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1.  Effect of Incorporation of Mahua Extract, Fining Agent and Ageing on the Quality Characteristics of Red Wine 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2012;52(3):406-410.
Mahua (Madhuca longfolia) extract and black grapes (Vitis vinifera) must samples 100:0 (grape:mahua), 95:5 (grape:mahua) and 90:10 (grape:mahua) were analyzed for quality characteristics. Samples were kept for fermentation and monitored for quality analysis for 15 days. 90:10 (grape:mahua) sample was found to be best on the basis of ranking test and subjected to clarification using bentonite and gelatine. Sample treated with a combination of 0.02 g/100 g bentonite and 0.04 g/100 g gelatin showed better results for anthocyanin (52.2 mg/100 g) and tannin (0.038%w/v). After ageing of 3 months TSS was found highest (2.7ºBx) in the non-clarified sample and lowest (2.1ºBx) in sample treated with 0.06 g/100 g bentonite and 0.03 g/100 g gelatine. pH was highest (3.29) in sample treated with 0.06 g/100 g bentonite and 0.03 g/100 g gelatine and lowest (3.16) in sample with 0.04 g/100 g bentonite and 0.03 g/100 g gelatine. Anthocyanin content was highest (56.1 mg/100 g) in control sample and lowest (29.22 mg/100 g) in sample treated with 0.04 g/100 g bentonite and 0.02 g/100 g gelatin. Tannin content was found to be highest (0.079%w/v) in control sample and lowest (0.03%w/v) in sample treated with 0.02 g/100 g bentonite and 0.04 g/100 g gelatine.
doi:10.1007/s12088-012-0249-z
PMCID: PMC3460141  PMID: 23997332
Wine; Mahua; Gelatine; Quality; Ageing
2.  Cost implications of the physiotherapy management of complex tibial fractures treated with circular frames 
Seventy-three consecutive patients with complex tibial fractures treated with an Ilizarov frame or Taylor Spatial Frame received physiotherapy between April 2008 and April 2010. Data were collected prospectively, and physiotherapy input was recorded (in minutes) for the patients identified. This included treatment received as an inpatient as well as an outpatient. The data were categorized for proximal, middle and distal third tibial fractures for analysis. The average cost of physiotherapy for an inpatient with an Ilizarov frame is £121.82 per case, whereas that for an outpatient receiving treatment for trauma was calculated as £404.60. The combined average cost of physiotherapy to support treatment of a complex tibial fracture with a fine wire fixator is £546.27. Treatment involving circular frames is complex and expensive, and the high physiotherapy cost is not reflected in Healthcare Resource Group codes. This cost calculation will help service units, and NHS Trusts develop realistic costing plans to support treatment. Cost implications of the physiotherapy management of complex tibial fractures using the Ilizarov technique.
doi:10.1007/s11751-013-0173-8
PMCID: PMC3800517  PMID: 23943063
Cost analysis; Physiotherapy cost; Complex tibial fractures
3.  Evaluation of In Vivo Wound Healing Activity of Bacopa monniera on Different Wound Model in Rats 
BioMed Research International  2013;2013:972028.
Wound healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of dried whole plant of Bacopa monniera (BME) was studied on wound models in rats. BME (25 mg/kg) was administered orally, once daily for 10 days (incision and dead space wound models) or for 21 days or more (excision wound model) in rats. BME was studied for its in vitro antimicrobial and in vivo wound breaking strength, WBS (incision model), rate of contraction, period of epithelization, histology of skin (excision model), granulation tissue free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation), antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione), acute inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase), connective tissue markers (hydroxyproline, hexosamine, and hexuronic acid), and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound). BME showed antimicrobial activity against skin pathogens, enhanced WBS, rate of contraction, skin collagen tissue formation, and early epithelization period with low scar area indicating enhanced healing. Healing effect was further substantiated by decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase and enhanced antioxidants and connective tissue markers with histological evidence of more collagen formation in skin and deeper connective tissues. BME decreased myeloperoxidase and free radical generated tissue damage, promoting antioxidant status, faster collagen deposition, other connective tissue constituent formation, and antibacterial activity.
doi:10.1155/2013/972028
PMCID: PMC3745907  PMID: 23984424
4.  Relative and attributable diabetes risk associated with hyperuricemia in US veterans with gout 
Background: Hyperuricemia is known to be a risk factor for incident type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the absolute magnitude of the association is not known. We aimed to evaluate the strength of association between hyperuricemia and the risk of developing diabetes among the US veterans with gout.
