penicillinase, respectively. Verona imipenemase (VIM-1, VIM-2, VIM-4, VIM-11, and VIM-28) and imipenemase (IMP-7) variants were found in metallo-β-lactamase producers. A decrease in outer membrane porin gene (oprD) expression was seen in nine isolates, and an increase in efflux pump gene (MexAB) expression was detected in five isolates. Six serotypes (O:1, O:4, O:7, O:10, O:11, and O:15) were found among the 34 isolates. The predominant serotype was O:11 (16 isolates), followed by O:15 (nine isolates). PFGE analysis of the 34 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates revealed 14 different pulsotypes. Conclusions. These results revealed diverse mechanisms conferring carbapenem resistance to P. aeruginosa isolates from Saudi Arabia.
doi:10.1155/2016/4379686
PMCID: PMC4997076  PMID: 27597874
4.  Characterization of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae with High Rate of Autochthonous Transmission in the Arabian Peninsula 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(6):e0131372.
To establish the role of local transmission versus possible pathogen import due to previous foreign exposure in infections caused by carbapenem non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae in the Arabian Peninsula, 200 independent isolates collected in 16 hospitals of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman and the United Arab Emirates were studied. All strains were multidrug resistant; 42.5% of them also qualified as extremely drug resistant. The frequency of various carbapenemases varied according to the participating countries, but in the collection, as a whole, blaNDM-1 was the most frequently encountered carbapenemase gene (46.5%) followed by blaOXA-48-like gene (32.5%). A comparatively high rate (8.9%) of multi-clonal strains carrying both blaNDM and blaOXA-48-like genes in the United Arab Emirates, representing the most resistant subgroup, was encountered. No KPC-expressing isolates were detected. Three major clones of blaNDM-1 carrying Klebsiella pneumoniae of ST152 (n = 22, Saudi Arabia), ST14 (n = 7, United Arab Emirates) and ST147 types (n = 9, Oman) were identified, the latter two clones carrying similar, but not identical HI1b incompatibility type plasmids of >170kb. While from 78.6% of the cases with documented foreign hospitalization blaNDM positive strains were isolated, these strains formed only 25.6% of all the isolates expressing this enzyme. In fact, 56.8% of the NDM, 75.7% of OXA-48-like and 90.9% of VIM positive strains were recovered from patients without documented foreign exposure, neither in the form of travel or prior hospitalization abroad, suggesting a high rate of autochthonous infections. This, considering the extensive links of these countries to the rest of the world, predicts that trends in the local epidemiology of carbapenem resistant strains may increasingly affect the spread of these pathogens on the global scale. These results call for improved surveillance of carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the countries of the Arabian Peninsula.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131372
PMCID: PMC4482506  PMID: 26110660
5.  Molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in Riyadh: emergence of CTX-M-15-producing E. coli ST131 
Background
The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) has increased recently. The aim of this study was to further characterise and to assess the occurrence of ESBL-EC in Riyadh, to use pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing to investigate the epidemiology of ESBL-EC and to determine the prevalence of ST131 in ESBL-EC.
Methods
A total of 152 E. coli isolates were collected at a tertiary hospital in Riyadh from September 2010 to June 2011. Genotypic and phenotypic methods were used to characterise ESBLs. PFGE was used to determine genetic relatedness. Detection of ST131 and CTX-M-like ESBLs was performed using real-time PCR.
Results
Of 152 strains, 31 were positive for ESBLs by phenotypic methods. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was highly prevalent (30/31 strains, 96.77%) among the 31 ESBL-positive E. coli strains. The blaCTX-M-27 gene was detected in one strain. Twenty (64.5%) out of 31 of ESBL-EC were ST131. PFGE revealed 29 different pulsotypes.
Conclusions
Our study documented the high prevalence of ESBLs in E. coli isolates, with CTX-M-15 as the predominant ESBL gene. ST131 clone producing CTX-M-15 has a major presence in our hospital. The high prevalence of CTX-M producers was not due to the spread of a single clone. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first report of CTX-M-15 and CTX-M-27 β-lactamases and the detection of the ST131 clone in Saudi E. coli isolates.
