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1.  Interferon-Gamma and Interlukin-4 Patterns in BALB/c Mice Suffering From Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Treated With Cantharidin 
Background:
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a health problem in the world. Lesions should be treated on cosmetically or functionally important sites, such as the face and hands. Cantharidin is a terpenoid compound produced naturally by beetles of Meloidae and Oedemeridae families.
Objectives:
The current study aimed to investigate the effect of cantharidin on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) lesions and IFN-γ and IL-4 patterns in infected BALB/c mice.
Materials and Methods:
Infected BALB/c mice were divided into five groups as: untreated (control group), eucerin-treated and 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5% cantharidin-treated. Lesions diameter was measured by Vernier caliper every three days for four weeks. Cytokines levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using U-CyTech kit.
Results:
The results indicated that treatment with cantharidin exacerbates lesions compared with the controls, except for 0.05% cantharidin dose that restrained lesion growth significantly. Interferon gamma level in cantharidin-treated groups was significantly less than that of the control group. But interlukin-4 level was similar among the groups.
Conclusions:
The current study results indicated that high doses of cantharidin exacerbates leishmaniasis lesion, but low dose of cantharidin inhibits lesion growth.
doi:10.5812/jjm.10907
PMCID: PMC4217669  PMID: 25371808
Mice, Inbred BALB/c; Cantharidin; Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous; Interferon-gamma
2.  Distinct Toll-like Receptor 3 and 7 Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells From Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Infection 
Hepatitis Monthly  2014;14(4):e16421.
Background:
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of chronic liver disease, with around 130 million infected people worldwide. HCV is recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are key mediators of innate immune response. Up on activation of TLRs, anti-viral cytokines and pre-inflammatory are produced.
Objectives:
In this study, we compared the expression levels of two members of the TLR family (TLR3 and TLR7) that recognize viral RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) of patients with chronic HCV infection and healthy controls.
Patients and Methods:
In this case-control study, blood samples were collected from patients admitted to Blood Transfusion Research Center, Tehran, Iran. PBMC was isolated from blood of chronic HCV patients (n = 25) and age and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 25). RNA was extracted from PBMC and cDNA was synthesized from total RNA templates using reverse transcriptase. The relative level of expression was quantified by real-time PCR using Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as reference gene and the results were compared by Pfaffl method. Data were analyzed using non-parametric Wilcoxon test. P < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results:
In both groups, we had 13 males and 12 females with a mean age of 48.7 ± 16. TLR3 (6.23 ± 0.91 vs. 3.89 ± 0.85, P < 0.001) and TLR7 (1.48 ± 0.82 vs-1.33 ± 1.18, P < 0.001) expressions were significantly lower in patients with chronic HCV infection when compared with healthy controls.
Conclusions:
This study suggests that decrease in levels of TLR3 and TLR7 expression is a mechanism that may enable HCV to evade the host innate immune response.
doi:10.5812/hepatmon.16421
PMCID: PMC3989766  PMID: 24748896
Hepatitis C, Chronic; Toll-Like Receptor 3; Toll-Like Receptor 7; Immunity, Innate; Gene Expression
3.  Th1 Platform Immune Responses Against Leishmania major Induced by Thiol-Specific Antioxidant-Based DNA Vaccines 
Background:
The Thiol-specific antioxidant (TSA) is an antigen of Leishmania major which is believed to be the most promising molecule as a vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis.
Objectives:
In this study, we investigated the protective efficacy of TSA-based DNA vaccine against L. major infection.
Materials and Methods:
Recombinant plasmid construction TSA (pcTSA) was prepared and transfected into eukaryotic cells and expression was confirmed with western blot and RT-PCR. The mice were assigned to six different groups and DNA immunization was performed with 100 µg intramuscular recombinant plasmid with a two-week interval. Cytokines and lymphocyte proliferation assay, antibody responses and determination of parasite burden were performed following immunization and the challenging infection with L. major.
Results:
The antibody and IFN-γ titers were higher in pcTSA + AlPO4 group the immunized mice with pcTSA alone, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Additionally the IL-4 titer was not statistically different between the groups following immunization and challenge. After infection with L. major promastigotes, the immunized mice with pcTSA and the one immunized with both pcTSA + AlPO4 presented a considerable reduction in diameter of lesion but there was no statistical difference between the two groups. The immunized mice had significantly lower parasite loads. No significant differences were observed between the two vaccinated groups. However the highest reduction in parasite burden was observed in the group immunized with pcDNA + AlPO4. No significant differences were observed in survival rate of the immunized mice after the challenge with L. major.