Methods: Patients (age ≥ 18 years) with ≥2 clinical encounters with gout diagnoses, no history of inflammatory diseases or diabetes and two serum urate (sUA) measurements between 1 January 2002 and 1 January 2011 were selected. Diabetes was identified using International Classification of Disease-9-Clinical Modification codes, use of anti-diabetic medications or HbA1c ≥6.5%. sUA levels were assessed at 6-month cycles (hyperuricemia: sUA >7 mg/dl). Accumulated hazard curves for time to first diabetes diagnosis were derived from Kaplan–Meier (KM) analysis. Risk of diabetes associated with hyperuricemia was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Population attributable fraction (AF) of new-onset diabetes within 1 year was estimated using logistic regression.
Results: Among 1923 patients, average age was 62.9 years, body mass index was 30.6 kg/m2, and follow-up time was 80 months. Diabetes rates from KM were 19% for sUA ≤ 7 mg/dl, 23% for 7 mg/dl < sUA ≤ 9 mg/dl and 27% for sUA > 9 mg/dl at the end of follow-up period (P < 0.001). Hyperuricemia was associated with a significantly higher risk of developing diabetes, after adjusting for confounding factors (hazard ratio: 1.19, 95% confidence interval: [1.01–1.41]). Approximately, 8.7% of all new cases of diabetes were statistically attributed to hyperuricemia.
Conclusions: Among veterans, hyperuricemia was associated with excess risk for developing diabetes. Approximately, 1 in 11 new cases of diabetes were statistically attributed to hyperuricemia.
doi:10.1093/qjmed/hct093
PMCID: PMC3713590  PMID: 23620537
5.  Conversion of open tibial IIIb to IIIa fractures using intentional temporary deformation and the Taylor Spatial Frame 
The closure of small-to-moderate-sized soft tissue defects in open tibial fractures can be successfully achieved with acute bony shortening. In some instances, it may be possible to close soft tissue envelope defects by preserving length and intentionally creating a deformity of the limb. As the soft tissue is now able to close, this manoeuvre converts an open IIIb to IIIa fracture. This obviates the need for soft tissue reconstructive procedures such as flaps and grafts, which have the potential to cause donor-site morbidity and may fail. In this article, the authors demonstrate the technique for treating anterior medial soft tissue defects by deforming the bone at the fracture site, permitting temporary malalignment and closure of the wound. After healing of the envelope, the malalignment is gradually corrected with the use of the Taylor Spatial Frame. We present two such cases and discuss the technical indications and challenges of managing such cases.
doi:10.1007/s11751-013-0160-0
PMCID: PMC3732672  PMID: 23604928
Open fracture; Wound closure; Taylor Spatial Frame; Deformity correction
6.  Mathematical modelling of thin layer hot air drying of carrot pomace 
Thin layer carrot pomace drying characteristics were evaluated in a laboratory scale hot air forced convective dryer. The drying experiments were carried out at 60, 65, 70 & 75 °C and at an air velocity of 0.7 m/s. Mathematical models were tested to fit drying data of carrot pomace. The whole drying process of carrot pomace took place in a falling rate period except a very short accelerating period at the beginning. The average values of effective diffusivity ranged from 2.74 × 10−9 to 4.64 × 10−9 m2/s for drying carrot pomace. The activation energy value was 23.05 kJ/mol for the whole falling rate period.
doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0266-7
PMCID: PMC3550875  PMID: 23572823
Carrot pomace; Hot air drying; Modelling; Drying rate; Effective diffusivity; Activation energy
7.  Comment on a new ocular trauma score in pediatric penetrating eye injuries 
Eye  2011;25(9):1240.
