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author:("shahtareh, M")
1.  AIDS and globalisation 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2000;76(3):154-155.
PMCID: PMC1744143  PMID: 10961188
2.  Is the urethral smear necessary in asymptomatic men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic? 
Available evidence does not support the performance of urethral smears in asymptomatic men
PMCID: PMC2598621  PMID: 17435048
Chlamydia trachomatis ;  Mycoplasma genitalium ; non‐gonococcal urethritis; urethral Gram stain
3.  Progressive symptoms and signs following institution of highly active antiretroviral therapy and subsequent antituberculosis therapy: immune reconstitution syndrome or infection? 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2006;82(2):111-116.
A 36 year old man presented with weight loss, cough, fever, and exertional dyspnoea shortly after a diagnosis of HIV infection. Symptoms and initial radiological abnormalities worsened after highly active antiretroviral therapy was started. An eventual diagnosis was established but multiple problems occurred throughout the treatment period. Differentiation between immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and an infective cause was problematic.
PMCID: PMC2564679  PMID: 16581733
HAART; HIV; AIDS; tuberculosis; immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
4.  A notice of "redundant publication" 
PMCID: PMC1744895
5.  Spending money to save money 
PMCID: PMC1744607  PMID: 12576604
6.  Brief Encounters 
PMCID: PMC1758355
7.  The curtain call 
PMCID: PMC1758343
8.  Brief encounters 
PMCID: PMC1744532
9.  Brief Encounters 
PMCID: PMC1744503
10.  Brief Encounters 
PMCID: PMC1744469
11.  Lactic acidosis and abnormal liver function in advanced HIV disease 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2002;78(2):139-142.
PMCID: PMC1744453  PMID: 12081178
13.  The year ahead 
PMCID: PMC1763693
14.  Brief encounters 
PMCID: PMC1763700
15.  Protease inhibitor related type III hyperlipoproteinaemia is common and not associated with apolipoprotein-E E2/E2 phenotype 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2001;77(4):283-286.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of type III hyperlipoproteinaemia in a cohort of HIV infected patients taking protease inhibitors and its correlation with the apolipoprotein-E2 isoform.
Design: Cross sectional study of 57 consecutive HIV infected subjects taking protease inhibitor therapy for a median of 12.5 (1–29) months, seen in an outpatient HIV clinic. Controls were 17 patients on non-nucleoside reverse transcriptor inhibitor therapy (NNRTI) for 9 (1–19) months and 50 antiviral naive patients.
Methods: Fasting cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol, lipoprotein (a), and glucose were measured. Lipoprotein electrophoresis was performed on patients with a cholesterol >6.5 mmol/l and a triglyceride concentration of >4.5 mmol/l. Apolipoprotein-E phenotype was determined in serum.
Results: Dyslipidaemia was found in 43 (75%) PI treated patients—37 with triglyceride >2.3 mmol/l, 30 with cholesterol >6.5 mmol/l, and nine with HDL cholesterol <0.9 mmol/l. 38% had a lipoprotein (a) >300 mg/l. 11 patients (19.3%) had a type III hyperlipoproteinaemia pattern. Only one was homozygous for the E2 phenotype and none had clinical diabetes. An additional patient had a serum lipid profile compatible with type III hyperlipoproteinaemia and an E3/E2 phenotype in whom electrophoresis was not carried out before treatment. Six (35%) of the NNRTI and 16 (32%) of the antiviral naive patients had dyslipidaemia. 18 (31.6%) of the PI and none of the control patients had a cholesterol and/or triglyceride >8 mmol/l.
Conclusion: Type III hyperlipoproteinaemia is common in this group of patients and need not be associated with the apolipoprotein-E2/E2 isoform. HIV protease inhibitors may interfere with lipoprotein receptor related protein.
Key Words: HIV; protease inhibitors; hyperlipidaemia; apolipoprotein-E
PMCID: PMC1744346  PMID: 11463929
16.  Why common things are common: the tale of non-gonococcal urethritis 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2001;77(2):139-140.
PMCID: PMC1744277  PMID: 11287697
17.  Methodology for research into STI 
PMCID: PMC1744268
18.  Ethnicity and STIs: more than black and white 
PMCID: PMC1758316  PMID: 11158683
19.  Farewell to Gutenberg? 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2000;76(5):329-330.
PMCID: PMC1744212
20.  Inferior vena cava filters for HIV infected patients with pulmonary embolism and contraindications to anticoagulation 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2000;76(5):395-397.
Objectives: To describe the mode of presentation, interventions, and outcome of HIV infected patients with pulmonary embolism and a contraindication to anticoagulation, who were treated with a bird's nest filter.
Methods: Retrospective review of case records and imaging department database at UCL Hospitals, London, UK.
Results: Three patients had pulmonary embolism and contraindications to anticoagulation. Contraindications were concomitant intracerebral pathology in two patients (one also had bleeding from gastric Kaposi's sarcoma and the other was cognitively impaired with HIV associated dementia complex) and alcohol induced liver disease/binge drinking in the third patient. Anticoagulation was avoided by introducing a bird's nest filter into the inferior vena cava via the common femoral vein. During follow up (7, 8, and 21 months) no complications or recurrent pulmonary emboli occurred.
Conclusion: The bird's nest inferior vena cava filter has a role in preventing further pulmonary emboli in HIV infected patients with contraindications to anticoagulation.
Key Words: pulmonary embolism; HIV; AIDS; haemorrhage; anticoagulation
PMCID: PMC1744204  PMID: 11141860
21.  Geomapping of chlamydia and gonorrhoea in Birmingham 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  2000;76(4):268-272.
Objective: To investigate if the core population hypothesis is applicable to patients with genital chlamydia infections.
Design: Retrospective cross sectional study.
Setting: Two genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in the city of Birmingham and eight adjacent clinics.
Subjects: All patients with chlamydia (n = 665) or gonorrhoea (n = 584) attending between 1 October 1995 and 30 September 1996 with a postcode within the Birmingham health district. Controls were 727 patients seen in the same period with no infection.
Methods: Postcodes were used to calculate population prevalence rates per 100 000 aged 15–65 in the 39 wards of the city and to estimate the socioeconomic status using the Super Profile (SP). Ethnic specific rates were also calculated. Data were obtained on gonorrhoea and chlamydia isolation from all the major laboratories of the city over the same time period.
Results: GUM clinic attenders accounted for 67.6% and 82.5% of all chlamydia and gonorrhoea isolates reported by the laboratories and that were available for our epidemiological analysis. Both infections were more common in men and in black ethnic groups. However, patients with gonorrhoea only infection were more likely to be of black ethnicity than those with chlamydia only infection (p = 0.0001) and to have different SP distribution (p = 0.0001). On logistic regression age <20 years, male sex, black ethnicity, and living in neighbourhoods with SP J ("have nots") were predictive of both infections compared with controls. Overall chlamydia and gonorrhoea prevalence rates were 129 and 98.4 per 105 respectively. Corresponding rates for whites was 64.7 and 37.2 and for black ethnic groups 1105 and 1183 per 105 of each ethnic group. Eight adjacent wards accounted for 41% of the chlamydia and 66.5% of the gonorrhoea.
Conclusion: In a large urban setting patients attending GUM clinics with chlamydia belong to core population groups with similar, but not identical, sociodemographic characteristics to patients with gonorrhoea infection.
Key Words: gonorrhoea; Chlamydia trachomatis; geomapping; ethnicity
PMCID: PMC1744196  PMID: 11026881
23.  Peripheral blood T cell proliferative response to chlamydial organisms in gonococcal and non-gonococcal urethritis and presumed pelvic inflammatory disease 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  1999;75(5):327-331.
OBJECTIVE: To study peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferative response to Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies in (a) controls, (b) various stages of gonococcal (c) and non-gonococcal urethritis, and (d) women with a clinical diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). METHODS: We categorised 102 men presenting to a GUM clinic with urethritis by organisms (C trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) (both by culture), and whether it was their first (urethritis naive) or subsequent (urethritis experienced) attack. 23 women presenting to the clinic with a clinical diagnosis of PID were also investigated. We measured PBMC proliferative responses to C trachomatis (DK20--an oculogenital strain, serovar E), lysate of McCoy cells (used to propagate chlamydiae), and the recall antigen PPD. Controls were 37 men and women without present or past history of urethritis or chlamydial infection. Results were expressed as the ratio of the stimulation index (SI) obtained with DK20 compared with McCoy cells (DK index), and the ratio of the SI obtained with DK20 compared with PPD (PPD index). RESULTS: The median SI to DK20 in the urethritis was 12.7 which was significantly higher than the controls (7.6, p < 0.003). The median SI to the recall antigen PPD was similar in the urethritis patients (17.4) and the controls (22.4). All urethritis patient subgroups had a significantly higher DK index and PPD index than the controls. There was no difference in the PPD and DK index between urethritis naive and urethritis experienced patients and between the culture positive and culture negative urethritis subgroups. In PID patients only the PPD index was significantly higher than the controls. CONCLUSION: Men presenting with urethritis and women presenting with PID both have significantly greater peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses to the DK20 strain of C trachomatis than controls. A similar T cell proliferative response pattern in urethritis naive patients with either gonococcal or non-gonococcal urethritis could be because low sensitivity of CT culture failed to diagnose some cases of C trachomatis. However, it may also signify earlier exposure of the patients to chlamydial antigens (for example, C pneumoniae), cross reacting antigens such as heat shock proteins from other microbial species, or a "bystander" activation of chlamydia specific memory T cells trafficking through mucosal lymphoid tissue during urethritis. These results suggest evidence of T cell mediated response to C trachomatis cannot be used as a diagnostic tool. 

