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1.  Characteristics of HIV Infected Adolescents in Latin America: Results from the NISDI Pediatric Study* 
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics  2010;57(3):165-172.
Objective: HIV-infected adolescents are a heterogeneous population; source of infection, immunodeficiency severity and antiretroviral (ARV) experience vary. Here, we describe youth followed in an observational study at Latin American sites of the NICHD International Site Development Initiative (NISDI).
Methods: The NISDI pediatric protocol is an ongoing prospective cohort study that collects demographic, clinical, immunologic, virologic and medication data. Youth were enrolled at 15 sites in Brazil, Argentina and Mexico between 2002 and 2006. HIV-infected subjects aged 12–21 years at the time of enrollment were analyzed.
Results: Data from 120 HIV-infected youth were analyzed. Sixty-nine (58%) had acquired HIV through vertical transmission (VT); 51(42%) via horizontal transmission (HT). Twenty-eight percent of the VT group were not diagnosed until they were ≥10 years of age. Ninety-one percent of the VT group and 46% of the HT were receiving ARV at enrollment. Modes of HT included sexual (ST), blood product transfusion (BPT) and unknown (U). Severe immunodeficiency was frequent (21%) in the ST group. Low BMI was frequent in the VT and BPT sub-groups. Utilization of HAART increased over the course of the study, but viral suppression was present in only 38% of the VT group and 37% of the HT group at study end.
Conclusions: This cohort of HIV-infected adolescents in Latin America displayed a diverse epidemiologic pattern. Care providers must be prepared to address the diverse needs and challenges of this population. The levels of virologic suppression achieved were inadequate. Further research into appropriate interventions for this population is urgently needed.
doi:10.1093/tropej/fmq068
PMCID: PMC3145388  PMID: 20685800
HIV-infected adolescents; Latin America; Cohort study
2.  INCREASED INCIDENCE OF ASTHMA IN HIV-INFECTED CHILDREN TREATED WITH HAART IN THE NIH WOMEN AND INFANTS TRANSMISSION STUDY 
BACKGROUND
Immunoreconstitution of HIV-infected (HIV+) patients after treatment with highly antiretroviral therapy (HAART) appears to provoke inflammatory diseases.
OBJECTIVE
Determine whether HIV+ children on HAART (HIV+ HAART+) have a higher incidence of asthma than HIV+ children not on HAART (HIV+ HAART−).
METHODS
To investigate this possibility, 2,664 children (193 HIV+, 2,471 HIV−) born to HIV+ women were evaluated for the incidence and prevalence of asthma (i.e., asthma medication use), and change of CD4+ T cell percentage with time.
RESULTS
The HIV+ HAART+ children had higher CD4+ T cell percentages, lower CD8+ T cell percentages, and lower viral burdens than the HIV+ HAART− children (P≤0.05 to P≤0.01). The cumulative incidence of asthma medication use in HIV+ HAART+ children at 13.5 year rose to 33.5% vs. 11.5% in HIV+ HAART− children (hazard ratio=3.34, P=0.01) and was equal to that in the HIV− children. In children born prior to the HAART era, the prevalence of asthma medication use for HIV+ HAART+ children at 11 years of age was 10.4% vs. 3.8% for HIV+ HAART− children (odds ratio=3.38, P=0.02) and was equal to that of the HIV− children. The rate of change of CD4+ T cells (percent/year) around the time of first asthma medication for HIV+ HAART+ vs. HIV+ HAART− children was 0.81 vs. −1.43 (P=0.01).
CONCLUSION
The increased incidence of asthma in HIV+ HAART+ children may be driven by immunoreconstitution of CD4+ T cells.
CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
This HIV model of pediatric asthma may yield clues to help explain the epidemic of asthma in the general pediatric population.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.04.043
PMCID: PMC3246282  PMID: 18547627
pediatric HIV infection; CD4+ T cell mediated induction of asthma; HAART-produced immunoreconstitution
3.  Prevalence of pain and association with psychiatric symptom severity in perinatally HIV-infected children as compared to controls living in HIV-affected households 
AIDS care  2010;22(5):640-648.
This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of pain and psychiatric symptoms in perinatally HIV-infected children at entry into P1055, a multicenter investigation of the prevalence and severity of psychiatric symptoms in HIV-infected children. Subjects 6–17 years of age and their primary caregivers were recruited from 29 International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials sites in the USA and Puerto Rico. A total of 576 children (320 HIV+ and 256 HIV− children) were enrolled from June 2005 to September 2006. Subject self-reports of pain were measured by the Wong–Baker visual analog scale and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire. Symptomatology for anxiety, depression, and dysthymia was assessed through Symptom Inventory instruments. Caregiver's assessment of their child's pain and psychiatric symptomatology was similarly measured. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate predictors of pain. We found that a higher proportion of HIV-infected than uninfected subjects reported pain in the last two months (41% vs 32%, p=0.04), last two weeks (28% vs 19%, p=0.02), and lasting more than one week (20% vs 11%, p=0.03). Among HIV-infected youth, females (OR=1.53, p=0.09), White race (OR=2.15, p=0.04), and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Class C (OR=1.83, p=0.04) were significantly more likely to report pain. For all subjects, only 52% of caregivers recognized their child's pain and just 22% were aware that pain affected their child's daily activities. The odds of reported pain in HIV+ increased with higher symptom severity for generalized anxiety (OR=1.14, p=0.03), major depression (OR=1.15, p=0.03), and dysthymia (OR=1.18, p=0.01). This study underscores the importance of queries concerning pain and emotional stressors in the care of HIV+ and uninfected children exposed to HIV+ individuals. The discordance between patient and caregiver reports of pain and its impact on activities of daily living highlights that pain in children is under-recognized and therefore potentially under-treated.
doi:10.1080/09540120903280919
PMCID: PMC3156589  PMID: 20401767
pain; HIV; children

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