doi:10.1038/eye.2011.131
PMCID: PMC3178257  PMID: 21637302
8.  Molecular Basis of Cystic Fibrosis Disease: An Indian Perspective 
Cystic fibrosis is a common autosomal recessive disorder usually found in population of white Caucasian descent. Now it is well documented the presence of CF disease in India with the advancement of laboratory testing. As once it was thought non existence of this disease in our population. Most of the phenotype of CF disease was in accordance of western population. Genetic analysis of CFTR gene in Indian CF patients revealed that most common mutation was delta F508 mutation. However, it was less than Caucasian population. CFTR mutations are also a causative factor in the pathogenesis of male infertility due to obstructive azoospermia. There are two most common mutation viz. IVS8-T5 and delta F508 which are responsible for congenital absence of vas deferens in male infertility patients. Elevated levels of sweat chloride at two occasions along with the presence of two mutations in CFTR gene was gold standard method for diagnosis of CF disease. It is noteworthy here that due to magnitude of Indian population, the total CF disease load would be more than many European countries. Clinical data demonstrate the prevalence of both classical and genetic form of CF in India.
doi:10.1007/s12291-010-0091-1
PMCID: PMC2994562  PMID: 21966101
Cystic fibrosis; CFTR; Delta F508; Congenital absence of vas deferens (CAVD)
9.  Protective Effect of Ethanol Extract of Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bemth. in Paracetamol-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats 
The aim of the present study was to explore the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of leaves of Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bemth. (Family: Celastraceous) against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats was induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of 500 mg/kg of paracetamol and studied by comparing parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and histopathological examination of liver. Pre and post-treatment with ethanol extract of Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bemth. at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg was studied by comparing the above mentioned parameters with silymarin (100 mg/kg) as standard. Both doses of ethanol extract of Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bemth. were found to be hepatoprotective. Extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg produced effects comparable to those of silymarin. The present study indicates that alcohol extract of Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bemth. possessed significant hepatoprotective activity.
doi:10.4103/0250-474X.70493
PMCID: PMC3003180  PMID: 21188056
Ethanol extract; Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bemth.; hepatoprotective activity; paracetamol
10.  Outcome of lateral humeral condylar mass fractures in children associated with elbow dislocation or olecranon fracture 
International Orthopaedics  2007;33(2):509-514.
Of 2,502 elbow/humeral injuries treated at our department between 1990 and 2005, we identified a cohort of 20 lateral condylar mass (LCM) fractures of the humerus in children associated with elbow dislocation (n = 12; mean age 8.2 years) or with olecranon fracture (n = 8; mean age 4.1 years). Eight patients with undisplaced fracture pattern were treated conservatively yielding a satisfactory outcome. Good to excellent results were obtained in the majority (85%). Overall, the result was poor in three patients (15%; 25% of the operated cohort) due to terminal 20–30° loss of extension. There was no obvious difference in the outcome between the isolated displaced LCM fractures described in the literature and this cohort. Testing of elbow stability by examination under anaesthesia is stressed. Undisplaced fracture patterns need to be closely observed. Parents should be warned about the likelihood of some degree of unfavourable outcome in the displaced LCM fractures with associated elbow injuries.
doi:10.1007/s00264-007-0463-1
PMCID: PMC2899087  PMID: 17940766
11.  Wide excision and ulno-carpal arthrodesis for primary aggressive and recurrent giant cell tumours 
International Orthopaedics  2007;32(6):741-745.
