Broken drill bits can be difficult to remove from the proximal femur and may necessitate additional surgical exploration or special instrumentation. We present a simple technique to remove a broken drill bit that does not require any special instrumentation and can be accomplished through the existing incision. This technique is useful for those cases where the length of the broken drill bit is greater than the diameter of the bone.
Broken drill bit; Interlocking nail; Femoral fracture; Surgical technique
The impact of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Although it has been shown that Tregs can be infected with HIV-1, the consequences of infection on a per-cell basis are still unknown. In vitro HIV-GFP infected and noninfected Tregs were isolated by flow-based cell-sorting to investigate Treg suppressive capacity and gene expression profiles. Our data show that HIV-1-infected Tregs were significantly less suppressive than noninfected Tregs and demonstrated down-regulation of genes critical to Treg function. This impaired function may have detrimental consequences for the control of generalized immune activation and accelerate HIV disease progression.
gene expression; HIV; immune activation; regulatory T cells; Tregs
Intracellular delivery of biomolecules, such as proteins and siRNAs, into primary immune cells, especially resting lymphocytes, is a challenge. Here we describe the design and testing of microfluidic intracellular delivery systems that cause temporary membrane disruption by rapid mechanical deformation of human and mouse immune cells. Dextran, antibody and siRNA delivery performance is measured in multiple immune cell types and the approach’s potential to engineer cell function is demonstrated in HIV infection studies.
Procalcitonin (PCT) is an innovative and highly specific marker for diagnosis of clinically relevant bacterial infection and sepsis. PCT supports early diagnosis and Clinical decision making. A retrospective study of two classical cases of neutropenic sepsis with elevated PCT levels in cardiac ICU was done. PCT was analyzed using Elecsys Brahms PCT kit. Serum PCT levels <0.5 ng/ml and ANC <1,000/mm3 was taken as cutoff. The first patient had initial high levels of PCT 100 ng/ml, TLC 13,600/mm3 and ANC 12,250/mm3. It was followed by drop with subsequent rise in PCT levels and drop in TLC 1,000/mm3 and ANC 70/mm3. The second patient had normal PCT 0.116 ng/ml, TLC 5,600/mm3 and ANC 4,420/mm3 levels followed with sharp increase in all the values with subsequent drop in TLC 2,000/mm3 and ANC 880 cells/mm3. Both the patients died of neutropenic sepsis with multiorgan failure. The case reports showed the correlation of PCT with TLC and ANC levels in predicting the mortality of patients with neutropenic sepsis in cardiac ICU.
Procalcitonin; Neutropenic sepsis; Total leucocyte count; Cardiac patients; Absolute eosinophil count
While modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg) function and adoptive Treg transfer are being explored as therapeutic modalities in the context of autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer, their role in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains less well defined. Controversy persists regarding their beneficial or detrimental effects in HIV-1 disease, which warrants further detailed exploration. Our objectives were to investigate if functional CD4+ Tregs can be isolated and expanded from HIV-1-infected individuals for experimental or potential future therapeutic use and to determine phenotype and suppressive capacity of expanded Tregs from HIV-1 positive blood and tissue. Tregs and conventional T cell controls were isolated from blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue of individuals with HIV-1 infection and healthy donors using flow-based cell-sorting. The phenotype of expanded Tregs was assessed by flow-cytometry and quantitative PCR. T-cell receptor ß-chain (TCR-β) repertoire diversity was investigated by deep sequencing. Flow-based T-cell proliferation and chromium release cytotoxicity assays were used to determine Treg suppressive function. Tregs from HIV-1 positive individuals, including infants, were successfully expanded from PBMC and GALT. Expanded Tregs expressed high levels of FOXP3, CTLA4, CD39 and HELIOS and exhibited a highly demethylated TSDR (Treg-specific demethylated region), characteristic of Treg lineage. The TCRß repertoire was maintained following Treg expansion and expanded Tregs remained highly suppressive in vitro. Our data demonstrate that Tregs can be expanded from blood and tissue compartments of HIV-1+ donors with preservation of Treg phenotype, function and TCR repertoire. These results are highly relevant for the investigation of potential future therapeutic use, as currently investigated for other disease states and hold great promise for detailed studies on the role of Tregs in HIV-1 infection.
Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) of the talus is an extremely rare lesion; less than 20 cases have been reported in PubMed till 2012. We report a primary ABC of the talus in a 20-year-old male that was managed by extended intralesional curettage with phenol as an adjuvant and autologous cancellous iliac crest bone grafting. The patient had excellent functional outcome and there was no recurrence at 2 years of follow-up.
Aneurysmal bone cyst; curettage; talus
This study is aimed to determine the clinical and radiological corellations of adult patients with Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormalities (SCIWORA).
The study population consisted of all adult patients with suspected cervical spine injury. SCIWORA was defined as the presence of either no injury or a neural injury on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the absence of radiographic or Computed Tomographic (CT) Scan findings suggestive of trauma in patients with neurological deficit. Purely extra neural compressive lesions were excluded from the study.
Twelve of ninety seven (12.4%) patients had a neural injury on MRI with normal radiographs and CT scan. These included cord contusion in five cases, cord edema in five cases and cord hemorrhage in two cases. Ten patients were managed conservatively and two patients with disc prolapse were managed surgically. All patients showed at least one ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) grade improvement and three patients (25%) recovered completely.
Parenchymal spinal cord injury is the single most important determinant in the long term outcome of adult SCIWORA patients. Cord hemorrhage has the worst prognosis and cord edema has the best. Longitudinal signal extension and associated extra neural injuries are also associated with poorer outcomes. Cases with purely neural injuries can be managed conservatively, but associated extra neural injuries, especially disc prolapse and ligamentous instability, warrant surgical management.
Post Traumatic Myelopathy; Spinal Cord Trauma; Computed tomography; Magnetic resonance imaging; SCIWORA
The distal end of ulna is an extremely uncommon site for primary bone tumors in general and giant cell tumor in particular. Wide resection is usually indicated in such cases and at times it may be necessary to remove of a long segment of the distal ulna. Any ulnar resection proximal to the insertion of pronator quadratus can lead to instability in the form of radio-ulnar convergence and dorsal displacement (winging) of the ulnar stump. This can result in diminution of forearm rotation and weakness with grasp. Stabilization of the ulnar stump after resection for a giant cell tumor was described by Kayias & Drosos. We are adding two more cases to the literature. Both patients had excellent functional outcome and there were no instances of recurrence at three years of follow-up.
Osteochondromas arising from the interosseous border of the distal tibia and involving distal fibula are uncommon. We present a 16 year old young boy with an impending fracture, erosion and weakness of the distal fibula, secondary to an osteochondroma arising from the distal tibia. Early excision of this deforming distal tibial osteochondroma avoided the future risk of pathological fracture of the distal fibula, ankle deformities and syndesmotic complications.
Giant cell tumor of talus is a rare entity. In contrast to GCT of long bones, most cases occur in a younger age group and tend to be multicentric. The authors report a case of GCT in a 19 year old boy which had led to extensive destruction of the talus. In view of the extensive involvement, total talectomy along with tibio – calcaneal arthrodesis was performed. At 6 months of followup, the patient had a painless and well arthrodesed ankle. There was no evidence of recurrence at 18 months of followup.