Nanoparticles bearing surface-conjugated targeting ligands are increasingly being explored for a variety of biomedical applications. The multivalent conjugation of targeting ligands on the surface of nanoparticles is presumed to enhance binding to the desired target. However, given the complexities inherent in the interactions of nanoparticle surfaces with proteins, and the structural diversity of nanoparticle scaffolds and targeting ligands, our understanding of how conjugation of targeting ligands affects nanoparticle binding remains incomplete. Here we use surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to directly and quantitatively study the affinity and binding kinetics of nanoparticles that display small molecules conjugated to their surface. We studied the interaction between a single protein target and a structurally related series of targeting ligands whose intrinsic affinity varies over a 4500-fold range, and performed SPR at protein densities that reflect endogenous receptor densities. We report that even weak small molecule targeting ligands can significantly enhance target-specific avidity (by up to 4 orders of magnitude) through multivalent interactions, and also observe a much broader range of kinetic effects than has been previously reported. Quantitative measurement of how the affinity and kinetics of nanoparticle binding vary as a function of different surface conjugations is a rapid, generalizable approach to nanoparticle characterization that can inform the design of nanoparticles for biomedical applications.
Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan in the arterial wall. Previous studies have linked it to atherosclerosis. Perlecan contains a core protein and three HS side chains. Its core protein has five domains (DI–DV) with disparate structures and DII is highly homologous to the ligand-binding portion of LDL receptor (LDLR). The functional significance of this domain has been unknown. Here, we show that perlecan DII interacts with LDL. Importantly, the interaction largely relies on O-linked glycans that are only present in the secreted DII. Among the five repeat units of DII, most of the glycosylation sites are from the second unit, which is highly divergent and rich in serine and threonine, but has no cysteine residues. Interestingly, most of the glycans are capped by the negatively charged sialic acids, which are critical for LDL binding. We further demonstrate an additive effect of HS and DII on LDL binding. Unlike LDLR, which directs LDL uptake through endocytosis, this study uncovers a novel feature of the perlecan LDLR-like DII in receptor-mediated lipoprotein retention, which depends on its glycosylation. Thus, perlecan glycosylation may play a role in the early LDL retention during the development of atherosclerosis.
low density lipoprotein receptor; sialic acid; low density lipoprotein
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that directs cytoplasmic proteins, organelles and microbes to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagy acts at the intersection of pathways involved in cellular stress, host defense, and modulation of inflammatory and immune responses; however, the details of how the autophagy network intersects with these processes remain largely undefined. Given the role of autophagy in several human diseases, it is important to determine the extent to which modulators of autophagy also modify inflammatory or immune pathways, and whether it is possible to modulate a subset of these pathways selectively. Here, we identify small-molecule inducers of basal autophagy (including several FDA-approved drugs) and characterize their effects on IL-1β production, autophagic engulfment and killing of intracellular bacteria, and development of Treg, TH17, and TH1 subsets from naïve T cells. Autophagy inducers with distinct, selective activity profiles were identified that reveal the functional architecture of connections between autophagy, and innate and adaptive immunity. In macrophages from mice bearing a conditional deletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg16L1, the small molecules inhibit IL-1β production to varying degrees suggesting that individual compounds may possess both autophagy-dependent and autophagy-independent activity on immune pathways. The small molecule autophagy inducers constitute useful probes to test the contributions of autophagy-related pathways in diseases marked by impaired autophagy or elevated IL-1β, and to test novel therapeutic hypotheses.
Background & Aims
Intestinal epithelial cells aid in mucosal defense by providing a physical barrier against entry of pathogenic bacteria and secreting anti-microbial peptides (AMPs). Autophagy is an important component of immune homeostasis. However, little is known about its role in specific cell types during bacterial infection in vivo. We investigated the role of autophagy in the response of intestinal epithelial and antigen-presenting cells to Salmonella infection in mice.