Twenty-five patients underwent wide resection of the distal radial giant cell tumours (GCTs) followed by ulno-carpal arthrodesis. There were 15 male and ten female patients, with an average age of 21.5 years. Tumours included ten primary aggressive and 15 recurrent GCTs. Mean follow up was 2.4 years. Pain, swelling and reduced range of movement (ROM) were noted. Average time to fusion was 7.6 months. Five patients had persistent pain in the proximal forearm. Grip strength was 65% compared to the uninvolved side. Two patients had superficial wound infection, two underwent additional bone grafting and three implant removals due to hardware prominence were carried out. There was no evidence of carpal instability or arthritis on clinical or radiological examination at the time of final follow up. Fusion of the carpus to the ulna is a simple method of producing a painless stable wrist, though at the expense of mobility. The procedure allows wide resection with a lower rate of recurrence. Pain in the proximal forearm seems to persist for 3 to 4 months only to improve at subsequent follow up. The procedure provides a valid option for the management of primary aggressive and recurrent GCTs of distal radius.
doi:10.1007/s00264-007-0416-8
PMCID: PMC2898956  PMID: 17643243
12.  Reducing Diagnostic Errors in Musculoskeletal Trauma by Reviewing Non-Admission Orthopaedic Referrals in the Next-Day Trauma Meeting 
INTRODUCTION
Diagnostic errors in orthopaedics are usually caused by missing a fracture or misreading radiographs. The aim of this study was to document the pick-up rate of the wrong diagnoses by reviewing X-rays and casualty notes in the next-day trauma meeting.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
The casualty notes and radiographs of 503 patients were prospectively reviewed in the daily trauma meeting between August 2002 and December 2002 in a district general hospital. The relevant data were collected and analysed by a single assessor.
RESULTS
The false positive rate for making an orthopaedic diagnosis was 12.6% (i.e.) diagnosing a fracture, when none existed). The false negative (missing) rate was 4%, while 2.4% incidental findings were missed, or at least not documented, after reading the X-rays. There were 7.8% wrong diagnoses made. The majority of the patients were seen by the senior house officers.
CONCLUSIONS
The medicolegal significance of false negative diagnosis is obviously greater. In a busy emergency department, where a large number of patients are seen, there is a greater risk. This study shows the importance in a small-to-medium sized accident and emergency unit as well, where there is no senior cover available out-of-hours for final radiological interpretation. A morning trauma meeting which covers reviewing admitted patients as well as non-admission orthopaedic referrals has an effective risk management solution to early detection of missed and wrong diagnoses.
doi:10.1308/003588407X205305
PMCID: PMC2121291
Diagnostic errors; Orthopaedic referrals; False positive rate; False negative rate
13.  A Review of K-wire Related Complications in the Emergency Management of Paediatric Upper Extremity Trauma 
INTRODUCTION
Kirschner wires (K-wires) are immensely versatile in fracture fixation in the paediatric population. Complications associated with the K-wiring procedure vary from minor to a life-threatening. The aim of this study was to analyse the outcome of fracture fixation using K-wires in all types of upper-extremity fractures in children in order to assess the incidence and type of complication critically.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
Between September 1999 and September 2001, we retrospectively reviewed a consecutive series of 105 fractures in 103 paediatric trauma cases (below 12 years) treated with K-wires in a university teaching hospital. The case notes and radiographs were reviewed by an independent single assessor. All paediatric, acute, upper-extremity, displaced and unstable fractures were included. All elective procedures using K-wires were excluded.
RESULTS
We observed an overall 32.3% complication rate associated with the K-wiring procedure affecting 34 pins (24 patients). Wound-related complications included over-granulation in 13 cases, pin tract infection in 6 cases and hypersensitive scar in 1 case. Neurapraxia was found in 3 patients and axonotmesis in 1 patient. Wire loosening at the time of removal in 14 cases and retrograde wire migration in 4 cases were observed. There were 2 cases of penetrating tendonitis and 1 case of osteomyelitis. There was a higher complication rate in terms of wire loosening and pin tract infection when the K-wires: (i) were left outside the skin compared with those placed under the skin; (ii) stayed longer in the patients; and (iii) did not traverse both cortices. There were more complications in complex operations performed by senior surgeons (P = 0.056). The duration of K-wire stay, associated co-morbidity and anatomical location were statistically insignificant.
CONCLUSIONS
Complications are part of operative procedures; an important point to consider is what causes them in order to take preventative measures. We recommend that the risks and complications should be explained to parents during the consenting process to allay their anxiety, irrespective of the fact that most complications are minor and of short duration.
doi:10.1308/003588407X155482
PMCID: PMC1964701  PMID: 17394709
K-wires; Paediatric fractures; Fixation; Complications
14.  Enhanced bronchial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors (Flk-1 and Flt-1) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Thorax  2005;60(2):106-113.
