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1.  Regulatory T Cells Expanded from HIV-1-Infected Individuals Maintain Phenotype, TCR Repertoire and Suppressive Capacity 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e86920.
While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg) function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants further detailed exploration. Our objectives were to investigate if functional CD4+ Tregs can be isolated and expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals for experimental or potential future therapeutic use and to determine phenotype and suppressive capacity of expanded Tregs from HIV-1 positive blood and tissue. Tregs and conventional T cell controls were isolated from blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of individuals with HIV-1 infection and healthy donors using flow-based cell-sorting. The phenotype of expanded Tregs was assessed by flow-cytometry and quantitative PCR. T-cell receptor ß-chain (TCR-β) repertoire diversity was investigated by deep sequencing. Flow-based T-cell proliferation and chromium release cytotoxicity assays were used to determine Treg suppressive function. Tregs from HIV-1 positive individuals, including infants, were successfully expanded from PBMC and GALT. Expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4, CD39 and HELIOS and exhibited a highly demethylated TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region), characteristic of Treg lineage. The TCRß repertoire was maintained following Treg expansion and expanded Tregs remained highly suppressive in vitro. Our data demonstrate that Tregs can be expanded from blood and tissue compartments of HIV-1+ donors with preservation of Treg phenotype, function and TCR repertoire. These results are highly relevant for the investigation of potential future therapeutic use, as currently investigated for other disease states and hold great promise for detailed studies on the role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086920
PMCID: PMC3911933  PMID: 24498287
2.  Primary aneurysmal bone cyst of talus 
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the talus is an extremely rare lesion; less than 20 cases have been reported in PubMed till 2012. We report a primary ABC of the talus in a 20-year-old male that was managed by extended intralesional curettage with phenol as an adjuvant and autologous cancellous iliac crest bone grafting. The patient had excellent functional outcome and there was no recurrence at 2 years of follow-up.
PMCID: PMC3703174  PMID: 23853640
Aneurysmal bone cyst; curettage; talus
6.  Adult Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormalities (SCIWORA): Clinical and Radiological Correlations 
Background
This study is aimed to determine the clinical and radiological corellations of adult patients with Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormalities (SCIWORA).
Methods
The study population consisted of all adult patients with suspected cervical spine injury. SCIWORA was defined as the presence of either no injury or a neural injury on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the absence of radiographic or Computed Tomographic (CT) Scan findings suggestive of trauma in patients with neurological deficit. Purely extra neural compressive lesions were excluded from the study.
Results
Twelve of ninety seven (12.4%) patients had a neural injury on MRI with normal radiographs and CT scan. These included cord contusion in five cases, cord edema in five cases and cord hemorrhage in two cases. Ten patients were managed conservatively and two patients with disc prolapse were managed surgically. All patients showed at least one ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) grade improvement and three patients (25%) recovered completely.
Conclusions
Parenchymal spinal cord injury is the single most important determinant in the long term outcome of adult SCIWORA patients. Cord hemorrhage has the worst prognosis and cord edema has the best. Longitudinal signal extension and associated extra neural injuries are also associated with poorer outcomes. Cases with purely neural injuries can be managed conservatively, but associated extra neural injuries, especially disc prolapse and ligamentous instability, warrant surgical management.
Keywords
Post Traumatic Myelopathy; Spinal Cord Trauma; Computed tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging; SCIWORA
doi:10.4021/jocmr2009.08.1256
PMCID: PMC3318880  PMID: 22493651
7.  Wide resection and stabilization of ulnar stump by extensor carpi ulnaris for giant cell tumor of distal ulna: two case reports 
Cases Journal  2009;2:8617.
The distal end of ulna is an extremely uncommon site for primary bone tumors in general and giant cell tumor in particular. Wide resection is usually indicated in such cases and at times it may be necessary to remove of a long segment of the distal ulna. Any ulnar resection proximal to the insertion of pronator quadratus can lead to instability in the form of radio-ulnar convergence and dorsal displacement (winging) of the ulnar stump. This can result in diminution of forearm rotation and weakness with grasp. Stabilization of the ulnar stump after resection for a giant cell tumor was described by Kayias & Drosos. We are adding two more cases to the literature. Both patients had excellent functional outcome and there were no instances of recurrence at three years of follow-up.
doi:10.4076/1757-1626-2-8617
PMCID: PMC2740324  PMID: 19830093
8.  Distal tibial interosseous osteochondroma with impending fracture of fibula – a case report and review of literature 
Cases Journal  2009;2:115.
Osteochondromas arising from the interosseous border of the distal tibia and involving distal fibula are uncommon. We present a 16 year old young boy with an impending fracture, erosion and weakness of the distal fibula, secondary to an osteochondroma arising from the distal tibia. Early excision of this deforming distal tibial osteochondroma avoided the future risk of pathological fracture of the distal fibula, ankle deformities and syndesmotic complications.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-115
PMCID: PMC2646691  PMID: 19187551
9.  Giant cell tumor of talus: a case report 
Cases Journal  2009;2:74.
Giant cell tumor of talus is a rare entity. In contrast to GCT of long bones, most cases occur in a younger age group and tend to be multicentric. The authors report a case of GCT in a 19 year old boy which had led to extensive destruction of the talus. In view of the extensive involvement, total talectomy along with tibio – calcaneal arthrodesis was performed. At 6 months of followup, the patient had a painless and well arthrodesed ankle. There was no evidence of recurrence at 18 months of followup.
doi:10.1186/1757-1626-2-74
PMCID: PMC2651116  PMID: 19159463

Results 1-9 (9)