We generated mice deficient in Atg16l1 in epithelial cells (Atg16l1f/f x Villin-cre) or CD11c+ cells (Atg16l1f/f x CD11c-cre); these mice were used to assess cell type-specific, anti-bacterial autophagy. All responses were compared to Atg16l1f/f mice (controls). Mice were infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; cecum and small intestine tissues were collected for immunofluorescence, histology, and quantitative reverse transcription PCR analyses of cytokines and AMPs. Modulators of autophagy were screened to evaluate their effects on anti-bacterial responses in human epithelial cells.
Autophagy was induced in small intestine and cecum following infection with S Typhimurium, and required Atg16l1. S Typhimurium colocalized with microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta (Map1lc3b or LC3) in the intestinal epithelium of control mice but not in Atg16l1f/f x Villin-cre mice. Atg16l1f/f x Villin-cre mice also had fewer Paneth cells and abnormal granule morphology, leading to reduced expression of AMP. Consistent with these defective immune responses, Atg16l1f/f x Villin-cre mice had increased inflammation and systemic translocation of bacteria compared with control mice. In contrast, we observed few differences between Atg16l1f/f x CD11c-cre and control mice. Trifluoperazine promoted autophagy and bacterial clearance in HeLa cells; these effects were reduced upon knockdown of ATG16L1.
Atg16l1 regulates autophagy in intestinal epithelial cells and is required for bacterial clearance. It is also required to prevent systemic infection of mice with enteric bacteria.
mouse model; autophagy; intestinal barrier; mucosa
Vitamin D may have an immunological role in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Retrospective studies suggested a weak association between vitamin D status and disease activity but have significant limitations.
Using a multi-institution inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohort, we identified all CD and UC patients who had at least one measured plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D]. Plasma 25(OH)D was considered sufficient at levels ≥ 30ng/mL. Logistic regression models adjusting for potential confounders were used to identify impact of measured plasma 25(OH)D on subsequent risk of IBD-related surgery or hospitalization. In a subset of patients where multiple measures of 25(OH)D were available, we examined impact of normalization of vitamin D status on study outcomes.
Our study included 3,217 patients (55% CD, mean age 49 yrs). The median lowest plasma 25(OH)D was 26ng/ml (IQR 17–35ng/ml). In CD, on multivariable analysis, plasma 25(OH)D < 20ng/ml was associated with an increased risk of surgery (OR 1.76 (1.24 – 2.51) and IBD-related hospitalization (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.59 – 2.68) compared to those with 25(OH)D ≥ 30ng/ml. Similar estimates were also seen for UC. Furthermore, CD patients who had initial levels < 30ng/ml but subsequently normalized their 25(OH)D had a reduced likelihood of surgery (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.32 – 0.98) compared to those who remained deficient.
Low plasma 25(OH)D is associated with increased risk of surgery and hospitalizations in both CD and UC and normalization of 25(OH)D status is associated with a reduction in the risk of CD-related surgery.
Crohn’s disease; ulcerative colitis; vitamin D; surgery; hospitalization
CD31 identifies a heterogeneous population of cells in the blood, consisting of mature leukocytes and platelets, as well as smaller numbers of endothelial and progenitor cells. Because unfractionated CD31+ blood cells have demonstrated angiogenic properties in vivo, we hypothesized that circulating CD31+ cells would be related to the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in humans.
Methods and Results
We studied 1,487 participants, free of cardiovascular disease, from the Framingham Offspring Study. Using anti-human CD31 and CD45 antibodies, distinct CD31+/CD45+ leukocyte populations were enumerated in blood samples by FACS analysis. We used linear regression analyses to investigate the relation of each cell phenotype with cardiovascular risk factors. We identified 3 distinct leukocyte populations: CD31-, CD31dim, and CD31bright cells. Using forward/side scatter analyses, CD31- and CD31dim cells mapped to lymphoid gates while CD31bright cells were monocytoid. In multivariable analyses, higher frequency of CD31bright cells was associated with older age, male sex, and CRP (all P<0.001). In contrast, CD31dim was inversely associated with age, male sex, CRP, and smoking (all P<0.01). Framingham Risk Score was positively associated with CD31bright frequency (P=0.002), and negatively associated with CD31dim frequency (P=0.020).