Background: Ongoing inflammatory processes resulting in airway and vascular remodelling characterise chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR-1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1) could play a role in tissue remodelling and angiogenesis in COPD.
Methods: The cellular expression pattern of VEGF, Flt-1, and KDR/Flk-1 was examined by immunohistochemistry in central and peripheral lung tissues obtained from ex-smokers with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) <75% predicted; n = 14) or without COPD (FEV1 >85% predicted; n = 14). The immunohistochemical staining of each molecule was quantified using a visual scoring method with grades ranging from 0 (no) to 3 (intense).
Results: VEGF, Flt-1, and KDR/Flk-1 immunostaining was localised in vascular and airway smooth muscle (VSM and ASM) cells, bronchial, bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium, and macrophages. Pulmonary endothelial cells expressed Flt-1 and KDR/Flk-1 abundantly but not VEGF. Bronchial VEGF expression was higher in microvascular VSM cells and ASM cells of patients with COPD than in patients without COPD (1.7 and 1.6-fold, p<0.01, respectively). VEGF expression in intimal and medial VSM (1.7 and 1.3-fold, p<0.05) of peripheral pulmonary arteries associated with the bronchiolar airways was more intense in COPD, as was VEGF expression in the small pulmonary vessels in the alveolar region (1.5 and 1.7-fold, p<0.02). In patients with COPD, KDR/Flk-1 expression was enhanced in endothelial cells and in intimal and medial VSM (1.3, 1.9 and 1.5-fold, p<0.02) while endothelial Flt-1 expression was 1.7 times higher (p<0.03). VEGF expression was significantly increased in bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium as well as in bronchiolar macrophages (1.5-fold, p<0.001). The expression of VEGF in bronchial VSM and mucosal microvessels as well as bronchiolar epithelium was inversely correlated with FEV1 (r<–0.45; p<0.01).
Conclusions: VEGF and its receptors Flt-1 and KDR/Flk-1 may be involved in peripheral vascular and airway remodelling processes in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner. This system may also be associated with epithelial cell viability during airway wall remodelling in COPD.
doi:10.1136/thx.2004.023986
PMCID: PMC1747292  PMID: 15681497
15.  Chondromyxoid fibroma of the foot and ankle: 40 years’ Scottish bone tumour registry experience 
International Orthopaedics  2006;30(3):205-209.
Ten cases of histologically proven chondromyxoid fibroma (CMF) of the foot and ankle with a mean follow-up of 6.1 years were retrospectively reviewed using the Scottish Bone Tumour Registry. The patients' mean age was 19 years; there were six males and four females. The anatomical locations were five phalangeal, three metatarsal, one tarsal affecting body of os calcis and one distal tibial. The median delay in presentation was 4.5 months. The modes of presentation were pain only (n=4), painful lump (n=4) and painless lump (n=2). The typical radiological finding was an expansile, lobulated, cystic lesion. Cortical erosion was documented in 80% patients. In four cases, curettage alone was carried out, while five patients underwent curettage along with autogenous bone grafting. One patient with distal phalangeal CMF had a primary toe amputation. Two patients had recurrences 9 and 16 months after their initial curettage. Both of them were males with proximal phalangeal CMF, associated with cortical erosion. Foot and phalangeal CMF initially treated with curettage only should be closely followed up, as we observed a 20% recurrence rate within a 2-year period. Cases featuring cortical erosion require thorough curettage and may require autogenous bone grafting to prevent fracture.
doi:10.1007/s00264-005-0046-y
PMCID: PMC2532097  PMID: 16547720
16.  Blackthorn injury: a report of three interesting cases 
doi:10.1136/emj.2002.002782
PMCID: PMC1726334  PMID: 15107394
17.  Calcifying cystic lesion of calcaneum 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2004;80(942):241-244.
doi:10.1136/pgmj.2002.002279q
PMCID: PMC1742975  PMID: 15082851
18.  Girdlestone resection arthroplasty following failed surgical procedures 
International Orthopaedics  2005;29(2):92-95.
