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author:("Shen, longyan")
1.  Distinct Metabolic Profile of Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Revealed by NMR-Based Metabolomics 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e78531.
Background
Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is pathological entity which is characterized by idiopathic steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the majority of affected individuals. Currently, there is no practical noninvasive technique to predict different pathological types of glomerulopathies. In this study, the role of urinary metabolomics in the diagnosis and pathogenesis of FSGS was investigated.
Methods
NMR-based metabolomics was applied for the urinary metabolic profile in the patients with FSGS (n = 25), membranous nephropathy (MN, n = 24), minimal change disease (MCD, n = 14) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN, n = 26), and healthy controls (CON, n = 35). The acquired data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) followed by orthogonal projections to latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Model validity was verified using permutation tests.
Results
FSGS patients were clearly distinguished from healthy controls and other three types of glomerulopathies with good sensitivity and specificity based on their global urinary metabolic profiles. In FSGS patients, urinary levels of glucose, dimethylamine and trimethylamine increased compared with healthy controls, while pyruvate, valine, hippurate, isoleucine, phenylacetylglycine, citrate, tyrosine, 3-methylhistidine and β-hydroxyisovalerate decreased. Additionally, FSGS patients had lower urine N-methylnicotinamide levels compared with other glomerulopathies.
Conclusions
NMR-based metabonomic approach is amenable for the noninvasive diagnosis and differential diagnosis of FSGS as well as other glomerulopathies, and it could indicate the possible mechanisms of primary FSGS.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078531
PMCID: PMC3823857  PMID: 24244321
2.  Predicting Progression of IgA Nephropathy: New Clinical Progression Risk Score 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e38904.
IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is a common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Asia. In this study, based on a large cohort of Chinese patients with IgAN, we aim to identify independent predictive factors associated with disease progression to ESRD. We collected retrospective clinical data and renal outcomes on 619 biopsy-diagnosed IgAN patients with a mean follow-up time of 41.3 months. In total, 67 individuals reached the study endpoint defined by occurrence of ESRD necessitating renal replacement therapy. In the fully adjusted Cox proportional hazards model, there were four baseline variables with a significant independent effect on the risk of ESRD. These included: eGFR [HR = 0.96(0.95–0.97)], serum albumin [HR = 0.47(0.32–0.68)], hemoglobin [HR = 0.79(0.72–0.88)], and SBP [HR = 1.02(1.00–1.03)]. Based on these observations, we developed a 4-variable equation of a clinical risk score for disease progression. Our risk score explained nearly 22% of the total variance in the primary outcome. Survival ROC curves revealed that the risk score provided improved prediction of ESRD at 24th, 60th and 120th month of follow-up compared to the three previously proposed risk scores. In summary, our data indicate that IgAN patients with higher systolic blood pressure, lower eGFR, hemoglobin, and albumin levels at baseline are at a greatest risk of progression to ESRD. The new progression risk score calculated based on these four baseline variables offers a simple clinical tool for risk stratification.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038904
PMCID: PMC3375310  PMID: 22719981
3.  Community-based study on CKD subjects and the associated risk factors 
Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation  2009;24(7):2117-2123.
Background. The study was performed to investigate the prevalence, awareness and the risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the community population in Shanghai, China.
Methods. A total of 2596 residents were randomly recruited from the community population in Shanghai, China. All were screened for albuminuria, haematuria, morning spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and renal function. Serum creatinine, uric acid, cholesterol, triglyceride and haemoglobin were assessed. A simplified MDRD equation was used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). All studied subjects were screened by kidney ultrasound. Haematuria, if present in the morning spot urine dipstick test, was confirmed by microscopy. The associations among the demographic characteristics, health characteristics and indicators of kidney damage were examined.
Results. Two thousand five hundred and fifty-four residents (n = 2554), after giving informed consent and with complete data, were entered into this study. Albuminuria and haematuria were detected in 6.3% and 1.2% of all the studied subjects, respectively, whereas decreased kidney function was found in 5.8% of all studied subjects. Approximately 11.8% of subjects had at least one indicator of kidney damage. The rate of awareness of CKD was 8.2%. The logistic regression model showed that age, central obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anaemia, hyperuricaemia and nephrolithiasis each contributed to the development of CKD.
Conclusion. This is the first Shanghai community-based epidemiological study data on Chinese CKD patients. The prevalence of CKD in the community population in Shanghai is 11.8%, and the rate of awareness of CKD is 8.2%. All the factors including age, central obesity, hypertension, diabetes, anaemia, hyperuricaemia and nephrolithiasis are positively correlated with the development of CKD in our studied subjects.
doi:10.1093/ndt/gfn767
PMCID: PMC2698090  PMID: 19193736
awareness; chronic kidney disease; epidemiology; prevalence; risk factors

Results 1-3 (3)