PMCID: PMC1758245  PMID: 10616357
24.  Isolation and characterisation of T lymphocytes from the urethra of patients with acute urethritis [published erratum appears in Sex Transm Infect 1998 Dec;74(6):459] 
Sexually Transmitted Infections  1998;74(4):279-283.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate local cellular immune responses in patients with acute urethritis. METHODS: We have established T cell lines from the urethral exudate and examined their phenotype by flow cytometry. As controls, T cell lines were cultured from first pass urine specimens of asymptomatic healthy individuals. RESULTS: Using interleukin 2 (IL-2) alone a T cell line was obtained on only one occasion. Following culture with IL-2, and subsequent expansion by a single stimulation with irradiated allogenic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), and IL-2, it was possible to establish T cell lines from 6/6 acute urethritis patients. T cell lines were also obtained from 4/12 controls subjects, but required repetitive rounds of stimulation with mitogen and allogeneic PBMC to produce sufficient cell numbers for analysis. Three of the patient T cell lines were dominated by T cells expressing the gamma delta receptor. CONCLUSION: The gamma delta T cell subset has been associated with immune responses at mucosal surfaces and has the ability to recognise certain bacterial antigens. The gamma delta T cell response may represent an important aspect of the immune response to organisms associated with acute urethritis. 

PMCID: PMC1758135  PMID: 9924470

Results 1-25 (41)