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author:("rhazia, Q.")
1.  Knowledge, awareness, and perception of contraception among senior pharmacy students in Malaysia: A pilot study 
This study aimed to assess the knowledge, awareness, and perception of contraception among senior pharmacy students of a public sector university in Malaysia.
A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among senior pharmacy students. The pretested questionnaire was used to collect data from the participants over the period of 1-month. The questionnaire was divided into four sections, for gathering the information about students’ demographic data, and their knowledge, attitudes, and perception toward contraception. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 20.
The response rate was 68.6%. The results showed that the contraceptive knowledge was comparatively higher in year four students (P < 0.001), married respondents (P < 0.001) and those taking elective courses (P = 0.022) as compared to their respective counterparts. Majority of the students were well aware and had a positive perception about contraception.
Overall findings reflect that the majority of the students had good knowledge, perception, and awareness about contraception. The study recommends future studies to be conducted covering different pharmacy schools across the country to further establish the results.
PMCID: PMC4418143  PMID: 25984548
Awareness; contraceptive; knowledge; perception; students
2.  Comparison of knowledge and attitudes about antibiotics and resistance, and antibiotics self-practicing between Bachelor of Pharmacy and Doctor of Pharmacy students in Southern India 
Pharmacy Practice  2015;13(1):523.
There is limited research on pharmacy specialization based differences with regards to usage of antibiotics.
To compare the knowledge, attitude and practice of Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm) and Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) students about usage and resistance of antibiotics in Southern India.
This was a cross sectional study involving final year BPharm and PharmD students studying in two private institutions located in Andra Pradesh, India. The study was conducted for the period of 3 months. The questionnaire was divided into 5 components: demographics, knowledge about antibiotic use, attitude towards antibiotic use and resistance, self-antibiotic usage, and possible causes of antibiotic resistance. The study questionnaire was assessed for reliability. Data were analysed by employing Mann Whitney and chi square tests using SPSS version 19.
The sample size comprised of 137 students. The response rate was 76.11% for the study. There was a significant difference in the knowledge of antibiotic use in BPharm and PharmD students (Mean score: 5.09 vs 6.18, p<0.001). The overall attitude of PharmD students about antibiotic use and resistance was positive compared to BPharm students (Mean score: 3.05 vs 2.23, p<0.05). The self-antibiotic practices was higher in BPharm students than PharmD students (36.4% vs 20%, p<0.05). A significantly high number of PharmD students believed that empirical antibiotic therapy led to antibiotic resistance (19.5% versus 48%, P<0.05).
PharmD students were more knowledgeable about antibiotic usage and resistance compared to BPharm students who did not have accurate and the much needed information about the same. Future interventions should be targeted towards educating the BPharm students so that they can implement the acquired knowledge in their practice.
PMCID: PMC4384268  PMID: 25883690
Students; Pharmacy; Health Knowledge; Attitudes; Practice; Anti-Bacterial Agents; Drug Resistance; Bacterial; India
3.  Factors underlying inadequate parents’ awareness regarding pediatrics immunization: findings of cross-sectional study in Mosul- Iraq 
BMC Pediatrics  2014;14:29.
Since last 100 years, immunization rate is one of the best public health outcome and service indicators. However, the immunization system is still imperfect; there are many countries that still have unvaccinated children. Parental decisions regarding immunization are very important to improve immunization rate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between parental knowledge-practice (KP) regarding immunization with family and immunization providers’ factors.
This is a prospective cross-sectional study design. Immunization knowledge and practices among 528 Iraqi parents were evaluated through validated questionnaire. Familial data and immunization provider’s characteristics were collected from parents through interview.
More than half of respondents/study population (66.1%) have adequate knowledge- practice scores. Significant associations were noted for knowledge-practice groups with father’s education level, mother’s education level, mother’s age at delivery, number of preschool children, parents gender, family income, provider types, and birth place (p < 0.05).
Immunization campaigns and awareness are required to improve parents’ knowledge and practice regarding immunization. The study results reinforce recommendations for use of educational programmes to improve the immunization knowledge and practice.
PMCID: PMC3909509  PMID: 24485194
Immunization; Iraq; Parents; Knowledge; Practice
4.  Are parents' knowledge and practice regarding immunization related to pediatrics’ immunization compliance? a mixed method study 
BMC Pediatrics  2014;14:20.
Immunization rate is one of the best public health outcome and service indicators of the last 100 years. Parental decisions regarding immunization are very important to improve immunization rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between parental knowledge-practices (KP) and children's immunization completeness.
A mixed method has been utilized in this study: a retrospective cohort study was used to evaluate immunization completeness; a prospective cross-sectional study was used to evaluate immunization KP of parents. 528 children born between 1 January 2003 and 31 June 2008 were randomly selected from five public health clinics in Mosul, Iraq. Immunization history of each child was collected retrospectively from their immunization record/card.
About half of studied children (n = 286, 56.3%) were immunized with all vaccination doses; these children were considered as having had complete immunization. 66.1% of the parents was found to have adequate KP scores. A significant association of immunization completeness with total KP groups (p < 0.05) was found.
Future efforts are required to improve immunization rate and parents' knowledge and practice. The study results reinforce recommendations for the periodic assessment of immunization rate and the use of educational programmes to improve the immunization rate, knowledge and practice.
PMCID: PMC3904208  PMID: 24460878
Immunization; Iraq; Children; Parents; Knowledge; Practice; Compliance
6.  Correlation of Oxidative Stress with Serum Trace Element Levels and Antioxidant Enzyme Status in Beta Thalassemia Major Patients: A Review of the Literature 
Anemia  2012;2012:270923.
Beta thalassemia major is an inherited disease resulting from reduction or total lack of beta globin chains. Patients with this disease need repeated blood transfusion for survival. This may cause oxidative stress and tissue injury due to iron overload, altered antioxidant enzymes, and other essential trace element levels. The aim of this review is to scrutinize the relationship between oxidative stress and serum trace elements, degree of damage caused by oxidative stress, and the role of antioxidant enzymes in beta thalassemia major patients. The findings indicate that oxidative stress in patients with beta thalassemia major is mainly caused by tissue injury due to over production of free radical by secondary iron overload, alteration in serum trace elements and antioxidant enzymes level. The role of trace elements like selenium, copper, iron, and zinc in beta thalassemia major patients reveals a significant change of these trace elements. Studies published on the status of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, and glutathione S-transferase in beta thalassemia patients also showed variable results. The administration of selective antioxidants along with essential trace elements and minerals to reduce the extent of oxidative damage and related complications in beta thalassemia major still need further evaluation.
PMCID: PMC3357501  PMID: 22645668

Results 1-6 (6)