doi:10.1186/1476-0711-13-4
PMCID: PMC3898780  PMID: 24397567
β-lactam resistance; Class A β-lactamases; PFGE; ST131; Saudi Arabia
6.  Changing Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance and Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Asian Countries: an Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) Study 
Antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a serious concern worldwide, particularly in Asian countries, despite the introduction of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). The Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP) performed a prospective surveillance study of 2,184 S. pneumoniae isolates collected from patients with pneumococcal infections from 60 hospitals in 11 Asian countries from 2008 to 2009. Among nonmeningeal isolates, the prevalence rate of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococci (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml) was 4.6% and penicillin resistance (MIC, ≥8 μg/ml) was extremely rare (0.7%). Resistance to erythromycin was very prevalent in the region (72.7%); the highest rates were in China (96.4%), Taiwan (84.9%), and Vietnam (80.7%). Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in 59.3% of isolates from Asian countries. Major serotypes were 19F (23.5%), 23F (10.0%), 19A (8.2%), 14 (7.3%), and 6B (7.3%). Overall, 52.5% of isolates showed PCV7 serotypes, ranging from 16.1% in Philippines to 75.1% in Vietnam. Serotypes 19A (8.2%), 3 (6.2%), and 6A (4.2%) were the most prominent non-PCV7 serotypes in the Asian region. Among isolates with serotype 19A, 86.0% and 79.8% showed erythromycin resistance and MDR, respectively. The most remarkable findings about the epidemiology of S. pneumoniae in Asian countries after the introduction of PCV7 were the high prevalence of macrolide resistance and MDR and distinctive increases in serotype 19A.
doi:10.1128/AAC.05658-11
PMCID: PMC3294909  PMID: 22232285
7.  Prevalence and molecular characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 
Annals of Saudi Medicine  2009;29(4):253-257.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:
Reports on extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) production by Enterobacteriaceae, and especially in Klebsiella pneumoniae, are few in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of ESBL in K pneumoniae from Riyadh and characterized the predominant β-lactamase gene in these isolates.
METHODS:
A total of 400 K pneumoniae samples were isolated from two hospitals in Riyadh during 2007 and screened for production of ESBL using ESBL-E-strips and combined disk methods. PCR assay was used to detect blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes.
RESULTS:
Phenotypic characterization identified a high ESBL rate of 55% of K pneumoniae isolates. ESBL-producing K pneumoniae were PCR positive for SHV, TEM and CTX-M β-lactamase genes with prevalences 97.3%, 84.1% and 34.1%, respectively. Within the CTX-M family, two groups of enzymes, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-9-like genes were found with prevalences of 60% and 40%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study confirms the high rate of ESBL in K pneumoniae clinical isolates in hospitals in Riyadh. This study demonstrates the worldwide spread of blaCTX-M genes. This first report of the presence of the blaCTX-M gene in clincial isolates in Saudi Arabia is evidence of the continuing worldwide spread of this gene.
doi:10.4103/0256-4947.55306
PMCID: PMC2841451  PMID: 19587523
8.  Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates 
Background:
The emergence of infection caused by invasive penicillinnonsusceptible (PNS) and multidrug-resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae has become a worldwide concern, necessitating the epidemiologic surveillance of such strains.
Objectives:
One aim of this study was to identify clones of invasive PNS S pneumoniae among isolates in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The second aim was to compare these clones with international clones to track their spread in Saudi Arabia.
Methods:
The phenotypes of invasive isolates characterized as S pneumoniae were determined using susceptibility testing and serotyping (capsular test and E-test). The genotypes of PNS isolates were determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. The genetic relatedness of these local strains to the international widespread clones was investigated.
Results:
Of 296 S pneumoniae isolates identified using biochemical and culture characteristics, 89 (30.1%) were invasive. Susceptibility testing using the E-test revealed that 17 of the 89 invasive isolates (19.1%) were PNS. Most of the 89 isolates (89.9%) were resistant to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim; 32.6% and 23.6% of isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol and tetracycline, respectively. All of the isolates (100.0%) were fully susceptible to ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Capsular serotyping of the 89 isolates showed that 19A (18.0%), 613 (14.6%), 23F (13.5%), 9V (11.2%), 14 (6.7%), 19F (5.6%), and 18C (4.5%) were the most predominant serogroups/serotypes. The 17 PNS strains were confirmed on polymerase chain reaction to have penicillin resistance genes. Of these 17 strains, international clone 19A-a was the most predominant (41.2%), followed by 6B-a (17.6%), and 23F-a and 9V-a (each, 11.8%).
Conclusions:
The present study identified the spread of the 4 most commonPNS S pneumoniae isolates (clones)—19A, 613, 23F, and 9V-to Riyadh, but identified no new clones among patients having invasive infection with S pneumoniae in Riyadh. This study emphasizes that international PNS clones have contributed to the prevalence and spread of PNS pneumococci among the clinical isolates in Saudi Arabia.
doi:10.1016/j.curtheres.2004.10.005
PMCID: PMC3964522  PMID: 24672095
Streptococcus pneumoniae; susceptibility; serotyping; randomamplified polymorphic DNA analysis

Results 1-8 (8)