CD31+ staining identifies 2 major leukocyte populations, CD31bright and CD31dim, which demonstrated significant and opposite associations with cardiovascular risk in humans. Further research is needed to define the biological and potential therapeutic roles of CD31+ subpopulations in vascular disease.
epidemiology; CD31; leukocytes; endothelial cells; cardiovascular risk factors
While genetic determinants of LDL cholesterol levels are well characterized in the general population, they are understudied in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our objective was to determine the association of established LDL and RA genetic alleles with LDL levels in RA cases compared to non-RA controls.
Using electronic medical records (EMR) data, we linked validated RA cases and non-RA controls to discarded blood samples. For each individual, we extracted data on: 1st LDL measurement, age, gender, and year of LDL measurement. We genotyped subjects for 11 LDL and 44 non-HLA RA alleles, and calculated RA and LDL genetic risk scores (GRS). We tested the association between each GRS and LDL level using multivariate linear regression models adjusted by age, gender, year of LDL measurement, and RA status.
Among 567 RA cases and 979 controls, 80% were female and the mean age at 1st LDL measurement was 55 years. RA cases had significantly lower mean LDL levels than controls (117.2 vs. 125.6mg/dL, respectively, p<0.0001). Each unit increase in LDL GRS was associated with 0.8mg/dL higher LDL levels in both RA cases and controls (p=3.0×10−7). Each unit increase in RA GRS was associated with 4.3mg/dL lower LDL levels in both groups (p=0.01).
LDL alleles were associated with higher LDL levels in RA. RA alleles were associated with lower LDL levels in both RA cases and controls. Since RA cases carry more RA alleles, these findings suggest a genetic basis for epidemiologic observations of lower LDL levels in RA.
Rheumatoid arthritis; low density lipoprotein; genetics; human leukocyte antigen
To optimally leverage the scalability and unique features of the electronic health records (EHR) for research that would ultimately improve patient care, we need to accurately identify patients and extract clinically meaningful measures. Using multiple sclerosis (MS) as a proof of principle, we showcased how to leverage routinely collected EHR data to identify patients with a complex neurological disorder and derive an important surrogate measure of disease severity heretofore only available in research settings.
In a cross-sectional observational study, 5,495 MS patients were identified from the EHR systems of two major referral hospitals using an algorithm that includes codified and narrative information extracted using natural language processing. In the subset of patients who receive neurological care at a MS Center where disease measures have been collected, we used routinely collected EHR data to extract two aggregate indicators of MS severity of clinical relevance multiple sclerosis severity score (MSSS) and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF, a measure of whole brain volume).
The EHR algorithm that identifies MS patients has an area under the curve of 0.958, 83% sensitivity, 92% positive predictive value, and 89% negative predictive value when a 95% specificity threshold is used. The correlation between EHR-derived and true MSSS has a mean R2 = 0.38±0.05, and that between EHR-derived and true BPF has a mean R2 = 0.22±0.08. To illustrate its clinical relevance, derived MSSS captures the expected difference in disease severity between relapsing-remitting and progressive MS patients after adjusting for sex, age of symptom onset and disease duration (p = 1.56×10−12).
Incorporation of sophisticated codified and narrative EHR data accurately identifies MS patients and provides estimation of a well-accepted indicator of MS severity that is widely used in research settings but not part of the routine medical records. Similar approaches could be applied to other complex neurological disorders.
Efficient methods to immobilize small molecules under continuous-flow microfluidic conditions would greatly improve label-free molecular interaction studies using biosensor technology. At present, small-molecule immobilization chemistries require special conditions and in many cases must be performed outside the detector and microfluidic system where real-time monitoring is not possible. Here, we have developed and optimized a method for on-chip bioorthogonal chemistry that enables rapid, reversible immobilization of small molecules with control over orientation and immobilization density, and apply this technique to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) studies. Immobilized small molecules reverse the orientation of canonical SPR interaction studies, and also enable a variety of new SPR applications including on-chip assembly and interaction studies of multicomponent structures such as functionalized nanoparticles, and measurement of bioorthogonal reaction rates. We use this approach to demonstrate that on-chip assembled functionalized nanoparticles show a preserved ability to interact with their target protein, and to measure rapid bioorthogonal reaction rates with k2 > 103 M−1 s−1. This method offers multiple benefits for microfluidic biological applications, including rapid screening of targeted nanoparticles with vastly decreased nanoparticle synthetic requirements, robust immobilization chemistry in the presence of serum, and a continuous flow technique that mimics biologic contexts better than current methods used to measure bioorthogonal reaction kinetics such as NMR or UV-vis spectroscopy (e.g., stopped flow kinetics). Taken together, this approach constitutes a flexible and powerful technique for evaluating a wide variety of reactions and intermolecular interactions for in vitro or in vivo applications.