Conclusions:
In conclusion, TSA-based DNA vaccine induced Th1 platform immune response and aluminum phosphate could improve the efficacy of these vaccines with induction of humoral and cellular immune responses against L. major infection. There were no significant differences observed between pcTSA and pcTSA + AlPO4 groups.
doi:10.5812/jjm.8974
PMCID: PMC4138682  PMID: 25147675
DNA vaccine; Leishmania major; Thiol-S Antioxidant; Aluminum Phosphate
4.  Effect of Hepatitis B Virus X Gene on the Expression Level of p53 Gene using Hep G2 Cell Line 
Background
The HBV-X (HBX) protein is believed to contribute to the development of HCC. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in HBX- mediated hepatocarcinogenesis remain obscure. In this study, the effect of hepatitis B virus X gene and its protein product HBxAg on expression of p53 gene in Hep G2 cell line was investigated.
Methods
Viral DNA extracted from HBV-positive serum and HBX gene region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, PCR product was cloned into the pcDNA3 vector. After confirmation of cloning, the recombinant plasmid pcDNA3-X was transfected into HepG2 cell line using lipid-mediated DNA-transfection procedure. SDS-PAGE and western blotting methods were used to identify expression of HBX protein. Relative quantification was used to analyze the p53gene expression using the 2-ΔΔ Ct method.
Results
Recombinant plasmid pcDNA3–HBX was confirmed by restriction endonucleases digestion and colony-PCR. The results of SDS-PAGE and western blot assays showed that HBX gene could be expressed in Hep G2 cell line. There was no significant difference between the expression levels of p53 compared with GAPDH gene as housekeeping gene (p < 0.05).
Conclusion
There was no significant difference in the protein levels between the transfected cells with X gene containing HBX130 and HBX131 double mu-tations and p53 gene. It is necessary to do more studies on Hepatitis B virus to understand the role of HBX on the development of liver cancer and its function on p53 tumor suppressor protein.
PMCID: PMC3895577  PMID: 24523952
Hepatitis B virus; Hep G2 cell line; p53 gene; X gene
5.  Correlation Between Viral Load of HBV in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients and Precore and Basal Core Promoter Mutations 
Hepatitis Monthly  2013;13(2):e7415.
Background
More than two billion people have been exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. Furthermore, four hundred million of them are infected with chronic HBV infection. The predominant mutation of the precore region involves a G to A change at nucleotide1896, which creates a premature stop codon at codon 28. Two mutations of A1762T and G1764A are reported as the most prevalent mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP).
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mutations in precore (PC) and basal core promoter regions, and the viral load.
Patients and Methods
Fifty serum samples from patients with hepatitis B were used. Levels of liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured at the same time of serological markers of hepatitis B by ELISA. HBV-DNA was extracted from the sera, and then PCR performed on the HBV-DNA extracted with the use of specific primer of gene C. HBV viral load was determined by real-time PCR. The PC/ BCP mutations were determined by applying Line Probe Assay technique. The data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 20.
Results
Only 82% of the patients were HBeAb positive and 76% of the patients had basal core/ precore mutations and mean viral load was 3/7 × 106 ± 9/7 × 105 IU/ml. Prevalence of mutations in the precore and basal core promoter regions were 46% and 30%, respectively.
Conclusions
Our data indicated that there is a statistically significant relationship between HBV viral load and mutations in precore region (P < 0.05).
doi:10.5812/hepatmon.7415
PMCID: PMC3628088  PMID: 23599717
Mutations; Hepatitis B Virus; Viral Load
6.  Torque Teno Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection in Iranian Pediatric Thalassemia Patients 
Turkish Journal of Hematology  2013;29(2):156-161.
Objective: Torque teno virus (TTV) infects patients at risk for parenteral exposure and chronic blood transfusion, such as those with β-thalassemic. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of TTV infection and co-infection of TTV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in pediatric thalassemia patients receiving chronic blood transfusion.
Material and Methods: The study included 90 pediatric thalassemia patients receiving chronic blood transfusion that presented to the Mofid Children’s Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The control group included 90 healthy volunteer children. Serum TTV DNA detection via semi-nested PCR and HCV Ab were performed in all the participants. Demographic characteristics and clinical data were collected from each participant for statistical analysis.
Results: In all, 64.4% of the patients had TTV infection, versus 24.4% of the controls (P < 0.01). The thalassemia patients had a greater probability of having TTV and HCV infections than the controls, with a common OR of 5.60 (95% CI: 2.94-10.69) and 2.15 (95% CI: 1.83-2.50), respectively. In total, 17.2% (10/58) of the patients that were TTV positive were also HCV positive, whereas 6.3% (2/32) of the TTV-negative patients were anti-HCV antibody (Ab) positive (P = 0.14).