We retrospectively reviewed 43 patients who had undergone Girdlestone resection arthroplasty of the hip after failed total hip replacement or failed operations for hip trauma between 1990 and 2002. The indications were peri-prosthetic infection, aseptic loosening, recurrent dislocation and failed internal fixation for femoral neck fractures. Twenty-five patients died with an overall mortality of 58%. Out of 18 survivors, four patients had a prosthesis re-implanted and were excluded from the study. In 14 surviving patients followed-up for a mean of 44.5 months, the average age was 76 years. Adequate pain relief was achieved in 12 patients and infection was controlled in all. They all needed walking aids. The overall patient satisfaction was 10/14. We observed that patients who had had resection arthroplasty following failed operations for hip trauma had a higher mortality than those for failed total hip arthroplasty. Girdlestone arthroplasty is still a viable option to salvage irretrievably failed hips presenting technical difficulties in medically compromised patients. Limb shortening and the inevitable need for a walking aid should be clearly explained to patients during the consenting process in order to avoid unrealistic expectations.
doi:10.1007/s00264-004-0633-3
PMCID: PMC3474513  PMID: 15703933
19.  Complex Pediatric Elbow Injury: An Uncommon Case 
Background
There is paucity of literature describing complex elbow trauma in the pediatric population. We described a case of an uncommon pediatric elbow injury comprised of lateral condyle fracture associated with posterolateral dislocation of elbow.
Case presentation
A 12-year-old boy sustained a direct elbow trauma and presented with Milch type II lateral condyle fracture associated with posterolateral dislocation of elbow. Elbow dislocation was managed by closed reduction. The elbow stability was assessed under general anaesthesia, followed by open K-wiring for the lateral condylar fracture fixation. The patient had an uneventful recovery with an excellent outcome at 39 months follow-up.
Conclusion
Complex pediatric elbow injuries are quite unusual to encounter, the management of such fractures can be technically demanding. Concomitant elbow dislocation should be managed by closed reduction followed by open reduction and internal fixation (K-wires or cannulated screws) of the lateral condyle fracture.
doi:10.1186/1471-2474-6-13
PMCID: PMC1079861  PMID: 15757518
Complex pediatric elbow trauma; Lateral condyle fracture; Elbow dislocation.
20.  Endogenous, local, vascular endothelial growth factor production in patients with chronic total coronary artery occlusions: further evidence for its role in angiogenesis 
Heart  2002;87(2):158-159.
PMCID: PMC1766992  PMID: 11796557
vascular endothelial growth factor; basic fibroblast growth factor; angiogenesis
21.  The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae: A review of its biology and management 
The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is distributed widely in temperate, tropical, and sub-tropical regions of the world. It has been reported to damage 81 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables, particularly the bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), snap melon (C. melo var. momordica), and snake gourd (Trichosanthes anguina). The extent of losses vary between 30 to 100%, depending on the cucurbit species and the season. Its abundance increases when the temperatures fall below 32° C, and the relative humidity ranges between 60 to 70%. It prefers to infest young, green, soft-skinned fruits. It inserts the eggs 2 to 4 mm deep in the fruit tissues, and the maggots feed inside the fruit. Pupation occurs in the soil at 0.5 to 15 cm below the soil surface. Keeping in view the importance of the pest and crop, melon fruit fly management could be done using local area management and wide area management. The melon fruit fly can successfully be managed over a local area by bagging fruits, field sanitation, protein baits, cue-lure traps, growing fruit fly-resistant genotypes, augmentation of biocontrol agents, and soft insecticides. The wide area management program involves the coordination of different characteristics of an insect eradication program (including local area options) over an entire area within a defensible perimeter, and subsequently protected against reinvasion by quarantine controls. Although, the sterile insect technique has been successfully used in wide area approaches, this approach needs to use more sophisticated and powerful technologies in eradication programs such as insect transgenesis and geographical information systems, which could be deployed over a wide area. Various other options for the management of fruit fly are also discussed in relation to their bio-efficacy and economics for effective management of this pest.