The diagnostic utility of the apoptosis sensing nanoparticle, AnxCLIO-Cy5.5, is well established. Here we sought to define the pathophysiological impact of the nanoparticle on apoptotic cells. Confocal microscopy showed that AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 remained bound to apoptotic cell membranes for 3 hours, but by 7 hours had become completely internalized. AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 exposure did not impact energetics, metabolism or caspase-3 activity in apoptotic cells. Gene expression in cells exposed to AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 did not reveal upregulation of pro-inflammatory or cell death pathways. Moreover, exposure to AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 decreased the frequency of membrane rupture of early apoptotic cells. Similarly, in mice exposed to 1 hour of ischemia-reperfusion, the injection of AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 at the onset of reperfusion reduced infarct size/area-at-risk by 16.2%. Our findings suggest that AnxCLIO-Cy5.5 may protect apoptotic cells by stabilizing their cell membranes and has the potential to become a theranostic agent, capable of both identifying and salvaging early apoptotic cells.
Apoptosis; Magnetic Nanoparticle; Cardioprotection; Iron Oxide; Gene Expression
Oligonucleotide hybridization was used as a cell-labeling method to significantly amplify the loading of magnetic probes onto target cells. The method utilized short oligonucleotides as the binding agents between antibodies and superparamagnetic iron oxide. This method not only enabled multiplexed analysis, but also allowed detection of multiple markers on a single sample containing only scant cell numbers.
magnetic labeling; oligonucleotide hybridization; magnetic resonance; multiplexed analysis; signal amplification
Several bone marrow-derived cell populations have been identified that may possess angiogenic activity and contribute to vascular homeostasis in experimental studies. We examined the extent to which lower quantities of these circulating angiogenic cell phenotypes may be related to impaired vascular function and greater arterial stiffness.
We studied 1,948 Framingham Heart Study participants (mean age, 66±9 years; 54% women) who were phenotyped for circulating angiogenic cells: CD34+, CD34+/KDR+, and early outgrowth colony forming units (CFU). Participants underwent non-invasive assessments of vascular function including peripheral arterial tone (PAT), arterial tonometry, and brachial reactivity testing.
In unadjusted analyses, higher CD34+ and CD34+/KDR+ concentrations were modestly associated with lower PAT ratio (β=−0.052±0.011, P<0.001 and β=−0.030±0.011, P=0.008, respectively) and with higher carotid-brachial pulse wave velocity (β=0.144±0.043, P=0.001 and β=0.112±0.043, P=0.009), but not with flow-mediated dilation; higher CD34+ was also associated with lower carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (β=−0.229±0.094, P=0.015) However, only the association of lower CD34+ concentration with higher PAT ratio persisted in multivariable analyses that adjusted for standard cardiovascular risk factors. In all analyses, CFU was not associated with measures of vascular function or arterial stiffness.
In our large, community-based sample of men and women, circulating angiogenic cell phenotypes largely were not associated with measures of vascular function or arterial stiffness in analyses adjusting for traditional risk factors.
angiogenesis; vascular function; risk factors; endothelium; epidemiology
cells; genetics; genomic studies; pathway analysis; systems biology
STARS (STriated muscle Activator of Rho Signaling) is a sarcomeric protein expressed early in cardiac development that acts as an acute stress sensor for pathological remodeling. However the role of STARS in cardiac development and function is incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the role of STARS in heart development and function in the zebrafish model and in vitro.