Conclusion: The prevalence of TTV and HCV infection was higher in the Iranian thalassemia patients on chronic transfusion therapy than in the controls. The high prevalence of TTV in pediatric thalassemia patients on chromic transfusion therapy may indicate the superiority of the parenteral route compared to other routs of TTV transmission.
doi:10.5505/tjh.2012.20280
PMCID: PMC3986954  PMID: 24744647
Thalassemia; Torque teno virus; Hepatitis C virus
7.  Identification of HCV genotypes in HCV infected blood donors 
Indian Journal of Microbiology  2010;50(3):275-279.
HCV infection is a leading cause of chronic liver disease, including cirrhosis of the liver. There are at least six major genotypes and more than 50 subtypes of HCV. The prevalence and distribution of HCV genotypes depend on geographical location. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the HCV genotypes in HCV infected blood donors and patients. In this cross-sectional study, 167 serum samples from 103 blood donors and 64 patients with hepatitis C were investigated for HCV genotypes. HCV genotyping was carried out using type-specific primers from the core region of the viral genome. The highest frequency was for genotype 1a, with 53 and 34 (51.5% versus 53.1%) of subjects in blood donors and patients respectively. Genotype 3a and 1b were the other frequent genotypes with 4 and 16 (3.9% versus 25%) and 39 and 10 (37.9% versus 15.6%) subjects, respectively. There was not any statistical significant association between the place of infection of the patients and genotype. The results of this study indicate that the distribution of genotypes in the two populations was similar. The dominant HCV genotypes between blood donors and patients were 1a, 3a and 1b respectively.
doi:10.1007/s12088-010-0059-0
PMCID: PMC3450055  PMID: 23100841
HCV; Genotypes; Blood donors; Patients
8.  Clinical outcomes of Torque teno virus-infected thalassemic patients with and without hepatitis C virus infection 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2011;46(2):123-127.
Background
Although a marked proportion of thalassemic patients acquire Torque teno virus (TTV) through blood transfusion, its clinical importance is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the clinical importance of TTV infection in thalassemic patients with and without hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection in Iran.
Methods
In this case-control study, 107 thalassemic patients on chronic transfusion and 107 healthy individuals were selected. According to HCV and TTV infection status (detected by semi-nested PCR), patients were categorized into 4 groups: TTV and HCV negative, TTV positive, HCV positive, and TTV and HCV positive. Blood ferritin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in these 4 groups were assessed.
Results
Approximately half of the thalassemic patients (50.5%) and 27.1% of controls had TTV infection. Thalassemic patients had a greater chance of TTV infection compared to the control group with a sex-adjusted OR of 4.13 (95% CI=2.28-8.13). The increased levels of ALT, AST, and ferritin in the TTV and HCV-infected group were not significantly different from those in the TTV and HCV negative group. Co-infection with TTV and HCV did not significantly increase ALT, AST, and ferritin levels compared to infection with TTV alone.
Conclusion
Although common in thalassemic patients, TTV infection appears to have a negligible role in increasing the severity of liver disease, even when co-infection with HCV occurs.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2011.46.2.123
PMCID: PMC3128893  PMID: 21747885
Torque teno virus (TTV); Hepatitis C virus (HCV); Thalassemia
9.  Study on Efficacy of Hepatitis B Immunization in Vaccinated Beta-thalassemia Children in Tehran 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2010;20(2):211-215.
Objective
In thalassemic children, HBV infection is common, thus immunization against HBV will reduce and prevent the rate of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HBV immunization and the prevalence of HBV infection in beta-thalassemic children in Tehran.
Methods
To assess the efficacy of immunization and determine the immune response of children with beta-thalassemia, sera of 99 children who had received three doses (10/20 µg) of recombinant HBV vaccine in months 0, 1, 6, were selected and tested for HBsAg, HBsAb and anti-HBc by ELISA method. Also, these sera were tested for HBV DNA using nested-PCR method.
Findings
In 99 beta-thalassemic children, 89 (89.9 %) were anti-HBs positive (responders) and 10 (10.1%) anti-HBs negative (non-responders). 3 (3.03%) were anti-HBc positive and 1(1.01%) was HBsAg positive. HBV DNA was not detected in any of them.
Conclusion
Our results have revealed that hepatitis B vaccine is highly immunogenic for thalassemic children and particularly well tolerated.
PMCID: PMC3446027  PMID: 23056706
Beta-thalassemia; Vaccination; Immunization Hepatitis B; Iran

Results 1-9 (9)