PMCID: PMC1615247  PMID: 17119622
host range; distribution; sterile insect technique; insect-transgenesis; management
22.  An unusual dislocation of the foot 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2001;77(914):e9.
doi:10.1136/pmj.77.914.e9
PMCID: PMC1742208  PMID: 11723337
23.  Dental anomalies in Williams syndrome 
Postgraduate Medical Journal  2000;76(901):712.
doi:10.1136/pmj.76.901.712
PMCID: PMC1741802  PMID: 11060148
24.  Enhanced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in lungs of newborn infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pulmonary hypertension 
Thorax  1999;54(5):427-431.
BACKGROUND—Pulmonary hypoplasia accompanied by pulmonary hypertension resistant to treatment is an important feature of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The pathogenesis of the pulmonary vascular abnormalities in CDH remains to be elucidated at the molecular level. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an endothelial cell specific mitogen, is known to play a role in pulmonary angiogenesis and vascular remodelling but there are no data on VEGF expression in patients with CDH.
METHODS—Necroscopic lung specimens from 21 patients with CDH with lung hypoplasia and from seven age matched control newborn infants without lung hypoplasia were processed for immunohistochemical analysis using affinity purified anti-human VEGF antibodies. All the cases of CDH had pulmonary hypoplasia, indicated by a lung/body weight index of ⩽0.012, and pulmonary hypertension indicated by repeated cardiac ultrasonography. Cellular localisation of VEGF was semiquantitatively analysed using a staining score ranging from 0 (no staining) to 4 (very strong staining).
RESULTS—Significantly raised levels of VEGF immunoreactivity were observed in lung specimens from cases of CDH compared with controls. VEGF was detected mainly in the bronchial epithelium and the medial smooth muscle cells of large (>200 µm) and small (<200 µm) pulmonary arteries, the most intense staining being in the medial smooth muscle cells of the small pulmonary arteries. Endothelial cells were positive for VEGF staining in patients with CDH but not in controls.
CONCLUSIONS—This is the first study of VEGF expression in newborn infants with CDH. Increased levels of VEGF, especially in the small, pressure regulating pulmonary arteries, point to a potential role in vascular remodelling. This may reflect an unsuccessful attempt by the developing fetus to increase the pulmonary vascular bed in the hypoplastic lungs to alleviate the associated pulmonary hypertension.


PMCID: PMC1763793  PMID: 10212108
25.  Pro-inflammatory cytokines induce c-fos expression followed by IL-6 release in human airway smooth muscle cells. 
Mediators of Inflammation  2001;10(3):135-142.
BACKGROUND: Airway smooth muscle (ASM) is considered to be a target for mediators released during airway inflammation. AIMS: To investigate the expression of c-fos, a constituent of the transcription factor activator protein-1, in human ASM cells. In addition, to measure the release of interleukin (IL)-6 into the conditioned medium of stimulated ASM cells, as well as DNA biosynthesis and changes in cell number. METHODS: Serum-deprived human ASM cells in the G0/G1 phase were stimulated with the pro-inflammatory cytokines; tumour necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-5 and IL-6. The expression of mRNA encoding the proto-oncogene c-fos was measured by Northern blot analysis. Cell proliferation was assessed by [3H]-thymidine incorporation assays and cell counting, and IL-6 levels in cell-conditioned medium were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: All of the cytokines investigated induced a rapid (within 1 h) and transient increase in the expression of mRNA encoding c-fos, followed by the expression and enhanced release of IL-6. Cell proliferation remained unchanged in cytokine-stimulated cells. CONCLUSIONS: Cytokine-induced c-fos expression in human ASM cells could be described as a marker of cell 'activation'. The possible association of these results with airway inflammation, through secondary intracellular mechanisms such as cytokine production, is discussed.
PMCID: PMC1781705  PMID: 11545250

Results 1-25 (38)