Methodology and Principal Findings
Expression of zebrafish STARS (zSTARS) first occurs in the somites by the 16 somite stage [17 hours post fertilization (hpf)]. zSTARS is expressed in both chambers of the heart by 48 hpf, and also in the developing brain, jaw structures and pectoral fins. Morpholino-induced knockdown of zSTARS alters atrial and ventricular dimensions and decreases ventricular fractional shortening (measured by high-speed video microscopy), with pericardial edema and decreased or absent circulation [abnormal cardiac phenotypes in 126/164 (77%) of morpholino-injected embryos vs. 0/152 (0%) of control morpholino embryos]. Co-injection of zsrf (serum response factor) mRNA rescues the cardiac phenotype of zSTARS knockdown, resulting in improved fractional shortening and ventricular end-diastolic dimensions. Ectopic over-expression of STARS in vitro activates the STARS proximal promoter, which contains a conserved SRF site. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that SRF binds to this site in vivo and the SRF inhibitor CCG-1423 completely blocks STARS proximal reporter activity in H9c2 cells.
This study demonstrates for the first time that STARS deficiency severely disrupts cardiac development and function in vivo and revealed a novel STARS-SRF feed-forward autoregulatory loop that could play an essential role in STARS regulation and cardiac function.
The expanded CAG repeat that causes striatal cell vulnerability in Huntington's disease (HD) encodes a polyglutamine tract in full-length huntingtin that is correlated with cellular [ATP] and [ATP/ADP]. Since striatal neurons are vulnerable to energy deficit, we have investigated, in Hdh CAG knock-in mice and striatal cells, the hypothesis that decreased energetics may affect neuronal (N)-cadherin, a candidate energy-sensitive adhesion protein that may contribute to HD striatal cell sensitivity. In vivo, N-cadherin was sensitive to ischemia and to the effects of full-length mutant huntingtin, progressively decreasing in HdhQ111 striatum with age. In cultured striatal cells, N-cadherin was decreased by ATP depletion and STHdhQ111 striatal cells exhibited dramatically decreased N-cadherin, due to decreased Cdh2 mRNA and enhanced N-cadherin turnover, which was partially normalized by adenine supplementation to increase [ATP] and [ATP/ADP]. Consistent with decreased N-cadherin function, STHdhQ111 striatal cells displayed profound deficits in calcium-dependent N-cadherin-mediated cell clustering and cell–substratum adhesion, and primary HdhQ111 striatal neuronal cells exhibited decreased N-cadherin and an abundance of immature neurites, featuring diffuse, rather than clustered, staining for N-cadherin and synaptic vesicle markers, which was partially rescued by adenine treatment. Thus, mutant full-length huntingtin, via energetic deficit, contributes to decreased N-cadherin levels in striatal neurons, with detrimental effects on neurite maturation, strongly suggesting that N-cadherin-mediated signaling merits investigation early in the HD pathogenic disease process.
Several bone marrow-derived cell populations may possess angiogenic activity, including cells termed endothelial progenitor cells. Decreased numbers of circulating angiogenic cell populations have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. However, few data exist from large, unselected samples, and the genetic determinants of these traits are unclear.
Methods and Results
We examined the clinical and genetic correlates of early outgrowth colony forming units (CFUs) in 1,799 participants of the Framingham Heart Study (mean age, 66 years; 54% women). Among individuals without cardiovascular disease (n=1612), CFU number was inversely related to advanced age (P=0.004), female sex (P=0.04), and triglycerides (P=0.008), and positively related to hormone replacement (P=0.008) and statin therapy (P=0.027) in stepwise multivariable analyses. Overall, CFU number was inversely related to the Framingham risk score (p=0.01) but not with prevalent cardiovascular disease. In genome-wide association analyses in the entire sample, polymorphisms were associated with CFUs at the MOSC1 locus (P=3.3×10−7) and at the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA locus (P=4.9×10−7), a previously replicated susceptibility locus for myocardial infarction. Furthermore, alleles at the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA locus that were associated with decreased CFUs were also related to increased risk of myocardial infarction (P=1.1×10−4).
