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1.  Diabetes, depression, and healthcare utilization among African Americans in primary care. 
PURPOSE: This study tested for an association between diabetes and depressive symptoms and assessed the effect of co-occurring diabetes and depressive symptoms on healthcare utilization outcomes among African-American patients. PROCEDURE: The sample consisted of 303 adult African-American patients age 40 and over from a primary care clinic serving the low-income population in Nashville, TN. Measures were based on self-reports during a structured interview. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, socioeconomic status, and comorbid chronic conditions. FINDINGS: African-American patients with and without diabetes did not differ on the presence or severity of depressive symptoms. However, the co-occurrence of major depressive symptoms with diabetes among African Americans was associated with nearly three times more reported emergency room visits and three times more inpatient days, but was only marginally associated with a lower number of physician visits. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous studies with predominantly white samples that found a positive association between diabetes and depression, no association was found in this African-American sample. Nevertheless, the results did concur with research findings based on other samples, in that the co-occurrence of depression with diabetes was associated with more acute care utilization, such as emergency room visits and inpatient hospitalizations. This pattern of utilization may lead to higher healthcare costs among patients with diabetes who are depressed, regardless of race.
PMCID: PMC2595010  PMID: 15101668
2.  The effect of a church-based breast cancer screening education program on mammography rates among African-American women. 
This study examines the effectiveness of breast cancer screening education programs on mammography rates among African-American women 40 years of age and over. We conducted two types of educational programs in community settings, primarily in African-American churches. Three-month follow-up interviews were used to determine whether women who participated in programming were more likely to get a mammogram if they had not had a mammogram in the last year. Our results demonstrate that the educational programs significantly increased the likelihood of getting a mammogram when compared to a control group that received no educational programming. Further, we found that the programs were effective for motivating breast cancer screening in housing projects as well as in the churches, and that the effectiveness of the programs remained even when we controlled for socioeconomic status, depression, and age.
PMCID: PMC2594122  PMID: 11853042

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