In a community-based sample, early outgrowth CFUs are inversely associated with select cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, genetic variants at the SLC22A3-LPAL2-LPA locus are associated with both decreased CFUs and an increased risk of myocardial infarction. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that decreased circulating angiogenic cell populations promote susceptibility to myocardial infarction.
Genetics; epidemiology; coronary disease; cardiovascular disease; cells
Be my guest: A supramolecular host–guest interaction is utilized for highly efficient bioorthogonal labeling of cellular targets. Antibodies labeled with a cyclodextrin host molecule bind to adamantane-labeled magnetofluorescent nanoparticles (see picture) and provide an amplifiable strategy for biomarker detection that can be adapted to different diagnostic techniques such as molecular profiling or magnetic cell sorting.
antibodies; bioorthogonal labeling; host–guest systems; nanoparticles; supramolecular chemistry
Evaluation of biological effects, both desired and undesired, caused by Manufactured NanoParticles (MNPs) is of critical importance for nanotechnology. Experimental studies, especially toxicological, are time-consuming, costly, and often impractical, calling for the development of efficient computational approaches capable of predicting biological effects of MNPs. To this end, we have investigated the potential of cheminformatics methods such as Quantitative Structure – Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling to establish statistically significant relationships between measured biological activity profiles of MNPs and their physical, chemical, and geometrical properties, either measured experimentally or computed from the structure of MNPs. To reflect the context of the study, we termed our approach Quantitative Nanostructure-Activity Relationship (QNAR) modeling. We have employed two representative sets of MNPs studied recently using in vitro cell-based assays: (i) 51 various MNPs with diverse metal cores (PNAS, 2008, 105, pp 7387–7392) and (ii) 109 MNPs with similar core but diverse surface modifiers (Nat. Biotechnol., 2005, 23, pp 1418–1423). We have generated QNAR models using machine learning approaches such as Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based classification and k Nearest Neighbors (kNN)-based regression; their external prediction power was shown to be as high as 73% for classification modeling and R2 of 0.72 for regression modeling. Our results suggest that QNAR models can be employed for: (i) predicting biological activity profiles of novel nanomaterials, and (ii) prioritizing the design and manufacturing of nanomaterials towards better and safer products.
nanoparticles; QSAR; cheminformatics; nanotoxicity; modeling
Certain bone marrow-derived cell populations, termed endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), have been reported to possess angiogenic activity. Experimental data suggest that depletion of these angiogenic cell populations may promote atherogenesis, but limited data are available regarding their relation to subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in humans.
Methods and Results
We studied 889 participants of the Framingham Heart Study who were free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease (mean age, 65 years; 55% women). Participants underwent EPC phenotyping using an early outgrowth colony forming unit (CFU) assay and cell surface markers. Participants also underwent non-contrast multidetector computed tomography to assess the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis, as reflected by burden of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). In this study sample, we examined the association of EPC-related phenotypes with both CAC and AAC. Across decreasing tertiles of CFU, there was a progressive increase in median CAC and AAC scores. In multivariable analyses adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, each standard deviation increase in CFU was associated with an approximately 16% decrease in CAC (P=0.02) and 17% decrease in AAC (P=0.03). In contrast, neither CD34+/KDR+ nor CD34+ variation were associated with significant differences in coronary or aortic calcification.
In this large, community-based sample of men and women, lower CFU number was associated with a higher burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries and aorta. Decreased angiogenic potential could contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in humans.
endothelial progenitors; atherosclerosis; risk factors; epidemiology
In vivo imaging reveals how proteins and cells function as part of complex regulatory networks in intact organisms, and thereby contributes to a systems-level understanding of biological processes. However, the development of novel in vivo imaging probes remains challenging. Most probes are directed against a limited number of pre-specified protein targets; cell-based screens for imaging probes have shown promise, but raise concerns over whether in vitro surrogate cell models recapitulate in vivo phenotypes. Here, we rapidly profile the in vitro binding of nanoparticle imaging probes in multiple samples of defined target vs. background cell types, using primary cell isolates. This approach selects for nanoparticles that show desired targeting effects across all tested members of a class of cells, and decreases the likelihood that an idiosyncratic cell line will unduly skew screening results. To adjust for multiple hypothesis testing, we use permutation methods to identify nanoparticles that best differentiate between the target and background cell classes. (This approach is conceptually analogous to one used for high-dimensionality datasets of genome-wide gene expression, e.g. to identify gene expression signatures that discriminate subclasses of cancer.) We apply this approach to the identification of nanoparticle imaging probes that bind endothelial cells, and validate our in vitro findings in human arterial samples, and by in vivo intravital microscopy in mice. Overall, this work presents a generalizable approach to the unbiased discovery of in vivo imaging probes, and may guide the further development of novel endothelial imaging probes.
Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), originally collected as renewable sources of DNA, are now being used as a model system to study genotype–phenotype relationships in human cells, including searches for QTLs influencing levels of individual mRNAs and responses to drugs and radiation. In the course of attempting to map genes for drug response using 269 LCLs from the International HapMap Project, we evaluated the extent to which biological noise and non-genetic confounders contribute to trait variability in LCLs. While drug responses could be technically well measured on a given day, we observed significant day-to-day variability and substantial correlation to non-genetic confounders, such as baseline growth rates and metabolic state in culture. After correcting for these confounders, we were unable to detect any QTLs with genome-wide significance for drug response. A much higher proportion of variance in mRNA levels may be attributed to non-genetic factors (intra-individual variance—i.e., biological noise, levels of the EBV virus used to transform the cells, ATP levels) than to detectable eQTLs. Finally, in an attempt to improve power, we focused analysis on those genes that had both detectable eQTLs and correlation to drug response; we were unable to detect evidence that eQTL SNPs are convincingly associated with drug response in the model. While LCLs are a promising model for pharmacogenetic experiments, biological noise and in vitro artifacts may reduce power and have the potential to create spurious association due to confounding.
The use of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) has evolved from a renewable source of DNA to an in vitro model system to study the genetics of gene expression, drug response, and other traits in a controlled laboratory setting. While convincing relationships between SNPs and mRNA levels (eQTLs) have been described, the degree to which non-genetic variables also influence phenotypes in LCLs is less well characterized. In the course of attempting to map genes for drug responses in vitro, we evaluated the reproducibility of in vitro traits across replicates, the impact of the EBV virus used to transform B cells into cell lines, and the effect of in vitro culture conditions. We found that responses to at least some drugs and levels of many mRNAs can be technically well measured, but vary both across experiments and with non-genetic confounders such as growth rates, EBV levels, and ATP levels. The influence of such non-genetic factors can both decrease power to detect true relationships between DNA variation and traits and create the potential for non-genetic confounding and spurious associations between DNA variants and traits.
Vascular disease is a feature of aging, and coronary vascular events are a major source of morbidity and mortality in rare premature aging syndromes. One such syndrome is caused by mutations in the lamin A/C (LMNA) gene, which also has been implicated in familial insulin resistance. A second gene related to premature aging in man and in murine models is the KLOTHO gene, a hypomorphic variant of which (KL-VS) is significantly more common in the first-degree relatives of patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated whether common variants at the LMNA or KLOTHO genes are associated with rigorously defined premature CAD.
We identified 295 patients presenting with premature acute coronary syndromes confirmed by angiography. A control group of 145 patients with no evidence of CAD was recruited from outpatient referral clinics. Comprehensive haplotyping of the entire LMNA gene, including the promoter and untranslated regions, was performed using a combination of TaqMan® probes and direct sequencing of 14 haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The KL-VS variant of the KLOTHO gene was typed using restriction digest of a PCR amplicon.
Two SNPs that were not in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium were excluded from analysis. We observed no significant differences in allele, genotype or haplotype frequencies at the LMNA or KLOTHO loci between the two groups. In addition, there was no evidence of excess homozygosity at the LMNA locus.
Our data do not support the hypothesis that premature CAD is associated with common variants in the progeroid syndrome genes LMNA and KLOTHO.